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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186991/c-terminal-truncated-hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-regulates-tumorigenicity-self-renewal-and-drug-resistance-via-stat3-nanog-signaling-pathway
#1
Rachel Hiu Ha Ching, Karen Man Fong Sze, Eunice Yuen Ting Lau, Yung-Tuen Chiu, Joyce Man Fong Lee, Irene Oi Lin Ng, Terence Kin Wah Lee
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major risk factor of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Random integration of HBV DNA into the host genome is frequent in HCC leading to truncation of the HBV DNA, particularly at the C-terminal end of the HBV X protein (HBx). C-terminally truncated HBx (HBx-ΔC) has been implicated in playing a pro-oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the mechanism whereby HBx-ΔC1 contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the functional role of HBx-ΔC1 in regulating liver cancer stem cell (CSC) properties...
February 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148795/hepatitis-b-virus-encoded-mirna-controls-viral-replication
#2
Xi Yang, Hongfeng Li, Huahui Sun, Hongxia Fan, Yaqi Hu, Min Liu, Xin Li, Hua Tang
: microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small single-stranded non-coding functional RNAs. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus with virions and subviral forms of particles that lack a core. It was not known whether HBV encodes miRNAs. Here, we identified an HBV-encoded miRNA (called HBV-miR-3) by deep sequencing and northern blot. HBV-miR-3 is located at nts 373-393 of the HBV genome and was generated from 3.5Kb, 2,4Kb and 2.1Kb HBV in classic miRNA biogenesis (Drosha-Dicer dependent) manner...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097530/virus-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-special-emphasis-on-hbv
#3
REVIEW
Ming Wang, Dong Xi, Qin Ning
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignant tumor with high lethality, and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a chief cause. HBV can accelerate HCC via multiple mechanisms. First, HBV induces immune reactions that lead to repeated hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and a deficient immune microenvironment. Subsequently, HBV can modify host genes near the insertion point through DNA integration to cause host cell genome instability and to generate carcinogenic fusion proteins. Additionally, HBV expresses diverse active proteins, especially HBx and HBs, which have a range of transactivation functions such as regulation of apoptosis, interference with intracellular signaling pathways, and alteration of epigenetics...
January 17, 2017: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975311/detection-of-hepatocyte-clones-containing-integrated-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-using-inverse-nested-pcr
#4
Thomas Tu, Allison R Jilbert
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), leading to ~600,000 deaths per year worldwide. Many of the steps that occur during progression from the normal liver to cirrhosis and/or HCC are unknown. Integration of HBV DNA into random sites in the host cell genome occurs as a by-product of the HBV replication cycle and forms a unique junction between virus and cellular DNA. Analyses of integrated HBV DNA have revealed that HCCs are clonal and imply that they develop from the transformation of hepatocytes, the only liver cell known to be infected by HBV...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975308/analyses-of-hbv-cccdna-quantification-and-modification
#5
Yuchen Xia, Daniela Stadler, Chunkyu Ko, Ulrike Protzer
Covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) serves as the transcriptional template of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in the nucleus of infected cells. It ensures the persistence of HBV even if replication is blocked. Immune-mediated killing of infected hepatocytes, cell division, or cytokine induced non-cytolytic degradation of cccDNA can induce the loss of cccDNA. For studies on HBV control, the analysis of cccDNA integrity and its exact quantification is very important. Here, we describe different methods for HBV cccDNA quantification and modification...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943263/distinct-hepatitis-b-virus-integration-patterns-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-adjacent-normal-liver-tissue
#6
Xiaobo Yang, Liangcai Wu, Jianzhen Lin, Anqiang Wang, Xueshuai Wan, Yan Wu, Simon C Robson, Xinting Sang, Haitao Zhao
Infection by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the main etiologies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). During chronic infection, HBV DNA can integrate into the human genome, and this has been postulated as a possible mechanism of HBV-induced HCC. In this study we used 2199 HBV integration sites from Dr.VIS v2.0 and mapped them to the human genome (hg19) to obtain viral integration sites (VIS) related to protein-coding and non-protein-coding genes. In total, we found 1,377 and 767 VIS within close proximity to protein coding genes and noncoding genes, respectively...
March 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917431/a-novel-miniaturized-biofilter-based-on-silicon-micropillars-for-nucleic-acid-extraction
#7
Salvatore Petralia, Emanuele Luigi Sciuto, Sabrina Conoci
New miniaturised microfluidic biofilter (BF) devices based on silicon micropillars have been developed and tested regarding their ability to extract HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) bacterial DNA from biological sample solutions. The device is composed of a silicon microchannel in which the pillars are distributed at the bottom surface. The extracted DNA solutions were analysed by real time PCR amplification and the biofilter performance was evaluated. The results obtained show that the DNA binding to the biofilters and the elution efficiency strictly depend on the pillars' geometrical dimensions and increase proportionally with the surface/volume ratio...
December 19, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882067/bioinformatic-identification-of-rare-codon-clusters-rccs-in-hbv-genome-and-evaluation-of-rccs-in-proteins-structure-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#8
Mojtaba Mortazavi, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Saeid Gholamzadeh, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohammad Ghorbani, Reza Dehghani, Abdorrasoul Malekpour, Mohammadhasan Meshkibaf, Ali Fakhrzad
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) as an infectious disease that has nine genotypes (A - I) and a 'putative' genotype J. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify the rare codon clusters (RCC) in the HBV genome and to evaluate these RCCs in the HBV proteins structure. METHODS: For detection of protein family accession numbers (Pfam) in HBV proteins, the UniProt database and Pfam search tool were used. Protein family accession numbers is a comprehensive and accurate collection of protein domains and families...
October 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866767/minimization-of-hepatitis-b-infection-among-children-in-jiangsu-china-12years-after-integration-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-into-the-expanded-program-on-immunization
#9
Xiaoqian Lin, Jishi Yang, Huixia Lu, Yulin Zhou, Guiping Zhou, Huiyi Wu, Chenyu Xu, Qiaozhen Wu, Jingli Liu, Shanshan Chen, Muyi Yang, Guangyu Gu, Yali Hu, Yi-Hua Zhou
BACKGROUND: China has integrated hepatitis B vaccine into the Expanded Program on Immunization since 2002. We aimed to survey the seroprevalence of and immunity to hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children born from 2002 to 2014 in Jiangsu, China. METHODS: Totally 3442 children (M:F=2072:1370) at the age of 7months to 12years (5.5±3.6), from five cities and rural areas across Jiangsu province, were enrolled. Blood samples were measured for HBV markers by ELISA and quantitative microparticle enzyme immunoassay...
December 12, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742003/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-impact-of-vaccination-on-disease
#10
Noele P Nelson, Philippa J Easterbrook, Brian J McMahon
Integration of hepatitis B vaccination into national immunization programs has resulted in substantial reductions of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission in previously high endemic countries. The key strategy for control of the HBV epidemic is birth dose and infant vaccination. Additional measures include use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and diagnosis of mothers at high risk of transmitting HBV and use of antiviral agents during pregnancy to decrease maternal DNA concentrations to undetectable concentrations...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591142/suppression-of-hepatitis-b-virus-antigen-production-and-replication-by-wild-type-hbv-dependently-replicating-hbv-shrna-vectors-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#11
Baosheng Li, Shuo Sun, Minran Li, Xin Cheng, Haijun Li, Fubiao Kang, Jiwen Kang, Katharina Dörnbrack, Michael Nassal, Dianxing Sun
Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), a small DNA virus that replicates by reverse transcription of a pregenomic (pg) RNA precursor, greatly increases the risk for terminal liver disease. RNA interference (RNAi) based therapy approaches have shown potential to overcome the limited efficacy of current treatments. However, synthetic siRNAs as well as small hairpin (sh) RNAs expressed from non-integrating vectors require repeated applications; integrating vectors suffer from safety concerns. We pursue a new concept by which HBV itself is engineered into a conditionally replicating, wild-type HBV dependent anti-HBV shRNA vector...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575311/the-role-of-quantitative-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-revisited
#12
REVIEW
Markus Cornberg, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Stephen Locarnini, Maurizia Brunetto, Harry L A Janssen, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan
In the past 10years, there has been a lot of enthusiasm surrounding the use of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) quantification to predict disease activity and monitor treatment response in chronic hepatitis B. The measurement of HBsAg levels have been standardized in IU/ml, and nowadays it is almost a mandatory measurement due to the development of new antiviral treatments aiming at HBsAg seroclearance, i.e., functional cure of hepatitis B. Recently, there has been an improved understanding of the molecular virology of HBsAg, and particularly the relative roles of covalently closed circular DNA and integrated hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA...
February 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27564651/refining-the-risk-estimate-for-transfusion-transmission-of-occult-hepatitis-b-virus
#13
C R Seed, P Kiely, V C Hoad, A J Keller
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We previously published a model to estimate the residual risk (RR) for occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) in the absence of universal anti-HBc testing. To incorporate new information on the epidemiology of OBI, we describe model refinements and estimate a more accurate HBV RR due to OBI in Australia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our original model, the OBI risk, p(OBI), was defined by the rate of 'non-detection' by the HBV DNA screening test in use, p(NAT non-detection), and the average infectivity of blood components from OBI donors, p(transmission)...
January 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453547/hbv-dna-integration-and-clonal-hepatocyte-expansion-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-considered-immune-tolerant
#14
William S Mason, Upkar S Gill, Samuel Litwin, Yan Zhou, Suraj Peri, Oltin Pop, Michelle L W Hong, Sandhia Naik, Alberto Quaglia, Antonio Bertoletti, Patrick T F Kennedy
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) progresses through different phases. The first, called the immune-tolerant phase, has been associated with a lack of disease activity. We examined HBV-DNA integration, clonal hepatocyte expansion, HBV antigen expression, and HBV-specific immune responses in patients in the immune-tolerant phase to assess whether this designation is appropriate or if there is evidence of disease activity. METHODS: We studied HBV-DNA integration, clonal hepatocyte expansion, and expression of hepatitis B surface antigen and core antigen in liver tissues from 26 patients with chronic HBV infection (ages, 14-39 y); 9 patients were positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in the immune-tolerant phase and were matched for age with 10 HBeAg-positive patients with active disease and 7 HBeAg-negative patients with active disease...
November 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27103458/locked-nucleic-acid-couples-with-fok-i-nucleases-to-target-and-cleave-hepatitis-b-virus-s-gene-in-vitro
#15
Ma Li, Chen Hongyan, Zhu Huaxing, Li Wei, Lu Daru
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a dented double-stranded DNA virus. After infecting human hepatic cells, it forms cccDNA that replicates persistently and integrates randomly into the host’s genome during the process of reserve transcription. On average, in each cell with chronic HBV infection, there are about 33 copies of cccDNA with a half of 35-57 days, which can be difficult to eradicate. A new strategy is to inhibit HBV transcription by using locked nucleic acid (LNA). Besides, cleaving HBV genome by targeted genome editing technologies could potentially cure patients...
April 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27091097/sleeping-beauty-transposon-based-system-for-rapid-generation-of-hbv-replicating-stable-cell-lines
#16
Yong Wu, Tian-Ying Zhang, Lin-Lin Fang, Zi-Xuan Chen, Liu-Wei Song, Jia-Li Cao, Lin Yang, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia
The stable HBV-replicating cell lines, which carry replication-competent HBV genome stably integrated into the genome of host cell, are widely used to evaluate the effects of antiviral agents. However, current methods to generate HBV-replicating cell lines, which are mostly dependent on random integration of foreign DNA via plasmid transfection, are less-efficient and time-consuming. To address this issue, we constructed an all-in-one Sleeping Beauty transposon system (denoted pTSMP-HBV vector) for robust generation of stable cell lines carrying replication-competent HBV genome of different genotype...
August 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084040/mechanisms-of-hbv-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#17
REVIEW
Massimo Levrero, Jessica Zucman-Rossi
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development through direct and indirect mechanisms. HBV DNA integration into the host genome occurs at early steps of clonal tumor expansion and induces both genomic instability and direct insertional mutagenesis of diverse cancer-related genes. Prolonged expression of the viral regulatory protein HBx and/or altered versions of the preS/S envelope proteins dysregulates cell transcription and proliferation control and sensitizes liver cells to carcinogenic factors...
April 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950999/-immunopathogenesis-of-occult-infection-caused-by-hepatitis-b-virus
#18
REVIEW
T A Semenenko, A P Suslov
The concept of occult infection caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) is determined as the presence of HBV DNA in blood sera or liver with the absence of detectable HBsAg. The actuality of this problem is associated with the fact, that occult hepatitis B (OHB) can be transmitted during hemotransfusions, cause reactivation of chronic hepatitis B in immune compromised individuals, facilitate development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Several different hypotheses of OHB immunopathogenesis have been proposed, including a low number of copies of HBV DNA, altered immune response of the macroorganism, genetic variability of the S gene, integration of viral DNA into host genome, infection of mononuclear cells of peripheral blood, presence of immune complexes that hide HBsAg, and interference by other viruses such as HCV and HIV...
November 2015: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819517/significance-of-hepatitis-virus-infection-in-the-oncogenic-initiation-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
REVIEW
Caecilia H C Sukowati, Korri E El-Khobar, Susan I Ie, Beatrice Anfuso, David H Muljono, Claudio Tiribelli
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk factor in the development of the HCC, independently from excessive alcohol abuse and metabolic disease. Since the biology of HBV and HCV is different, their oncogenic effect may go through different mechanisms, direct and/or indirect. Viral hepatitis infection is associated with cellular inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage, that may lead to subsequent hepatic injuries such as chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and finally HCC...
January 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26800240/yin-yang-1-mediated-epigenetic-silencing-of-tumour-suppressive-micrornas-activates-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Daisy P F Tsang, William K K Wu, Wei Kang, Ying-Ying Lee, Feng Wu, Zhuo Yu, Lei Xiong, Anthony W Chan, Joanna H Tong, Weiqin Yang, May S M Li, Suki S Lau, Xiangchun Li, Sau-Dan Lee, Yihua Yang, Paul B S Lai, Dae-Yeul Yu, Gang Xu, Kwok-Wai Lo, Matthew T V Chan, Huating Wang, Tin L Lee, Jun Yu, Nathalie Wong, Kevin Y Yip, Ka-Fai To, Alfred S L Cheng
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) catalyses histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) to silence tumour-suppressor genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but the process of locus-specific recruitment remains elusive. Here we investigated the transcription factors involved and the molecular consequences in HCC development. The genome-wide distribution of H3K27me3 was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing or promoter array analyses in HCC cells from hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein transgenic mouse and human cell models...
April 2016: Journal of Pathology
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