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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605648/genome-sequencing-analysis-of-liver-cancer-for-precision-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Hidewaki Nakagawa, Masashi Fujita, Akihiro Fujimoto
Liver cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Some thousands of liver cancer genome have been sequenced globally so far and most of driver genes/mutations with high frequency are established in liver cancer, including Wnt/β-catenin pathway, TP53/cell-cycle pathways, telomere maintenance, and chromatin regulators. HBV integration into cancer-related genes is also a driver event in hepatocarcinogenesis. These genes are affected by structural variants, copy-number alterations and virus integrations as well as point mutations...
March 29, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541276/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-and-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#2
REVIEW
Arnolfo Petruzziello
Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent primary malignant tumors and accounts for about 90% of all primary liver cancers. Its distribution varies greatly according to geographic location and it is more common in middle and low- income countries than in developed ones especially in Eastern Asia and Sub Saharan Africa (70% of all new HCCs worldwide), with incidence rates of over 20 per 100,000 individuals. Explanation: The most important risk factors for HCC are Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection, excessive consumption of alcohol and exposition to aflatoxin B1...
2018: Open Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528436/divergent-pres-sequences-in-virion-associated-hepatitis-b-virus-genomes-and-subviral-hbv-surface-antigen-particles-from-hbv-e-antigen-negative-patients
#3
Kai-Henrik Peiffer, Lisa Kuhnhenn, Bingfu Jiang, Antonia Mondorf, Johannes Vermehren, Viola Knop, Simone Susser, Dirk Walter, Julia Dietz, Gert Carra, Fabian Finkelmeier, Stefan Zeuzem, Christoph Sarrazin, Eberhard Hildt
Background: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface proteins (HBsAg) coat the viral particle and form subviral particles (SVPs). Loss of HBsAg represents a functional cure and is an important treatment goal. Methods: We analyzed the impact of the HBV genotypes A-E and pre-S mutations on SVP expression in HBeAg negative chronic HBV infected patients. A HBV genome harboring a preS1-deletion was analyzed in hepatoma cells. Results: We observed a genotype-specific ratio of the three surface proteins (SHBs/MHBs/LHBs), which reflects differences in the morphology and composition of SVPs...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491161/relative-abundance-of-the-integrant-derived-viral-rnas-in-infected-tissues-harvested-from-chronic-hbv-carriers
#4
Natalia Freitas, Tetyana Lukash, Sumedha Gunewardena, Benjamin Chappell, Betty L Slagle, Severin O Gudima
Five matching sets of non-malignant liver tissues and HCCs from individuals chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) were examined. The HBV genomic sequences were determined using overlapping PCR amplicons covering the entire viral genome. Four pairs of tissues were infected with HBV of genotype C, while one pair - with genotype B. HBV replication markers were found in all tissues. In majority of HCC samples, the levels of pre-genomic/pre-core RNA (pgRNA) and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were lower than those of liver tissue counterparts...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453099/impact-of-integrated-viral-dna-on-the-goal-to-clear-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-with-different-therapeutic-strategies
#5
REVIEW
Magnus Lindh, Gustaf E Rydell, Simon B Larsson
A hallmark of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the serum of patients. Sustained loss of HBV DNA and HBsAg from the blood are main goals for treatment, and considered as functional cure. It is rarely achieved with long-term nucleoside analogue treatment though, both because cccDNA, the template for viral replication, is not completely cleared, and probably also because hepatocytes with HBV DNA integrated into their chromosomes persist and continue to produce large amounts of HBsAg...
February 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432776/establishment-of-cre-mediated-hbv-recombinant-cccdna-rcccdna-cell-line-for-cccdna-biology-and-antiviral-screening-assays
#6
Min Wu, Jin Li, Lei Yue, Lu Bai, Yaming Li, Jieliang Chen, Xiaonan Zhang, Zhenghong Yuan
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), existing in hepatocyte nuclei as a stable minichromosome, plays a central role in the life cycle of the virus and permits the persistence of infection. Despite being essential for HBV infection, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of cccDNA formation, regulation and degradation, and there is no therapeutic agents directly targeting cccDNA, fore mostly due to the lack of robust, reliable and quantifiable HBV cccDNA models. In this study, combined the Cre/loxP and sleeping beauty transposons system, we established HepG2-derived cell lines integrated with 2-60 copies of monomeric HBV genome flanked by loxP sites (HepG2-HBV/loxP)...
April 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281718/the-burden-of-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-infection-genotypes-and-drug-resistance-mutations-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patients-in-northwest-ethiopia
#7
Tekalign Deressa, Debasu Damtie, Kevin Fonseca, Shan Gao, Ebba Abate, Shitaye Alemu, Yetemwork Aleka, Mark G Swain, Guido van Marle, Carla S Coffin
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are endemic. Although there has been great progress in HIV care, universal HBV vaccination and care is lacking. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV, HBV genotypes, and drug resistance mutations in dual infected cases in a cohort of HIV patients in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 308 HIV-1 positive patients were enrolled into the study and tested for HBsAg in plasma...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170915/potential-use-of-serum-hbv-rna-in-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-the-era-of-nucleos-t-ide-analogs
#8
REVIEW
Fengmin Lu, Jie Wang, Xiangmei Chen, Dongping Xu, Ningshao Xia
Although the efficacy of nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) has been confirmed for treatment of chronic hepatitis B, long-term therapy has been recommended due to the high frequency of off-therapy viral DNA rebound and disease relapse. In this review, the RNA virion-like particles of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are integrated into the life cycle of HBV replication, and the potential significance of serum HBV RNA is systematically described. The production of HBV RNA virion-like particles should not be blocked by NA; in this regard, serum HBV RNA is found to be a suitable surrogate marker for the activity of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), particularly among patients receiving NA therapy...
December 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156046/toward-a-cure-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-combination-therapy-involving-viral-suppression-and-immune-modulation-and-long-term-outcome
#9
Di Wu, Qin Ning
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major global health burden. Currently, the approved therapeutic regimens include nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) and either interferon or pegylated interferon. NA therapy is generally safe and well tolerated, but the rate of posttreatment virologic relapse is high, making NA treatment a lifetime commitment. The benefits of pegylated interferon treatment include a finite duration, more-durable response and absence of viral resistance. However, sustained response to interferon alone is achieved only in a minority of patients, and side effects are common, which limit its clinical use...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143676/the-future-of-viral-hepatitis-testing-innovations-in-testing-technologies-and-approaches
#10
REVIEW
Rosanna W Peeling, Debrah I Boeras, Francesco Marinucci, Philippa Easterbrook
A large burden of undiagnosed hepatitis virus cases remains globally. Despite the 257 million people living with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and 71 million with chronic viraemic HCV infection, most people with hepatitis remain unaware of their infection. Advances in rapid detection technology have created new opportunities for enhancing access to testing and care, as well as monitoring of treatment. This article examines a range of other technological innovations that can be leveraged to provide more affordable and simplified approaches to testing for HBV and HCV infection and monitoring of treatment response...
November 1, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101924/the-challenge-of-liver-cancer-surveillance-in-general-practice-do-recall-and-reminder-systems-hold-the-answer
#11
Nicole Allard, Tracey Cabrie, Emily Wheeler, Jacqui Richmond, Jennifer MacLachlan, Jon Emery, John Furler, Benjamin Cowie
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance reduces mortality in at-risk people living with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but is difficult to achieve in practice. The objective of this study was to measure participation and adherence to liver cancer HCC surveillance in eligible patients in a community health centre, following support from the Integrated Hepatitis B Service (IHBS). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients with CHB who met the indications for HCC surveillance over a 4...
November 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048354/hepatitis-b-virus-and-dna-damage-response-interactions-and-consequences-for-the-infection
#12
REVIEW
Andoni Gómez-Moreno, Urtzi Garaigorta
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major etiologic agent of acute and chronic hepatitis, and end-stage liver disease. Establishment of HBV infection, progression to persistency and pathogenesis are determined by viral and cellular factors, some of which remain still undefined. Key steps of HBV life cycle e.g., transformation of genomic viral DNA into transcriptionally active episomal DNA (cccDNA) or transcription of viral mRNAs from cccDNA, take place in the nucleus of infected cells and strongly depend on enzymatic activities provided by cellular proteins...
October 19, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987047/-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Agnieszka Budny, Piotr Kozłowski, Marzena Kamińska, Małgorzata Jankiewicz, Agnieszka Kolak, Bożena Budny, Witold Budny, Joanna Niemunis-Sawicka, Grzegorz Szczypiór, Bartosz Kurniawka, Franciszek Burdan
Primary liver neoplasms occurs relatively rarely in Poland. The most frequently occurring type of cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which globally constitutes 7% of all the occurrences of cancer. The incidence increases with age and is the highest in patients around the age of 70. It also varies significantly depending on the geographic location. The main factors that cause HCC are infection of HBV and HCV, whose genome integrates into the DNA of the host, causing mutations. The other factors include excessive alcohol consumption, contact or consumption of Aspergillus toxins as well as various metabolic disorders, such as α1-antitrypsin deficiency, hemochromatosis, tyrosinemia, porphyria, von Gierke disease and in person with gene mutation p...
September 29, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954926/rnai-based-treatment-of-chronically-infected-patients-and-chimpanzees-reveals-that-integrated-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-is-a-source-of-hbsag
#14
Christine I Wooddell, Man-Fung Yuen, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan, Robert G Gish, Stephen A Locarnini, Deborah Chavez, Carlo Ferrari, Bruce D Given, James Hamilton, Steven B Kanner, Ching-Lung Lai, Johnson Y N Lau, Thomas Schluep, Zhao Xu, Robert E Lanford, David L Lewis
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health concern worldwide, frequently leading to liver cirrhosis, liver failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Evidence suggests that high viral antigen load may play a role in chronicity. Production of viral proteins is thought to depend on transcription of viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA). In a human clinical trial with an RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutic targeting HBV transcripts, ARC-520, HBV S antigen (HBsAg) was strongly reduced in treatment-naïve patients positive for HBV e antigen (HBeAg) but was reduced significantly less in patients who were HBeAg-negative or had received long-term therapy with nucleos(t)ide viral replication inhibitors (NUCs)...
September 27, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940887/association-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-polymorphisms-with-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-a-shaanxi-han-population
#15
Tianju Wang, Chunmei Shen, Liping Chen, Sheng Liu, Yanhong Ji
BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is defined as HBV DNA detection in serum or in the liver by sensitive diagnostic tests in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) negative patients with or without serologic markers of previous HBV exposure. Because the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is an integral component of the immune response, we hypothesized that the highly polymorphic HLA genes were the key determinants of HBV persistence and clearance. The present study aimed to calculate the allelic frequency of HLA loci and investigate the association between HLA alleles and the outcome of OBI in Shaanxi Han population in the northwest of China...
September 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880197/short-course-of-postoperative-hepatitis-b-immunoglobulin-plus-antivirals-prevents-reinfection-of-liver-transplant-recipients
#16
Kavita Radhakrishnan, Aileen Chi, David J Quan, John P Roberts, Norah A Terrault
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) has been an integral component of prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus (HBV) recurrence in liver transplantation (LT) recipients, but HBIG is costly and inconvenient to administer, prompting consideration of alternative regimens. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort, we report on the success of antiviral therapy combined with a short course (in hospital only) HBIG in liver transplant recipients with HBV DNA less than 100 IU/mL pre-LT...
September 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839466/the-grna-mirna-grna-ternary-cassette-combining-crispr-cas9-with-rnai-approach-strongly-inhibits-hepatitis-b-virus-replication
#17
Jie Wang, Ran Chen, Ruiyang Zhang, Shanlong Ding, Tianying Zhang, Quan Yuan, Guiwen Guan, Xiangmei Chen, Ting Zhang, Hui Zhuang, Frederick Nunes, Timothy Block, Shuang Liu, Zhongping Duan, Ningshao Xia, Zhongwei Xu, Fengmin Lu
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a novel genome editing technology which has been successfully used to inhibit HBV replication. Here, we described a novel gRNA-microRNA (miRNA)-gRNA ternary cassette driven by a single U6 promoter. With an anti-HBV pri-miR31 mimic integrated between two HBV-specific gRNAs, both gRNAs could be separated from the long transcript of gRNA-miR-HBV-gRNA ternary cassette through Drosha/DGCR8 processing. The results showed that the gRNA-miR-HBV-gRNA ternary cassette could efficiently express two gRNAs and miR-HBV...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810637/binding-of-line-1-rna-to-psf-transcriptionally-promotes-gage6-and-regulates-cell-proliferation-and-tumor-formation-in-vitro
#18
Jiao Lv, Ziyi Zhao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has one of the highest mortality rates among numerous types of cancer. It has been demonstrated that in hepatitis B (HBV)-associated HCC, the expression of chimeric fusion transcript HBx-long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) initiated by HBV integration is correlated with hepatocarcinogenesis and poor patient survival rates. Furthermore, increased rates of LINE-1 hypomethylation have been detected in HCC tissues compared with adjacent tissues. This suggests that individual LINE-1 RNA (L1 RNA) serves an important role in the processes of hepatocarcinogenesis...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802063/hepatitis-b-virus-pregenomic-rna-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-nosological-and-prognostic-determinant
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Boris Halgand, Christophe Desterke, Lise Rivière, Guillaume Fallot, Mylène Sebagh, Julien Calderaro, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Christine Neuveut, Marie-Annick Buendia, Didier Samuel, Cyrille Féray
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, very little is known about the replication of HBV in HCC tissues. We analyzed viral and cellular parameters in HCC (T) and nontumor liver (NT) samples from 99 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive, virologically suppressed patients treated by tumor resection or liver transplantation. We examined total HBV DNA and RNA as well as covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which are considered as markers of active HBV replication...
January 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774407/the-virological-aspects-of-hepatitis-b
#20
REVIEW
Zina S Valaydon, Stephen A Locarnini
Human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that is responsible for a significant burden of disease, causing liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is a small DNA virus with a replication strategy that is similar to that of a retrovirus. HBV is prone to mutagenesis and under the influence of diverse selection pressures, has evolved into a pool of quasispecies, genotypes and mutants, which confers a significant survival advantage. The genome is small, circular, and compact but has a complex replication strategy...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
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