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Hospital-associated infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656619/impact-of-resident-involvement-in-neurosurgery-an-american-college-of-surgeons-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-database-analysis-of-33-977-patients
#1
Andreea Seicean, Prateek Kumar, Sinziana Seicean, Duncan Neuhauser, Warren R Selman, Nicholas C Bambakidis
OBJECTIVE: There is conflicting and limited literature on the effect of intraoperative resident involvement on surgical outcomes. Our study assessed effects of resident involvement on outcomes in patients undergoing neurosurgery. METHODS: We identified 33,977 adult neurosurgical cases from 374 hospitals in the 2006-2012 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a prospectively collected national database with established reproducibility and validity. Outcomes were compared according to resident involvement before and after 1:1 matching on procedure and perioperative risk factors...
March 2018: Neurospine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656062/the-impact-of-antibiotic-prescription-rates-on-the-incidence-of-mrsa-bloodstream-infections-a-county-level-u-s-wide-analysis
#2
Nikolaos Andreatos, Fadi Shehadeh, Elina Eleftheria Pliakos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection with socioeconomic factors and antibiotic prescriptions at the county level. METHODS: MRSA bloodstream infection rates were extracted from the Medicare Hospital Compare database. Data on socioeconomic factors and antibiotic prescriptions were obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Medicare Part D database, respectively. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, antibiotic prescriptions demonstrated a powerful positive association with MRSA bloodstream infection rates [Coefficient (Coeff): 0...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655966/secular-trends-in-the-epidemiology-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-cdi-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-barcelona-2006-2015-a-prospective-observational-study
#3
Thais Larrainzar-Coghen, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Mireia Puig-Asensio, Carles Pigrau, Carmen Ferrer, Virginia Rodríguez, Rosa Bartolomé, David Campany, Benito Almirante
OBJECTIVE: Describe secular trends in the epidemiology and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) at a tertiary hospital. METHODS: All consecutive primary CDI episodes in adults (January 2006-December 2015) were included. CDI was diagnosed on the presence of diarrhoea and a positive stool test for C. difficile toxin A and/or B. To define trends, a time-series analysis was performed using yearly data on demographics, clinical characteristics, management, antimicrobial treatment, and outcome of CDI...
April 12, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655672/effect-of-pulsed-xenon-ultraviolet-room-disinfection-devices-on-microbial-counts-for-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-aerobic-bacterial-colonies
#4
John E Zeber, Christopher Pfeiffer, John W Baddley, Jose Cadena-Zuluaga, Eileen M Stock, Laurel A Copeland, Janet Hendricks, Jwan Mohammadi, Marcos I Restrepo, Chetan Jinadatha
BACKGROUND: Inadequate environmental disinfection represents a serious risk for health care-associated infections. Technologic advancements in disinfection practices, including no-touch devices, offer significant promise to improve infection control. We evaluated one such device, portable pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) units, on microbial burden during an implementation trial across 4 Veterans Affairs hospitals. METHODS: Environmental samples were collected before and after terminal room cleaning: 2 facilities incorporated PX-UV disinfection into their cleaning protocols and 2 practiced manual disinfection only...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655671/overreporting-healthcare-associated-c-difficile-a-comparison-of-nhsn-labid-with-clinical-surveillance-definitions-in-the-era-of-molecular-testing
#5
Kathryn Albert, Barbara Ross, David P Calfee, Matthew S Simon
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common healthcare-associated gastrointestinal infection. Hospitals are required to report cases of healthcare facility-onset CDI (HO-CDI) using the National Healthcare Safety Network's CDI laboratory-identified (LabID) event definition. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of potential over-reporting due to the exclusion of important clinical data within LabID reporting definitions. METHODS: In 2015, retrospective chart review was performed on 212 HO-CDI cases reported from a large urban medical center...
April 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655388/the-prevalence-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-mainland-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Jiancong Wang, Fangfei Liu, Ermira Tartari, Jianan Huang, Stephan Harbarth, Didier Pittet, Walter Zingg
OBJECTIVETo assess the prevalence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in mainland China.DESIGNSystematic review and meta-analysis.SETTINGAdults and children from secondary and tertiary acute-care hospitals in mainland China.METHODSWe searched PubMed, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wan Fang for multicenter point-prevalence surveys of acute-care hospitals in mainland China from January 2006 to August 2016. All reports related to HAI, using a point-prevalence methodology and published either in English or Chinese were eligible...
April 15, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655383/hospitalisations-due-to-bacterial-gastroenteritis-a-comparison-of-surveillance-and-hospital-discharge-data
#7
E Scallan, P M Griffin, H Q McLean, B E Mahon
Studies estimating the human health impact of the foodborne disease often include estimates of the number of gastroenteritis hospitalisations. The aims of this study were to examine the degree to which hospital discharge data underreport hospitalisations due to bacterial gastroenteritis and to estimate the frequency of stool sample submission among patients presenting with gastroenteritis. Using linked laboratory and hospital discharge data from a healthcare organisation and its affiliated hospital, we examined the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes assigned to hospitalised adults with culture-confirmed Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli O157 infections and determined the frequency of stool sample submission...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652978/-importance-of-cleaning-and-disinfection-of-critical-surfaces-in-dental-health-services-impact-of-an-intervention-program
#8
Elena Véliz, Teresa Vergara, Mercedes Pearcy, Jeannette Dabanch
Introduction Dental care has become a challenge for healthcare associated infection prevention programs, since the environment, within other factors, plays an important role in the transmission chain. Materials and Methods An intervention program was designed for the Dental Unit of Hospital Militar de Santiago, between years 2014 and 2015. The program contemplated 3 stages: diagnostic, intervention and evaluation stage. Objective To improve the safety of critical surfaces involved in dental healthcare. Results During the diagnostic stage, the cleaning and disinfection process was found to be deficient...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652932/analysis-of-length-of-hospital-stay-using-electronic-health-records-a-statistical-and-data-mining-approach
#9
Hyunyoung Baek, Minsu Cho, Seok Kim, Hee Hwang, Minseok Song, Sooyoung Yoo
BACKGROUND: The length of stay (LOS) is an important indicator of the efficiency of hospital management. Reduction in the number of inpatient days results in decreased risk of infection and medication side effects, improvement in the quality of treatment, and increased hospital profit with more efficient bed management. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors are associated with length of hospital stay, based on electronic health records, in order to manage hospital stay more efficiently...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652296/validation-of-the-aast-egs-grade-for-skin-and-soft-tissue-infection
#10
Mohamed D Ray-Zack, Matthew C Hernandez, Moustafa Younis, Wyatt B Hoch, Dylan S Soukup, Nadeem Haddad, Martin D Zielinski
INTRODUCTION: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) present with variable severity. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) developed an emergency general surgery (EGS) grading system for several diseases. We aimed to determine whether the AAST EGS grade corresponds with key clinical outcomes. METHODS: Single institution retrospective review of patients (≥18 years) admitted with SSTI during 2012-2016 was performed. Patients with surgical site infections or <18 years were excluded...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650487/speaking-up-about-hand-hygiene-failures-a-vignette-survey-study-among-healthcare-professionals
#11
David L B Schwappach
BACKGROUND: Speaking up by healthcare professionals (HCPs) is an important resource to reduce risks to patient safety. Due to complex tradeoffs, HCPs are often reluctant to voice their concerns. A survey investigated HCPs' likelihood to speak up. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study among HCPs in 5 Swiss hospitals addressed speaking-up behaviors, safety climate, and likelihood to speak up about poor hand hygiene practice described in a vignette. Likelihood to speak up was analyzed using a multilevel regression model...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650357/clinical-outcomes-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-according-to-strain-type-a-prospective-study-in-medical-wards
#12
S Serafino, D Consonni, M Migone De Amicis, F Sisto, G Domeniconi, S Formica, M Zarantonello, A Maraschini, M D Cappellini, P Spigaglia, F Barbanti, S Castaldi, G Fabio
OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics and outcome of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) patients in Internal Medicine, to identify ribotypes (RTs); to evaluate the association between RT and patient clinical characteristics and report outcome. METHODS: One year prospective cohort study. Clinical data, Barthel Index (BI) and outcomes were collected for all inpatients suffering from CDI (n = 148) in hospital wards in Northern Italy. 84 fecal samples were analysed for molecular typing...
April 9, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649830/healthcare-associated-infections-after-lower-urinary-tract-endoscopic-surgery-analysis-of-risk-factors-associated-microorganisms-and-patterns-of-antibiotic-resistance
#13
Raquel Sopeña-Sutil, José Medina-Polo, Juan Justo-Quintas, Javier Gil-Moradillo, Lucia Garcia-Gonzalez, Raúl Benítez-Sala, Manuel Alonso-Isa, Alba Lara-Isla, Angel Tejido-Sanchez
OBJECTIVES: To review the incidence of healthcare-associated infections/urinary tract infection (UTI), risk factors, microorganisms isolated and antibiotic resistances in patients who underwent lower urinary tract endoscopic surgery (LUTES) in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: A prospective observational study was carried out including 1,498 patients who undergo LUTES. Patients with and without UTI after surgery were compared. We analysed infection incidence, risk factors, microorganisms isolated and antibiotic resistances...
April 12, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649610/evaluating-the-effect-of-growing-patient-numbers-and-changing-data-elements-in-the-national-surgical-quality-improvement-program-nsqip-database-over-the-years-a-study-of-posterior-lumbar-fusion-outcomes
#14
B N Shultz, P Bovonratwet, N T Ondeck, T D Ottesen, R P McLynn, J N Grauer
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The use of national databases in spinal surgery outcomes research is increasing. A number of variables collected by the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) changed between 2010 and 2011, coinciding with a rapid increase in the number of patients included per year. However, there has been limited study evaluating the effect that these changes may have on the results of outcomes studies. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of changing data elements and growth of the NSQIP database on results of lumbar fusion outcomes studies...
April 9, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649599/time-dependent-differences-in-management-and-microbiology-of-orthopaedic-internal-fixation-associated-infections-an-observational-prospective-study-with-229-patients
#15
Richard Kuehl, Sarah Tschudin Sutter, Mario Morgenstern, Marc Dangel, Adrian Egli, Andrej Nowakowski, Norbert Suhm, Christian Theilacker, Andreas F Widmer
OBJECTIVES: Little information is published on orthopaedic internal fixation-associated infections. We aimed to analyse time-dependent microbiology, treatment, and outcome. METHODS: Over a ten-year period, all consecutive patients with internal fixation-associated infections at the University Hospital Basel were prospectively followed by acquiring clinical, microbiological and outcome data. Infections were classified as early (0-2 weeks after implantation), delayed (3-10 weeks) and late (>10 weeks)...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649598/methicillin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-among-patients-colonized-with-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus
#16
Nabin K Shrestha, Thomas G Fraser, Steven M Gordon
OBJECTIVES: We have noticed that patients colonized with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) rarely get methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections. The purpose of this study was to compare the odds of a Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infection being an MRSA infection in MSSA carriers, MRSA carriers, and non-carriers of SA. METHODS: Hospitalizations of adult patients at the Cleveland Clinic Health System from 2008 to 2015 were screened to identify those where the patient was tested for SA colonization...
April 9, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649431/diagnosis-and-management-of-children-with-mycobacterium-abscessus-infections-in-the-head-and-neck
#17
Justine Moe, Roy Rajan, Shelley Caltharp, Shelly Abramowicz
PURPOSE: Controversy exists regarding the most appropriate treatment strategy for children with nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) cervical lymphadenitis. Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB) is an uncommon cause of NTM cervical lymphadenitis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate diagnosis, management, and treatment outcomes in children with MAB-associated cervical lymphadenitis resulting from a pulpotomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of children with NTM lymphadenitis of the head and neck caused by MAB treated at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta hospitals (Atlanta, GA)...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649339/pathogenic-factors-associated-with-development-of-disseminated-intravascular-coagulopathy-dic-in-a-tertiary-academic-hospital-in-south-africa
#18
Elizabeth S Mayne, Anthony L H Mayne, Susan J Louw
INTRODUCTION: Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is a thrombotic microangiopathy arising from consumption of both coagulation factors and platelets. DIC is triggered by a number of clinical conditions including severe infection, trauma and obstetric complications. Early diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition is paramount. A high clinical index of suspicion is needed to ensure that patients at risk of developing DIC are appropriately investigated. METHODS: In order to establish the clinical conditions most frequently associated with DIC, we reviewed all DIC screens received at a tertiary hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa over a 1 year period...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649265/bacterial-and-protozoal-pathogens-found-in-ticks-collected-from-humans-in-corum-province-of-turkey
#19
Djursun Karasartova, Ayse Semra Gureser, Tuncay Gokce, Bekir Celebi, Derya Yapar, Adem Keskin, Selim Celik, Yasemin Ece, Ali Kemal Erenler, Selma Usluca, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Aysegul Taylan-Ozkan
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases are increasing all over the word, including Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial and protozoan vector-borne pathogens in ticks infesting humans in the Corum province of Turkey. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From March to November 2014 a total of 322 ticks were collected from patients who attended the local hospitals with tick bites. Ticks were screened by real time-PCR and PCR, and obtained amplicons were sequenced...
April 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649224/seasonal-asthma-in-melbourne-australia-and-some-observations-on-the-occurrence-of-thunderstorm-asthma-and-its-predictability
#20
Jeremy D Silver, Michael F Sutherland, Fay H Johnston, Edwin R Lampugnani, Michael A McCarthy, Stephanie J Jacobs, Alexandre B Pezza, Edward J Newbigin
We examine the seasonality of asthma-related hospital admissions in Melbourne, Australia, in particular the contribution and predictability of episodic thunderstorm asthma. Using a time-series ecological approach based on asthma admissions to Melbourne metropolitan hospitals, we identified seasonal peaks in asthma admissions that were centred in late February, June and mid-November. These peaks were most likely due to the return to school, winter viral infections and seasonal allergies, respectively. We performed non-linear statistical regression to predict daily admission rates as functions of the seasonal cycle, weather conditions, reported thunderstorms, pollen counts and air quality...
2018: PloS One
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