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submicroscopic malaria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432484/submicroscopic-placental-infection-by-non-falciparum-plasmodium-spp
#1
Justin Y A Doritchamou, Richard A Akuffo, Azizath Moussiliou, Adrian J F Luty, Achille Massougbodji, Philippe Deloron, Nicaise G Tuikue Ndam
BACKGROUND: Among the Plasmodium species that infect humans, adverse effects of P. falciparum and P. vivax have been extensively studied and reported with respect to poor outcomes particularly in first time mothers and in women living in areas with unstable malaria transmission. Although, other non-falciparum malaria infections during pregnancy have sometimes been reported, little is known about the dynamics of these infections during pregnancy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a quantitative PCR approach, blood samples collected from Beninese pregnant women during the first antenatal visit (ANV) and at delivery including placental blood were screened for Plasmodium spp...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402282/clinical-consequences-of-submicroscopic-malaria-parasitaemia-in-uganda
#2
Shereen Katrak, Patience Nayebare, John Rek, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Philip J Rosenthal, Bryan Greenhouse
BACKGROUND: Submicroscopic malaria parasitaemia is common in both high- and low-endemicity settings, but its clinical consequences are unclear. METHODS: A cohort of 364 children (0.5-10 years of age) and 106 adults was followed from 2011 to 2016 in Tororo District, Uganda using passive surveillance for malaria episodes and active surveillance for parasitaemia. Participants presented every 90 days for routine visits (n = 9075); a subset was followed every 30 days...
February 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398388/the-persistence-and-oscillations-of-submicroscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-infections-over-time-in-vietnam-an-open-cohort-study
#3
Thuy-Nhien Nguyen, Lorenz von Seidlein, Tuong-Vy Nguyen, Phuc-Nhi Truong, Son Do Hung, Huong-Thu Pham, Tam-Uyen Nguyen, Thanh Dong Le, Van Hue Dao, Mavuto Mukaka, Nicholas Pj Day, Nicholas J White, Arjen M Dondorp, Guy E Thwaites, Tran Tinh Hien
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of Plasmodium species infections are asymptomatic with densities too low to be detectable with standard diagnostic techniques. The importance of such asymptomatic plasmodium infections in malaria transmission is probably related to their duration and density. To explore the duration of asymptomatic plasmodium infections and changes in parasite densities over time, a cohort of participants who were infected with Plasmodium parasites was observed over a 2-year follow-up period...
February 1, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378797/clinical-outcomes-of-submicroscopic-infections-and-correlates-of-protection-of-var2csa-antibodies-in-a-longitudinal-study-of-pregnant-women-in-colombia
#4
Kenneth Gavina, Sedami Gnidehou, Eliana Arango, Chloe Hamel-Martineau, Catherine Mitran, Olga Agudelo, Carolina Lopez, Aisha Karidio, Shanna Banman, Jaime Carmona-Fonseca, Ali Salanti, Nicaise Ndam, Michael Hawkes, Amanda Maestre, Stephanie K Yanow
BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy can cause serious adverse outcomes for the mother and the fetus. However, little is known about the effects of submicroscopic infections (SMIs) in pregnancy, particularly in areas where Plasmodium (P.) falciparum and P. vivax co-circulate. METHODS: A cohort of 187 pregnant women living in Puerto Libertador in Northwest Colombia was followed longitudinally from recruitment to delivery. Malaria was diagnosed by microscopy, RT-qPCR, and placental histopathology...
January 29, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338726/a-case-of-blackwater-fever-with-persistent-plasmodium-falciparum-parasitaemia-detected-by-pcr-after-artemether-lumefantrine-treatment
#5
Paul John Huggan, Chin Hin Ng, Jennifer Ho, Raymond Tzer Pin Valentine Lin, Jean-Marc Chavatte
BACKGROUND: Blackwater fever is a complication of malaria infection consisting of a syndrome of febrile intra-vascular haemolysis with severe anaemia and intermittent passage of dark-red to black colour urine. Despite numerous reports and studies of this condition, its pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. CASE PRESENTATION: This report describes a case of classic blackwater fever in a returning traveller, without prior history of malaria infection nor usage of anti-malarial prophylaxis, treated with two courses of oral artemether-lumefantrine combination therapy...
January 16, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301534/submicroscopic-malaria-cases-play-role-in-local-transmission-in-trenggalek-district-east-java-province-indonesia
#6
Heny Arwati, Subagyo Yotopranoto, Etik Ainun Rohmah, Din Syafruddin
BACKGROUND: Trenggalek district is a hypoendemic malaria area with mainly imported cases brought by migrant workers from islands outside Java. During malaria surveillance in 2015, no malaria cases were found microscopically, but some cases were positive by PCR. Therefore, a study was conducted to prove that local malaria transmission still occur. METHODS: The adult villagers were invited to the house of the head of this village to be screened for malaria using aseptic venipuncture of 1 mL blood upon informed consent...
January 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190279/malera-an-updated-research-agenda-for-characterising-the-reservoir-and-measuring-transmission-in-malaria-elimination-and-eradication
#7
(no author information available yet)
This paper summarises key advances in defining the infectious reservoir for malaria and the measurement of transmission for research and programmatic use since the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) publication in 2011. Rapid and effective progress towards elimination requires an improved understanding of the sources of transmission as well as those at risk of infection. Characterising the transmission reservoir in different settings will enable the most appropriate choice, delivery, and evaluation of interventions...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149898/detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-male-and-female-gametocytes-and-determination-of-parasite-sex-ratio-in-human-endemic-populations-by-novel-cheap-and-robust-rtqpcr-assays
#8
Federica Santolamazza, Pamela Avellino, Giulia Siciliano, Franck Adama Yao, Fabrizio Lombardo, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, David Modiano, Pietro Alano, Valentina Dianora Mangano
BACKGROUND: The presence of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in peripheral blood is essential for human to mosquito parasite transmission. The detection of submicroscopic infections with gametocytes and the estimation of the gametocyte sex ratio are crucial to assess the human host potential ability to infect mosquitoes and transmit malaria parasites. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to develop sensitive and cheap Real Time qPCR assays for large-scale epidemiological surveys, based on detection and amplification of gametocyte sex specific transcripts selected from the literature: the female-specific pfs25 and pf glycerol kinase (pfGK) and the male-specific pfs230p and pf13 transcripts...
November 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097634/asymptomatic-plasmodial-infection-in-pregnant-women-a-global-scenario
#9
REVIEW
Jaime Carmona-Fonseca, Eliana M Arango
Though asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) is well known phenomenon and play an important role in different populations and malaria transmission settings, it has received less attention in malaria intervention strategies. This review was aimed to estimate the prevalence of API in pregnant women across the world. The bibliography records relevant to the study were searched on PubMed and Lilacs, till August 15, 2016, without restriction of language. A total of 78 references were identified, of which 29 met the inclusion criteria...
July 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062842/asymptomatic-malaria-and-its-challenges-in-the-malaria-elimination-program-in-iran-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Gholmreza Hassanpour, Mehdi Mohebali, Hojjat Zeraati, Ahmad Raeisi, Hossein Keshavarz
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to find an appropriate approach to asymptomatic malaria in elimination setting through a systematic review. METHODS: A broad search was conducted to find articles with the words 'malaria' in their titles and 'asymptomatic' or 'submicroscopic' in their texts, irrespective of the type of study conducted. The Cochrane, Medline/Pub Med, and Scopus databases, as well as Google Scholar were systematically searched for English articles and reports and Iran's databases-Iran Medex, SID and Magiran were searched for Persian reports and articles, with no time limitation...
June 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037202/high-prevalence-of-very-low-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-parasitaemia-carriers-in-the-peruvian-amazon-insights-into-local-and-occupational-mobility-related-transmission
#11
Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Julio Miranda-Alban, Carlos Fernandez-Miñope, Kimberly C Brouwer, Katherine Torres, Maritza Calderon, Dionicia Gamboa, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Joseph M Vinetz
BACKGROUND: The incidence of malaria due both to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon has risen in the past 5 years. This study tested the hypothesis that the maintenance and emergence of malaria in hypoendemic regions such as Amazonia is determined by submicroscopic and asymptomatic Plasmodium parasitaemia carriers. The present study aimed to precisely quantify the rate of very-low parasitaemia carriers in two sites of the Peruvian Amazon in relation to transmission patterns of P...
October 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029179/sustained-malaria-control-over-an-eight-year-period-in-papua-new-guinea-the-challenge-of-low-density-asymptomatic-infections
#12
Cristian Koepfli, Maria Ome-Kaius, Shadrach Jally, Elisheba Malau, Samuel Maripal, Jason Ginny, Lincoln Timinao, Johanna Helena Kattenberg, Thomas Obadia, Michael White, Patricia Rarau, Nicolas Senn, Alyssa E Barry, James W Kazura, Ivo Mueller, Leanne J Robinson
Background: The scale-up of effective malaria control in the last decade has resulted in a substantial decline in the incidence of clinical malaria in many countries. The effects on the proportions of asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections, and on transmission potential are yet poorly understood. Methods: In Papua New Guinea, vector control has been intensified since 2008, and improved diagnosis and treatment introduced in 2012. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Madang Province in 2006 (n=1280), 2010 (n=2117) and 2014 (n=2516)...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016335/performance-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-for-the-identification-of-submicroscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-uganda
#13
Shereen Katrak, Maxwell Murphy, Patience Nayebare, John Rek, Mary Smith, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Philip J. Rosenthal, Bryan Greenhouse
Accurately identifying and targeting the human reservoir of malaria parasitemia is critical for malaria control, and requires a reliable and sensitive diagnostic method. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is increasingly used to diagnose submicroscopic parasitemia. Although most published studies report the sensitivity of LAMP compared with nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as ≥ 80%, they have failed to use a consistent, sensitive diagnostic as a comparator. We used cross-sectional samples from children and adults in Tororo, Uganda, a region with high but declining transmission due to indoor residual spraying, to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of pan-Plasmodium LAMP for detecting submicroscopic infections...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968664/a-novel-gametocyte-biomarker-for-superior-molecular-detection-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-infectious-reservoirs
#14
Edward Essuman, Bryan Grabias, Nitin Verma, Joanna K Chorazeczewski, Abhai K Tripathi, Godfree Mlambo, Ebenezer A Addison, Albert G B Amoah, Isabella Quakyi, Miranda S Oakley, Sanjai Kumar
Background: Complete malaria eradication and optimal use of transmission-reducing interventions requires knowledge of submicroscopic infectious reservoirs among asymptomatic individuals. Even sub-microscopic levels of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes can infect mosquitoes and promote onward transmission. Most efforts to identify gametocyte carriers utilize PCR amplification of the gametocyte-specific transcript Pfs25. Methods: To expand the repertoire of biomarkers available for superior gametocyte detection, we compared the gene expression profiles of gametocytes versus asynchronous blood stage P...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894847/community-engagement-for-the-rapid-elimination-of-malaria-the-case-of-kayin-state-myanmar
#15
Ladda Kajeechiwa, May Myo Thwin, Suphak Nosten, Saw Win Tun, Daniel Parker, Lorenz von Seidlein, Decha Tangseefa, François Nosten, Phaik Yeong Cheah
BACKGROUND:  Currently, malaria elimination efforts are ongoing in several locations across Southeast Asia,  including in Kayin State (also known as Karen State), Myanmar . This paper describes the community engagement efforts for a pilot malaria elimination project, the challenges encountered and lessons learnt. METHODS:  Between May 2013 and June 2015, a study on targeted malaria elimination (TME) that included mass drug administration was conducted in four villages (TPN, TOT, KNH, and HKT) of Kayin State...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771615/substantial-asymptomatic-submicroscopic-plasmodium-carriage-during-dry-season-in-low-transmission-areas-in-senegal-implications-for-malaria-control-and-elimination
#16
Makhtar Niang, Laty Gaye Thiam, Rokhaya Sane, Nafissatou Diagne, Cheikh Talla, Souleymane Doucoure, Joseph Faye, Fode Diop, Abdoulaye Badiane, Babacar Diouf, Diogop Camara, Fatoumata Diene-Sarr, Cheikh Sokhna, Vincent Richard, Aissatou Toure-Balde
BACKGROUND: In the progress towards malaria elimination, the accurate diagnosis of low-density asymptomatic infections is critical. Low-density asymptomatic submicroscopic malaria infections may act as silent reservoirs that maintain low-level residual malaria transmission in the community. Light microscopy, the gold standard in malaria diagnosis lacks the sensitivity to detect low-level parasitaemia. In this study, the presence and prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium carriage were investigated to estimate the parasites reservoir among asymptomatic individuals living in low transmission areas in Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal during the dry season...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719306/seasonal-variation-in-the-epidemiology-of-asymptomatic-plasmodium-falciparum-infections-across-two-catchment-areas-in-bongo-district-ghana
#17
Kathryn E Tiedje, Abraham R Oduro, Godfred Agongo, Thomas Anyorigiya, Daniel Azongo, Timothy Awine, Anita Ghansah, Mercedes Pascual, Kwadwo A Koram, Karen P Day
Understanding the epidemiology of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections is critical for countries to move toward malaria elimination. Using different methods for parasite detection, we evaluated how seasonality, spatial location, and other factors affect the age-specific epidemiology of asymptomatic malaria in Bongo District, Ghana. Asymptomatic prevalence by microscopy decreased significantly from 42.5% at the end of the wet to 27.5% at the end of the dry season (P < 0.001). Using the 18S rRNA polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), all microscopy-negative samples were screened and prevalence of submicroscopic infections also decreased significantly from the wet (55...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719294/molecular-markers-for-sensitive-detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-asexual-stage-parasites-and-their-application-in-a-malaria-clinical-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Fitsum G Tadesse, Kjerstin Lanke, Issa Nebie, Jodie A Schildkraut, Bronner P Gonçalves, Alfred B Tiono, Robert Sauerwein, Chris Drakeley, Teun Bousema, Sanna R Rijpma
Plasmodium falciparum parasite life stages respond differently to antimalarial drugs. Sensitive stage-specific molecular assays may help to examine parasite dynamics at microscopically detectable and submicroscopic parasite densities in epidemiological and clinical studies. In this study, we compared the performance of skeleton-binding protein 1 (SBP1), ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen, Hyp8, ring-exported protein 1 (REX1), and PHISTb mRNA for detecting ring-stage trophozoite-specific transcripts using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712360/resisting-and-tolerating-p-falciparum-in-pregnancy-under-different-malaria-transmission-intensities
#19
Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Emmanuel Mbuba, Raquel González, Pau Cisteró, Simon Kariuki, Esperança Sevene, María Rupérez, Ana Maria Fonseca, Anifa Vala, Sonia Maculuve, Alfons Jiménez, Llorenç Quintó, Peter Ouma, Michael Ramharter, John J Aponte, Arsenio Nhacolo, Achille Massougbodji, Valerie Briand, Peter G Kremsner, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Meghna Desai, Eusebio Macete, Michel Cot, Clara Menéndez, Alfredo Mayor
BACKGROUND: Resistance and tolerance to Plasmodium falciparum can determine the progression of malaria disease. However, quantitative evidence of tolerance is still limited. We investigated variations in the adverse impact of P. falciparum infections among African pregnant women under different intensities of malaria transmission. METHODS: P. falciparum at delivery was assessed by microscopy, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and placental histology in 946 HIV-uninfected and 768 HIV-infected pregnant women from Benin, Gabon, Kenya and Mozambique...
July 17, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676055/malaria-in-brazil-colombia-peru-and-venezuela-current-challenges-in-malaria-control-and-elimination
#20
REVIEW
Judith Recht, André M Siqueira, Wuelton M Monteiro, Sonia M Herrera, Sócrates Herrera, Marcus V G Lacerda
In spite of significant progress towards malaria control and elimination achieved in South America in the 2000s, this mosquito-transmitted tropical disease remains an important public health concern in the region. Most malaria cases in South America come from Amazon rain forest areas in northern countries, where more than half of malaria is caused by Plasmodium vivax, while Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence has decreased in recent years. This review discusses current malaria data, policies and challenges in four South American Amazon countries: Brazil, Colombia, Peru and the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela...
July 4, 2017: Malaria Journal
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