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submicroscopic malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906275/seasonal-variations-in-plasmodium-falciparum-parasite-prevalence-assessed-by-varying-diagnostic-tests-in-asymptomatic-children-in-southern-ghana
#1
Ruth Ayanful-Torgby, Neils B Quashie, Johnson N Boampong, Kim C Williamson, Linda E Amoah
Plasmodium falciparum infections presenting either as symptomatic or asymptomatic may contain sexual stage parasites (gametocytes) that are crucial to malaria transmission. In this study, the prevalence of microscopic and submicroscopic asexual and gametocyte parasite stages were assessed in asymptomatic children from two communities in southern Ghana. Eighty children aged twelve years and below, none of whom exhibited signs of clinical malaria living in Obom and Cape Coast were sampled twice, one during the rainy (July 2015) and subsequently during the dry (January 2016) season...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869606/using-reference-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-to-assess-the-clinical-performance-of-the-paracheck-pf-%C3%A2-rapid-diagnostic-test-in-a-field-setting-in-uganda
#2
Catherine J Mitran, Anthony K Mbonye, Michael Hawkes, Stephanie K Yanow
Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used in clinical and surveillance settings. However, the performance of most RDTs has not been characterized at parasite densities below detection by microscopy. We present findings from Uganda, where RDT results from 491 participants with suspected malaria were correlated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-defined parasitemia. Compared with qPCR, the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT for Plasmodium falciparum mono-infections were 76% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68-83%) and 95% (95% CI: 92-97%), respectively...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742161/modeling-the-impact-of-plasmodium-falciparum-sexual-stage-immunity-on-the-composition-and-dynamics-of-the-human-infectious-reservoir-for-malaria-in-natural-settings
#3
André Lin Ouédraogo, Philip A Eckhoff, Adrian J F Luty, Will Roeffen, Robert W Sauerwein, Teun Bousema, Edward A Wenger
Malaria transmission remains high in Sub-Saharan Africa despite large-scale implementation of malaria control interventions. A comprehensive understanding of the transmissibility of infections to mosquitoes may guide the design of more effective transmission reducing strategies. The impact of P. falciparum sexual stage immunity on the infectious reservoir for malaria has never been studied in natural settings. Repeated measurements were carried out at start-wet, peak-wet and dry season, and provided data on antibody responses against gametocyte/gamete antigens Pfs48/45 and Pfs230 as anti-gametocyte immunity...
May 9, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733338/persistent-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-women-with-an-intent-to-become-pregnant-is-a-risk-factor-for-pregnancy-associated-malaria
#4
Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Bernard Tornyigah, Akpéyédjé Yannelle Dossou, Guillaume Escriou, Morten A Nielsen, Ali Salanti, Saadou Issifou, Achille Massougbodji, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Philippe Deloron
Background: Pregnant women are more susceptible to P. falciparum than before pregnancy, and infection has consequences for both mother and offspring. WHO recommends that pregnant woman in areas of transmission receive intermittent preventive treatment starting in the second trimester. Consequently, women are not protected during the first trimester, although P. falciparum infections are both frequent and harmful. Methods: A cohort of nulligravidae women was followed during subsequent pregnancy...
May 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670745/induction-of-immunity-following-vaccination-with-a-chemically-attenuated-malaria-vaccine-correlates-with-persistent-antigenic-stimulation
#5
Jennifer M Reiman, Sanjai Kumar, Ingrid B Rodriguez, Sedami Gnidehou, Koichi Ito, Danielle I Stanisic, Moses Lee, Virginia McPhun, Victoria Majam, Nicole M Willemsen, Michael R Batzloff, Amber I Raja, Brad Dooley, Stephen L Hoffman, Stephanie K Yanow, Michael F Good
Objectives: Blood stage malaria parasites attenuated with seco-cyclopropyl pyrrolo indole (CPI) analogues induce robust immunity in mice to homologous and heterologous malaria parasites and are being considered for the development of a human vaccine. However, it is not understood how attenuated parasites induce immunity. We showed that following vaccination, parasite DNA persisted in blood for several months, raising the possibility that ongoing immune stimulation may be critical. However, parasites were not seen microscopically beyond 24 h postvaccination...
2018: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660103/submicroscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitaemia-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-living-in-gabon-central-africa-a-pilot-study
#6
J V Koumba Lengongo, N P M'Bondoukwé, J M Ndong Ngomo, S François, A Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, O A Mbang Nguema, M K Bouyou Akotet, D P Mawili-Mboumba
Background: Submicroscopic malaria infections contribute to malaria transmission. Describing the extent of the parasite reservoir is of importance. In people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the frequency of subpatent malaria infections is rarely reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of submicroscopic infections in people living with HIV in Gabon and its relationship with cotrimoxazole (CTX) use. Methods: A survey was conducted in two health care centres in rural areas (Koulamoutou and Oyem) and three in urban areas (Libreville) of Gabon from March 2015 to June 2016...
March 1, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626433/plasmodium-falciparum-merozoite-protein-1-genetic-diversity-and-multiplicity-of-infection-in-isolates-from-congolese-children-consulting-in-a-pediatric-hospital-in-brazzaville
#7
Nerly Shirère Gampio Gueye, Francine Ntoumi, Christevy Vouvoungui, Simon Charles Kobawila, Michael NKombo, Alain M Mouanga, Julia Deibert, Felix Koukouikila-Koussounda
As in many sub-Saharan African countries, the burden of malaria has been reduced in the Republic of Congo as a result of massive deployment of insecticide treated nets and availability of artemisinin-combinations therapies (ACTs). High to moderate genetic diversity of msp-1 gene of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) has been reported from different parts of the world but limited data are available from Central Africa including the Republic of Congo. For this reason, the aim of study was to investigate the P...
July 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558985/high-proportions-of-asymptomatic-and-submicroscopic-plasmodium-vivax-infections-in-a-peri-urban-area-of-low-transmission-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#8
Anne C G Almeida, Andrea Kuehn, Arthur J M Castro, Sheila Vitor-Silva, Erick F G Figueiredo, Larissa W Brasil, Marcelo A M Brito, Vanderson S Sampaio, Quique Bassat, Ingrid Felger, Wanderli P Tadei, Wuelton M Monteiro, Ivo Mueller, Marcus V G Lacerda
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies conducted in Latin America have shown a high proportion of asymptomatic and submicroscopic malarial infections. Considering efforts aiming at regional elimination, it is important to investigate the role of this asymptomatic reservoir in malaria transmission in peri-urban areas. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and gametocyte burden on symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in the Brazilian Amazon. RESULTS: Two cross-sectional household surveys (CS) were conducted including all inhabitants in a peri-urban area of Manaus, western Amazonas State, Brazil...
March 20, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488459/case-report-delayed-or-recurrent-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-migrants-a-report-of-three-cases-with-a-literature-review
#9
Nicolas Dauby, Mariana Figueiredo Ferreira, Deborah Konopnicki, Vo Thanh Phuong Nguyen, Brigitte Cantinieaux, Charlotte Martin
Emerging evidence indicates that migrants from Plasmodium falciparum endemic regions are at risk of delayed presentation of P. falciparum malaria. We report three cases of P. falciparum malaria occurring years after arrival in Europe. All patients were originally from Sub-Saharan Africa. Two subjects had controlled human immunodeficiency virus infection and one was a pregnant woman. We performed a literature review of all published cases of delayed presentation of P. falciparum in migrants and identified 32 additional cases...
April 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432484/submicroscopic-placental-infection-by-non-falciparum-plasmodium-spp
#10
Justin Y A Doritchamou, Richard A Akuffo, Azizath Moussiliou, Adrian J F Luty, Achille Massougbodji, Philippe Deloron, Nicaise G Tuikue Ndam
BACKGROUND: Among the Plasmodium species that infect humans, adverse effects of P. falciparum and P. vivax have been extensively studied and reported with respect to poor outcomes particularly in first time mothers and in pregnant women living in areas with unstable malaria transmission. Although, other non-falciparum malaria infections during pregnancy have sometimes been reported, little is known about the dynamics of these infections during pregnancy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a quantitative PCR approach, blood samples collected from Beninese pregnant women during the first antenatal visit (ANV) and at delivery including placental blood were screened for Plasmodium spp...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402282/clinical-consequences-of-submicroscopic-malaria-parasitaemia-in-uganda
#11
Shereen Katrak, Patience Nayebare, John Rek, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Philip J Rosenthal, Bryan Greenhouse
BACKGROUND: Submicroscopic malaria parasitaemia is common in both high- and low-endemicity settings, but its clinical consequences are unclear. METHODS: A cohort of 364 children (0.5-10 years of age) and 106 adults was followed from 2011 to 2016 in Tororo District, Uganda using passive surveillance for malaria episodes and active surveillance for parasitaemia. Participants presented every 90 days for routine visits (n = 9075); a subset was followed every 30 days...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398388/the-persistence-and-oscillations-of-submicroscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-infections-over-time-in-vietnam-an-open-cohort-study
#12
Thuy-Nhien Nguyen, Lorenz von Seidlein, Tuong-Vy Nguyen, Phuc-Nhi Truong, Son Do Hung, Huong-Thu Pham, Tam-Uyen Nguyen, Thanh Dong Le, Van Hue Dao, Mavuto Mukaka, Nicholas Pj Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp, Guy E Thwaites, Tran Tinh Hien
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of Plasmodium species infections are asymptomatic with densities too low to be detectable with standard diagnostic techniques. The importance of such asymptomatic plasmodium infections in malaria transmission is probably related to their duration and density. To explore the duration of asymptomatic plasmodium infections and changes in parasite densities over time, a cohort of participants who were infected with Plasmodium parasites was observed over a 2-year follow-up period...
May 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378797/clinical-outcomes-of-submicroscopic-infections-and-correlates-of-protection-of-var2csa-antibodies-in-a-longitudinal-study-of-pregnant-women-in-colombia
#13
Kenneth Gavina, Sedami Gnidehou, Eliana Arango, Chloe Hamel-Martineau, Catherine Mitran, Olga Agudelo, Carolina Lopez, Aisha Karidio, Shanna Banman, Jaime Carmona-Fonseca, Ali Salanti, Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Michael Hawkes, Amanda Maestre, Stephanie K Yanow
Malaria in pregnancy can cause serious adverse outcomes for the mother and the fetus. However, little is known about the effects of submicroscopic infections (SMIs) in pregnancy, particularly in areas where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax cocirculate. A cohort of 187 pregnant women living in Puerto Libertador in northwest Colombia was followed longitudinally from recruitment to delivery. Malaria was diagnosed by microscopy, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and placental histopathology...
April 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338726/a-case-of-blackwater-fever-with-persistent-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitaemia-detected-by-pcr-after-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment
#14
Paul John Huggan, Chin Hin Ng, Jennifer Ho, Raymond Tzer Pin Valentine Lin, Jean-Marc Chavatte
BACKGROUND: Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria infection consisting of a syndrome of febrile intra-vascular haemolysis with severe anaemia and intermittent passage of dark-red to black colour urine. Despite numerous reports and studies of this condition, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. CASE PRESENTATION: This report describes a case of classic blackwater fever in a returning traveller, without prior history of malaria infection nor usage of anti-malarial prophylaxis, treated with two courses of oral artemether-lumefantrine combination therapy...
January 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301534/submicroscopic-malaria-cases-play-role-in-local-transmission-in-trenggalek-district-east-java-province-indonesia
#15
Heny Arwati, Subagyo Yotopranoto, Etik Ainun Rohmah, Din Syafruddin
BACKGROUND: Trenggalek district is a hypoendemic malaria area with mainly imported cases brought by migrant workers from islands outside Java. During malaria surveillance in 2015, no malaria cases were found microscopically, but some cases were positive by PCR. Therefore, a study was conducted to prove that local malaria transmission still occur. METHODS: The adult villagers were invited to the house of the head of this village to be screened for malaria using aseptic venipuncture of 1 mL blood upon informed consent...
January 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190279/malera-an-updated-research-agenda-for-characterising-the-reservoir-and-measuring-transmission-in-malaria-elimination-and-eradication
#16
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
This paper summarises key advances in defining the infectious reservoir for malaria and the measurement of transmission for research and programmatic use since the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) publication in 2011. Rapid and effective progress towards elimination requires an improved understanding of the sources of transmission as well as those at risk of infection. Characterising the transmission reservoir in different settings will enable the most appropriate choice, delivery, and evaluation of interventions...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149898/detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-male-and-female-gametocytes-and-determination-of-parasite-sex-ratio-in-human-endemic-populations-by-novel-cheap-and-robust-rtqpcr-assays
#17
Federica Santolamazza, Pamela Avellino, Giulia Siciliano, Franck Adama Yao, Fabrizio Lombardo, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, David Modiano, Pietro Alano, Valentina Dianora Mangano
BACKGROUND: The presence of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in peripheral blood is essential for human to mosquito parasite transmission. The detection of submicroscopic infections with gametocytes and the estimation of the gametocyte sex ratio are crucial to assess the human host potential ability to infect mosquitoes and transmit malaria parasites. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to develop sensitive and cheap Real Time qPCR assays for large-scale epidemiological surveys, based on detection and amplification of gametocyte sex specific transcripts selected from the literature: the female-specific pfs25 and pf glycerol kinase (pfGK) and the male-specific pfs230p and pf13 transcripts...
November 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097634/asymptomatic-plasmodial-infection-in-pregnant-women-a-global-scenario
#18
REVIEW
Jaime Carmona-Fonseca, Eliana M Arango
Though asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) is well known phenomenon and play an important role in different populations and malaria transmission settings, it has received less attention in malaria intervention strategies. This review was aimed to estimate the prevalence of API in pregnant women across the world. The bibliography records relevant to the study were searched on PubMed and Lilacs, till August 15, 2016, without restriction of language. A total of 78 references were identified, of which 29 met the inclusion criteria...
July 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062842/asymptomatic-malaria-and-its-challenges-in-the-malaria-elimination-program-in-iran-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Gholmreza Hassanpour, Mehdi Mohebali, Hojjat Zeraati, Ahmad Raeisi, Hossein Keshavarz
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to find an appropriate approach to asymptomatic malaria in elimination setting through a systematic review. METHODS: A broad search was conducted to find articles with the words 'malaria' in their titles and 'asymptomatic' or 'submicroscopic' in their texts, irrespective of the type of study conducted. The Cochrane, Medline/Pub Med, and Scopus databases, as well as Google Scholar were systematically searched for English articles and reports and Iran's databases-Iran Medex, SID and Magiran were searched for Persian reports and articles, with no time limitation...
June 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037202/high-prevalence-of-very-low-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-parasitaemia-carriers-in-the-peruvian-amazon-insights-into-local-and-occupational-mobility-related-transmission
#20
Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Julio Miranda-Alban, Carlos Fernandez-Miñope, Kimberly C Brouwer, Katherine Torres, Maritza Calderon, Dionicia Gamboa, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Joseph M Vinetz
BACKGROUND: The incidence of malaria due both to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon has risen in the past 5 years. This study tested the hypothesis that the maintenance and emergence of malaria in hypoendemic regions such as Amazonia is determined by submicroscopic and asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitaemia carriers. The present study aimed to precisely quantify the rate of very-low parasitaemia carriers in two sites of the Peruvian Amazon in relation to transmission patterns of P...
October 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
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