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Hospital-associated infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445881/absence-of-decline-of-kidney-function-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-under-routine-clinical-management
#1
Julie Boucquemont, Sylvie Lawson-Ayayi, Claire Rigothier, Fabrice Bonnet, Cécile Proust-Lima, Didier Neau, Carine Greib, Ghada Miremont-Salamé, François Dabis, Michel Dupon, Frédéric-Antoine Dauchy
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have a drastically improved prognosis but at the same time they are also more affected by non-HIV related complications, such as chronic kidney disease. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of proteinuria and tenofovir (TDF)-containing ART regimens on the temporal evolution of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: Between April 2008 and October 2012, we enrolled 395 patients with a complete renal evaluation among patients from the ANRS C03 Aquitaine cohort, a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients under routine clinical management in southwestern France...
April 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445858/the-impact-of-minor-blood-transfusion-on-the-outcome-after-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting
#2
Eeva-Maija Kinnunen, Marco Zanobini, Francesco Onorati, Debora Brascia, Giovanni Mariscalco, Ilaria Franzese, Vito G Ruggieri, Karl Bounader, Andrea Perrotti, Francesco Musumeci, Giuseppe Santarpino, Daniele Maselli, Saverio Nardella, Helmut Gulbins, Riccardo Gherli, Antonino S Rubino, Carmelo Mignosa, Marisa De Feo, Giuseppe Gatti, Francesco Santini, Antonio Salsano, Magnus Dalén, Matteo Saccocci, Daniel Reichart, Giuseppe Faggian, Tiziano Gherli, Francesco Nicolini, Fausto Biancari
PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of minor perioperative bleeding requiring transfusion of 1-2 red blood cell (RBC) units on the outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: Sixteen cardiac surgical centers contributed to the prospective European CABG registry (E-CABG). 1014 patients receiving 1-2 RBC units during or after isolated CABG were compared to 2264 patients not receiving RBCs. RESULTS: In 827 propensity score matched pairs, transfusion of 1-2 RBC units did not affect the risk of in-hospital/30-day death (p=0...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445776/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-bacteroides-fragilis-group-in-faecal-samples-from-patients-receiving-broad-spectrum-antibiotics
#3
Kia Cirkeline Møller Hansen, Simon A F Schwensen, Daniel Pilsgaard Henriksen, Ulrik Stenz Justesen, Thomas Vognbjerg Sydenham
Members of the Bacteroides fragilis group are opportunistic pathogens and cause severe infections including bacteraemia. As increased levels of antimicrobial resistance in B. fragilis group bacteria can be detected years after administration of specific antibiotics, monitoring antimicrobial susceptibility in the gut microbiota could be important. The objectives of this study were to 1) investigate the distribution of species and the occurrence of reduced antimicrobial susceptibility in the B. fragilis group from patients treated at departments with a high level of antibiotic use, 2) to determine the prevalence of the carbapenem resistance gene cfiA in B...
April 23, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445685/outcomes-following-detection-of-low-level-plasma-hiv-rna-in-hiv-infected-patients-previously-virologically-suppressed-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-retrospective-observational-study
#4
Annabelle M Warren, Allen C Cheng, Kerrie Watson, Sharon R Lewin, Jennifer F Hoy
Background: Progressively sensitive assays for plasma HIV RNA have led to increased detection of plasma HIV RNA between 20 and 200 copies/ml, known as low level viremia (LLV) when recurrent or persistent, in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to determine outcomes following initial detection of LLV in an Australian cohort. Methods: A retrospective study using the HIV Service Database (Alfred Hospital) included all patients on ART who recorded plasma HIV RNA 20-200 copies/mL following prior virological suppression (viral load (VL) HIV RNA <20 copies/mL) over 2 years (2010 to 2012), with follow-up to June 2013...
April 27, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445241/serum-neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-a-diagnostic-marker-in-pediatric-sepsis
#5
Nagwan Yossery Saleh, Wafaa Moustafa M Abo El Fotoh, Mahmoud A El-Hawy
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the response of the body to infection injures its own tissues and organs. The early prediction of sepsis by current clinical and laboratory methods remains inadequate. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin level is increased in sepsis irrespective of renal dysfunction. Therefore, we aimed to correlate the serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin value determined at admission with clinical progression and severity of disease in critically ill children and to declare its role as a potential diagnostic and prognostic marker for sepsis in critically ill children in the emergency department...
April 25, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445130/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-mlh1-predict-poor-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-a-chinese-population
#6
Xiaonian Zhu, Wei Liu, Xiaoqiang Qiu, Zhigang Wang, Chao Tan, Chunhua Bei, Linyuan Qin, Yuan Ren, Shengkui Tan
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant cancer causing deleterious health effect worldwide, especially in China. So far clinical cure rate and long-term survival rate of HCC remains low. Most HCC patients after cancer resection have recurrence or metastasis within 5 years. This study aims to explore the genetic association of mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) polymorphisms with HCC risk and prognosis. Four candidate MLH1 polymorphisms, rs1800734, rs10849, rs3774343 and rs1540354 were studied from a hospital-based case-control study including 1,036 cases (HCC patients) and 1,036 controls (non-HCC patients) in Guangxi, China...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444694/outcomes-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-a-department-of-internal-medicine-in-abidjan-cote-d-ivoire
#7
Kouamé Hubert Yao, Serge Didier Konan, Weu Melanie Tia, Sery Patrick Diopoh, Raoul Moh, Sindou Sanogo
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prognostic factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in our daily practice. METHODS: We analyzed the cohort of patients hospitalized for AKI in the period from January 2010 to December 2015 in the Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Treichville. Kaplan Meier curves were built for survival analysis. Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of mortality. RESULTS: We collected 414 cases of AKI during the study period...
April 25, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444683/-atypical-guillain-barre-syndrome-clustering-is-it-necessary-to-reconsider-the-diagnostic-criteria-and-microbiological-protocol
#8
A Dominguez-Mayoral, C Gutierrez, J M Lopez-Dominguez, S Eichau, J Abril, G Navarro-Mascarell, M A Quesada-Garcia, M Ramos, M Alvarez-Lopez, C Menendez-De Leon, G Izquierdo
INTRODUCTION: Guillain-Barre syndrome is classically defined as a symmetrical ascending acute polyradiculoneuropathy, although there are atypical variants that make diagnosis difficult. CASE REPORTS: The medical data of six patients in our hospital area are collected during the first quarter of 2013. Lumbar punctures, imaging, neurophysiological studies, ganglioside antibodies and serologies have been proposed in all cases. We focus on the atypical features as late hyporeflexia, increased frequency of asymmetry and distal paresis and initial fever...
May 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444464/effectiveness-of-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-non-emergency-cholecystectomy-using-data-from-a-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Ravinder S Vohra, James Hodson, Sandro Pasquali, Ewen A Griffiths
BACKGROUND: There is a variation in the administration of antibiotics prophylaxis to reduce the perceived risk of SSI in patients undergoing non-emergency cholecystectomy. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis following non-emergency cholecystectomy to prevent 30-day superficial surgical site infections (SSIs) using non-selected, nationally collected, prospective data. METHODS: Data were extracted from the CholeS study, which examined and independently validated the outcomes on consecutive patients following non-emergency cholecystectomy across 166 hospitals in the UK and Ireland...
April 25, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444362/burden-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-under-five-children-2-59%C3%A2-months-admitted-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-delhi
#10
Alka Mathur, Geetanjali Tahilramani, Sonia Makhija, Veena Devgan
Objective: The aim of the present study is to assess the burden of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and other malnutrition in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. Methods: All patients aged 2-59 months admitted from August 2012 to July 2014 were screened for malnutrition by anthropometry using standard techniques, and SAM was diagnosed as per guidelines [1, 2]. Results: During the study period, 4520 children of age 2-59 months were admitted and complete data of 4354 children were available, which were analysed...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444279/trends-in-infective-endocarditis-in-california-and-new-york-state-1998-2013
#11
Nana Toyoda, Joanna Chikwe, Shinobu Itagaki, Annetine C Gelijns, David H Adams, Natalia N Egorova
Importance: Prophylaxis and treatment guidelines for infective endocarditis have changed substantially over the past decade. In the United States, few population-based studies have explored the contemporary epidemiology and outcomes of endocarditis. Objective: To quantify trends in the incidence and etiologies of infective endocarditis in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective population epidemiology study of patients hospitalized with a first episode of endocarditis identified from mandatory state databases in California and New York State between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2013...
April 25, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444166/the-effect-of-a-piperacillin-tazobactam-shortage-on-antimicrobial-prescribing-and-clostridium-difficile-risk-in-88-u-s-medical-centers
#12
Alan E Gross, Richard S Johannes, Vikas Gupta, Ying P Tabak, Arjun Srinivasan, Susan C Bleasdale
Background: Anti-infective shortages are a pervasive problem in the U.S. The objective of this study was to identify any associations between changes in antibiotic prescribing during a piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZO) shortage and hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI) risk in 88 U.S medical centers. Methods: We analyzed electronically captured microbiology and antibiotic use data from a network of U.S. hospitals from July 2014 through June 2015...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444097/chronic-polyarthritis-as-the-first-manifestation-of-childhood-systemic-polyarteritis-nodosa
#13
Glaucia Vanessa Novak, Koken Hayashi, Kohei Sampa, Yosuke Okumura, Gabriela Ribeiro Viola Ferreira, Clovis Artur Silva
Arthritis has been reported as an acute pattern, generally evanescent with oligoarthritis, mostly affecting knees and ankles in childhood systemic polyarteritis nodosa. However, chronic polyarthritis with morning stiffness mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis has not been reported. We describe the case of a 4-year old girl who had additive and chronic polyarthritis with edema, tenderness, pain on motion and morning stiffness for 2 months. After 45 days, she also presented painful subcutaneous nodules and erythematous-violaceous lesions in the extensor region of upper and lower limbs...
January 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444091/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-ventilator-associated-tracheobronchitis-a-case-control-study
#14
Leonilda Giani Pontes, Fernando Gatti de Menezes, Priscila Gonçalves, Alexandra do Rosário Toniolo, Claudia Vallone Silva, Julia Yaeko Kawagoe, Camila Marques Dos Santos, Helena Maria Fernandes Castagna, Marinês Dalla Valle Martino, Luci Corrêa
Objective: To describe the microbiological characteristics and to assess the risk factors for mortality of ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis in a case-control study of intensive care patients. Methods: This case-control study was conducted over a 6-year period in a 40-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care, private hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Case patients were identified using the Nosocomial Infection Control Committee database. For the analysis of risk factors, matched control subjects were selected from the same institution at a 1:8...
2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443581/bocavirus-viremia-and-hepatitis-in-an-%C3%A4-mmunocompetent-childa
#15
Zeliha Haytoğlu, Oğuz Canan
BACKGROUND: So far, many studies have shown that Human Bocavirus (HBoV) is the main pathogen of the respiratory tract. In most studies about HBoV, detection of the virus were made from mainly respiratory samples obtained from the patients admitted to the hospital with acute respiratory tract infection. Until now, there is no study that proves the association between HBoV and hepatitis. HBoV viremia/DNAemia has been associated closely with acute primary infection and moderate-to-severe illness but, more detailed clinical data about HBoV dissemination are still unknown...
April 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442802/study-of-prevalence-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-condom-use-among-male-to-female-transgender-a-retrospective-analysis-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-chennai
#16
Subhash Dasarathan, S Kalaivani
CONTEXT: A "Transgender" person is one who dresses as, desires to be, has undergone surgery to become or identifies with opposite sex. They have a higher risk of sexually transmitted infection (STI) due to a combination of biological and social reasons. They have risky sexual behaviors but low-risk perception. AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of STI/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in transgender (TG) and association with condom use. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective study of 82 male-to-female TGs attending our sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic from 2011 to 2014 was undertaken...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442800/what-puts-them-at-risk-a-cross-sectional-case-control-survey-of-demographic-profile-and-sexual-behavior-of-patients-with-sexually-transmitted-infections-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#17
Rama Raj, Vishal Gupta, Mona Pathak, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Seema Sood, Sarman Singh, Kaushal K Verma, Neena Khanna, Bimal K Das, Somesh Gupta
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are a major public health problem in developing nations. Identification of risk factors can help in formulating effective strategies against them. The present study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in North India over 1 year to identify the risk factors associated with STIs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional case-control survey was conducted where participants answered questions on demographic details, sexual behavior, and awareness of STIs...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442799/study-of-pruritus-vulvae-in-geriatric-age-group-in-tertiary-hospital
#18
Jasleen Kaur, Jyotika Kalsy
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization criteria, geriatric population is people above 60 years of age. In this phase of life, a woman has already gone through menopause and its associated emotional, physical, and hormonal changes. These changes are due to gradual loss of estrogen that comes with menopause which results in dramatic changes in the appearance of vulva and vagina. With age, skin of vulva becomes thin, loses elasticity, and moisture so that the patient starts feeling burning and itchy sensation...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442293/effect-of-appropriate-combination-therapy-on-mortality-of-patients-with-bloodstream-infections-due-to-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-increment-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Elena Salamanca, Marina de Cueto, Po-Ren Hsueh, Pierluigi Viale, José Ramón Paño-Pardo, Mario Venditti, Mario Tumbarello, George Daikos, Rafael Cantón, Yohei Doi, Felipe Francisco Tuon, Ilias Karaiskos, Elena Pérez-Nadales, Mitchell J Schwaber, Özlem Kurt Azap, Maria Souli, Emmanuel Roilides, Spyros Pournaras, Murat Akova, Federico Pérez, Joaquín Bermejo, Antonio Oliver, Manel Almela, Warren Lowman, Benito Almirante, Robert A Bonomo, Yehuda Carmeli, David L Paterson, Alvaro Pascual, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño
BACKGROUND: The best available treatment against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of appropriate therapy and of appropriate combination therapy on mortality of patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to CPE. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included patients with clinically significant monomicrobial BSIs due to CPE from the INCREMENT cohort, recruited from 26 tertiary hospitals in ten countries...
April 21, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442246/prognostic-impact-of-nutritional-risk-assessment-in-patients-with-chronic-schizophrenia
#20
Ming-Tsun Tsai, Tien-Hao Chang, Bo-Jian Wu
Protein-energy wasting is associated with poor outcome in various clinical settings. However, the prevalence of malnutrition and the prognostic impact of nutritional status are poorly understood in institutionalized patients with chronic schizophrenia. This study aimed to assess the predictive ability of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index and Onodera's Prognostic Nutritional Index for long-term outcomes in patients with chronic schizophrenia. All measurements, including nutritional scores, were performed at baseline after the enrollment of 542 (64...
April 22, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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