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Hospital-associated infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527931/predictors-of-surgical-site-infection-after-open-lower-extremity-revascularization
#1
Frank M Davis, Danielle C Sutzko, Scott F Grey, M Ashraf Mansour, Krishna M Jain, Timothy J Nypaver, Greg Gaborek, Peter K Henke
OBJECTIVE: Surgical site infection (SSI) after open lower extremity bypass (LEB) is a serious complication leading to an increased rate of graft failure, hospital readmission, and health care costs. This study sought to identify predictors of SSI after LEB for arterial occlusive disease and also potential modifiable factors to improve outcomes. METHODS: Data from a statewide cardiovascular consortium of 35 hospitals were used to obtain demographic, procedural, and hospital risk factors for patients undergoing elective or urgent open LEB between January 2012 and June 2015...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527868/use-of-parenteral-antimicrobials-in-very-small-hospitals%C3%A2-in-inner-brazil-patterns-determinants-and-opportunities-for-interventions-in-developing-countries
#2
J L Giacomini, C M Fortaleza
Much of healthcare in developing countries takes place in small hospitals. Little is known about the use of antimicrobials in those settings. We studied the 60-day use of parenteral antimicrobials in 48 hospitals with up to 50 beds in inner Brazil. The overall use was 242.0 defined daily doses per 100 admissions, and broad-spectrum agents accounted for 26.8%. The existence of local guidelines, educational measures and restrictive policies for antimicrobial prescriptions, as well as infection control and microbiology resources, were significantly associated with lesser use...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527248/-clinical-and-demographic-profile-and-risk-factors-for-clostridium-difficile-infection
#3
Carlos Carvajal, Carlos Pacheco, Fabián Jaimes
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea. The increasing incidence added to a lower rate of response to the initial treatment and higher rates of relapse has generated a higher burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with C. difficile infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We made a nested case-cohort study. We reviewed medical records of the patients with nosocomial diarrhea for whom an assay for toxin A-B of C...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526799/acquired-resistance-to-macrolides-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#4
Muhammad-Hariri Mustafa, Shaunak Khandekar, Michael M Tunney, J Stuart Elborn, Barbara C Kahl, Olivier Denis, Patrick Plésiat, Hamidou Traore, Paul M Tulkens, Francis Vanderbist, Françoise Van Bambeke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receive chronic treatment with macrolides for their antivirulence and anti-inflammatory properties. We, however, previously showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, considered as naturally resistant to macrolides, becomes susceptible when tested in a eukaryotic medium rather than a conventional broth.We therefore looked for specific macrolide resistance determinants in 333 CF isolates from four European CF centres in comparison with 48 isolates from patients suffering from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526375/effect-of-overweight-and-obesity-on-weight-loss-and-length-of-stay-in-patients-with-walled-off-pancreatic-necrosis
#5
Sisse Rysgaard, Ditlev Rasmussen, Srdan Novovic, Palle N Schmidt, Lise L Gluud
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between admission weight, weight loss, and length of stay (LOS) in patients with walled-off pancreatic necrosis. METHODS: We classified the admission body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to <25 kg/m(2) as normal weight, 25 to <30 kg/m(2) as overweight, and ≥30 kg/m(2) as obesity. The Nutritional Risk Screening score-2002 was calculated to identify patients at risk for undernutrition. RESULTS: We included 38 patients (61% men, 68% with infected necrosis; 40% normal weight; 60% overweight/obesity)...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526309/antimicrobial-stewardship-for-hospitalized-patients-with-viral-respiratory-tract-infections
#6
Christopher F Lowe, Michael Payne, David Puddicombe, Allison Mah, Davie Wong, Allison Kirkwood, Mark W Hull, Victor Leung
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to implement a targeted antimicrobial stewardship intervention for patients with a viral respiratory tract infection. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental before and after audit and feedback intervention of adult inpatients with a positive polymerase chain reaction for a respiratory virus in 2 acute care hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Audit and feedback was implemented based on 2 criteria: microbiology (no positive bacterial cultures) and chest imaging (absence of pneumonia or consolidation on radiology dictation)...
May 16, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526171/chlorhexidine-gluconate-or-polyhexamethylene-biguanide-disc-dressing-to-reduce-the-incidence-of-central-line-associated-bloodstream-infection-a-feasibility-randomized-controlled-trial-the-clabsi-trial
#7
J Webster, E Larsen, N Marsh, A Choudhury, P Harris, C M Rickard
BACKGROUND: A number of antimicrobial-impregnated discs to prevent central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) are marketed but it is unclear which disc is most effective. AIM: To investigate the feasibility and safety of comparing two antimicrobial-impregnated discs to prevent CLABSI. METHODS: A single-centre, parallel group, randomized controlled trial was conducted in a 929-bed tertiary referral hospital. Hospital inpatients requiring a peripherally inserted central catheter were randomized to chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) or polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) disc dressing group...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526094/patients-with-community-acquired-bacteremia-of-unknown-origin-clinical-characteristics-and-usefulness-of-microbiological-results-for-therapeutic-issues-a-single-center-cohort-study
#8
Johan Courjon, Elisa Demonchy, Nicolas Degand, Karine Risso, Raymond Ruimy, Pierre-Marie Roger
Bacteremia of unknown origin (BUO) are associated with increased mortality compared to those with identified sources. Microbiological data of those patients could help to characterize an appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment before bloodcultures results are available during sepsis of unknown origin. Based on the dashboard of our ward that prospectively records several parameters from each hospitalization, we report 101 community-acquired BUO selected among 1989 bacteremic patients from July 2005 to April 2016, BUO being defined by the absence of clinical and paraclinical infectious focus and no other microbiological samples retrieving the bacteria isolated from blood cultures...
May 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525923/a-national-implementation-project-to-prevent-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-in-nursing-home-residents
#9
Lona Mody, M Todd Greene, Jennifer Meddings, Sarah L Krein, Sara E McNamara, Barbara W Trautner, David Ratz, Nimalie D Stone, Lillian Min, Steven J Schweon, Andrew J Rolle, Russell N Olmsted, Dale R Burwen, James Battles, Barbara Edson, Sanjay Saint
Importance: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) in nursing home residents is a common cause of sepsis, hospital admission, and antimicrobial use leading to colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms. Objective: To develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention to reduce catheter-associated UTI. Design, Setting, and Participants: A large-scale prospective implementation project was conducted in community-based nursing homes participating in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Safety Program for Long-Term Care...
May 19, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525510/zika-virus-obstetric-and-pediatric-anesthesia-considerations
#10
Jacqueline L Tutiven, Benjamin T Pruden, James S Banks, Mario Stevenson, David J Birnbach
As of November 2016, the Florida Department of Health (FDH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed more than 4000 travel-related Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in the United States with >700 of those in Florida. There have been 139 cases of locally acquired infection, all occurring in Miami, Florida. Within the US territories (eg, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands), >30,000 cases of ZIKV infection have been reported. The projected number of individuals at risk for ZIKV infection in the Caribbean and Latin America approximates 5 million...
June 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523249/risk-factors-clinical-presentation-and-outcome-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-bacteremia
#11
Tala Ballouz, Jad Aridi, Claude Afif, Jihad Irani, Chantal Lakis, Rakan Nasreddine, Eid Azar
Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii (AB), an increasingly prevalent nosocomial pathogen, have been associated with high morbidity and mortality. We conducted this study to analyze the clinical features, outcomes, and factors influencing the survival of patients with AB bacteremia. We retrospectively examined the medical records of all patients developing AB bacteremia during their hospital stay at a tertiary care hospital in Beirut between 2010 and 2015. Ninety episodes of AB bacteremia were documented in eighty-five patients...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523167/a-novel-facilitated-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-for-thoracic-incision-infection-after-esophagectomy
#12
Zhi-Tian Wang, Jin-Lin Cao, Ping Yuan, Lu-Ming Wang, Zhe-Hao He, Wang Lv, Jian Hu
BACKGROUND: Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is the therapeutic management of traumatic soft-tissue wounds and infections. The efficacy of NPWT in the treatment of thoracic incision infection is unclear. We assess the effectiveness and safety of a novel facilitated NPWT for thoracic incision infection after esophagectomy. METHODS: Between Jan. 2013 and Mar. 2016, 380 patients underwent open esophagectomy in our department. Forty-five patients with thoracic incision infection were retrospectively reviewed...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522992/molecular-characterization-of-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia-in-young-children-in-southern-mozambique-2001-2009
#13
Delfino Vubil, Marcelino Garrine, Ulla Ruffing, Sozinho Acácio, Betuel Sigaúque, Pedro L Alonso, Lutz von Müller, Mathias Herrmann, Inácio Mandomando
Background: The emergence of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infections is increasingly recognized as life threating problem worldwide. In Manhiça district, southern Mozambique, S. aureus is the leading cause of community-acquired bacteremia in neonates. Methods: Eighty-four S. aureus isolates from children less than 5 years admitted to Manhiça District Hospital from 2001 to 2009 were randomly selected and genetically characterized by DNA microarray and spa typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by VITEK 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522577/shorter-leukocyte-telomere-length-is-associated-with-higher-risk-of-infections-a-prospective-study-of-75-309-individuals-from-the-general-population
#14
Jens Helby, Børge G Nordestgaard, Thomas Benfield, Stig E Bojesen
In the general population, older age is associated with short leukocyte telomere length and with high risk of infections. In a recent study of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe aplastic anemia, long donor leukocyte telomere length was associated with improved survival in the recipients. These findings suggest that leukocyte telomere length could possibly be a marker of immune competence. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that shorter leukocyte telomere length is associated with higher risk of infectious disease hospitalization and infection related death...
May 18, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522361/clostridium-perfringens-a-bacterial-pathogen-gaining-recognition-in-necrotizing-pancreatitis
#15
Rakhi Biswas, Deepika K, Sujatha Sistla, Sarath Chandra Sistla, Anandhi Amaranathan
We report an interesting case of necrotizing pancreatitis due to Clostridium perfringens in an elderly man who came to the hospital with complaints of severe abdominal pain. The infection further worsened with the dissemination to other internal organs. The patient did not show any improvement despite intensive care and treatment. This emphasizies the fact that early diagnosis and appropriate treatment would reduce the morbidity associated with necrotizing pancreatitis.
May 15, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521955/prevalence-of-relevant-ns5a-resistance-associated-substitutions-to-elbasvir-in-genotype-1a-hepatitis-c-virus-patients-in-spain
#16
Claudia Palladino, Beatriz Esteban-Cartelle, Irene Mate-Cano, Marta Sánchez-Carrillo, Salvador Resino, Verónica Briz
Resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) to the new HCV NS5A inhibitor elbasvir may limit its efficacy and lead to virological failure in HCV-GT1a-infected patients. There are no data outside clinical trials evaluating their prevalence and impact in grazoprevir/elbasvir in GT1a-infected patients in Spain. A multicentre cross-sectional study of 632 initial patients was conducted. In 13 of these patients, the sample could not be amplified or a consensus sequence by Sanger sequencing could not be performed. Ultimately, 617 HCV-G1a-infected individuals treated at 84 Spanish hospitals from the 17 autonomous communities plus the 2 autonomous cities of Spain were analysed...
May 15, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521869/high-fgf21-levels-are-associated-with-altered-bone-homeostasis-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#17
José M Gallego-Escuredo, Maria Karuna Lamarca, Joan Villarroya, Joan C Domingo, Ma Gracia Mateo, Ma Del Mar Gutierrez, Francesc Vidal, Francesc Villarroya, Pere Domingo, Marta Giralt
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) has emerged as an important regulator of glucose, lipid, and body weight homeostasis. However, recent experimental studies have reported that increased FGF21 levels may lead to bone loss. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of serum FGF21 levels and altered bone homeostasis in HIV-1-infected patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 137 HIV-1-infected patients and 35 healthy controls conducted at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521833/hiv-infection-hypercoagulability-and-ischaemic-stroke-in-adults-at-the-university-teaching-hospital-in-zambia-a-case-control-study
#18
Stanley Zimba, Patrice Mukomena Ntanda, Shabir Lakhi, Masharip Atadzhanov
BACKGROUND: In Zambia, 14.2% of adults have HIV/AIDS. There has been a substantial and significant increase in patients hospitalized for ischaemic stroke with co-existing HIV infection. However, little is known about the mechanism of stroke in these HIV + ve patients let alone studied in our region. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the association of hypercoagulability state in HIV + ve patients with ischaemic stroke. This was achieved by comparing hypercoagulability state markers between HIV + ve ischaemic stroke patients with HIV-ve and HIV + ve patients with and without ischaemic stroke respectively...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521829/supervised-injection-facilities-in-canada-past-present-and-future
#19
REVIEW
Thomas Kerr, Sanjana Mitra, Mary Clare Kennedy, Ryan McNeil
Canada has long contended with harms arising from injection drug use. In response to epidemics of HIV infection and overdose in Vancouver in the mid-1990s, a range of actors advocated for the creation of supervised injection facilities (SIFs), and after several unsanctioned SIFs operated briefly and closed, Canada's first sanctioned SIF opened in 2003. However, while a large body of evidence highlights the successes of this SIF in reducing the health and social harms associated with injection drug use, extraordinary efforts were needed to preserve it, and continued activism by local people who inject drugs (PWID) and healthcare providers was needed to promote further innovation and address gaps in SIF service delivery...
May 18, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521809/role-of-mitral-valve-repair-in-active-infective-endocarditis-long-term-results
#20
Carlo Rostagno, Enrico Carone, Pier Luigi Stefàno
BACKGROUND: Although mitral valve repair is at present the technique of choice in mitral regurgitation (MR) due to degenerative valve disease, long term results in patients with active mitral infective endocarditis (IE) are still under evaluation. METHODS: In the study were included 34 consecutive patients (22 males; mean age, 60 years; range 32-84 years) referred to our institution between January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2011 who were treated with valve repair for mitral valve (MV) active infective endocarditis...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
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