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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437908/ionization-degree-measurement-in-the-gain-medium-of-a-hydrocarbon-free-rubidium-vapor-laser-operating-in-pulsed-and-cw-modes
#1
Xiaofan Zhao, Zining Yang, Weihong Hua, Hongyan Wang, Xiaojun Xu
Although the diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) works in a three-level scheme, higher energy-state excitation and ionization processes exist during operation, which may lead to deleterious effects on laser performance. In this paper, we report the ionization degree measurement in the gain medium of an operational hydrocarbon-free Rb DPAL by using the optogalvanic method. The results show that, at the pulsed mode with a duration of ~1 ms, a maximal ionization degree of ~0.06% is obtained at a pump power of 140 W...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437720/determination-of-a-novel-anticancer-ampk-activator-hernandezine-in-rat-plasma-and-tissues-with-a-validated-uhplc-ms-ms-method-application-to-pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-study
#2
Yang Song, Zhibin Wang, Baozhen Zhang, Yujia Zhang, Weipeng Zhang, Chunjuan Yang, Fanhao Meng, Xuesong Feng
Hernandezine, a novel anticancer AMPK activator, is a major active constituent of Thalictrum Ranunculaceae. A simple, specific and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of hernandezine in rat plasma and tissues after intravenous administration. Sample preparation was carried out through a protein-precipitation extraction with acetonitrile using tetrandrine as internal standard (IS). The chromatographic separation was achieved by using an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and water (containing 10mM ammonium acetate) in an isocratic elution way...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437719/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometric-imaging-of-olanzapine-in-a-single-hair-using-esculetin-as-a-matrix
#3
Hang Wang, Ying Wang, Ge Wang, Lizhi Hong
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) for the analysis of intact hair is a powerful tool for monitoring changes in drug consumption. The embedding of a low drug concentration in the hydrophobic hair matrix makes it difficult to extract and detect, and requires an improved method to increase detection sensitivity. In this study, an MSI method using MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance was developed for direct identification and imaging of olanzapine in hair samples using the positive ion mode...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437609/source-and-biological-response-of-biochar-organic-compounds-released-into-water-relationships-with-bio-oil-composition-and-carbonization-degree
#4
Michele Ghidotti, Daniele Fabbri, Ondřej Mašek, Colin Logan Mackay, Marco Montalti, Andreas Hornung
Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) were extracted from corn stalk biochar produced at increasing pyrolysis temperatures (350-650°C) and from the corresponding vapors, collected as bio-oil. WSOCs were characterized by gas chromatography (semi-volatile fraction), negative electron spray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (hydrophilic fraction) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The pattern of semi-volatile WSOCs in bio-oil was dominated by aromatic products from lignocellulose, while in biochar was featured by saturated carboxylic acids from hemi/cellulose and lipids with concentrations decreased with decreasing H/C ratios...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437250/ionizing-radiation-reduces-adam10-expression-in-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells-undergoing-stress-induced-senescence
#5
Lucinda S McRobb, Matthew J McKay, Jennifer R Gamble, Michael Grace, Vaughan Moutrie, Estevam D Santos, Vivienne S Lee, Zhenjun Zhao, Mark P Molloy, Marcus A Stoodley
Cellular senescence is associated with aging and is considered a potential contributor to age-associated neurodegenerative disease. Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing premature neurovascular degeneration and dementia but also induces premature senescence. As cells of the cerebrovascular endothelium are particularly susceptible to radiation and play an important role in brain homeostasis, we investigated radiation-induced senescence in brain microvascular endothelial cells (EC). Using biotinylation to label surface proteins, streptavidin enrichment and proteomic analysis, we analyzed the surface proteome of stress-induced senescent EC in culture...
April 17, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437188/further-characterization-of-the-mitigation-of-radiation-lethality-by-protective-wounding
#6
Joseph R Dynlacht, Joy Garrett, Rebecca Joel, Katharina Lane, Marc S Mendonca, Christie M Orschell
There continues to be a major effort in the United States to develop mitigators for the treatment of mass casualties that received high-intensity acute ionizing radiation exposures from the detonation of an improvised nuclear device during a radiological terrorist attack. The ideal countermeasure should be effective when administered after exposure, and over a wide range of absorbed doses. We have previously shown that the administration of a subcutaneous incision of a defined length, if administered within minutes after irradiation, protected young adult female C57BL/6 mice against radiation-induced lethality, and increased survival after total-body exposure to an LD50/30 X-ray dose from 50% to over 90%...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437010/technical-note-comparison-of-peripheral-patient-dose-from-mr-guided-60-co-therapy-and-6mv-linear-accelerator-igrt
#7
Pascal Hauri, Roger A Hälg, Uwe Schneider
PURPOSE: The use of X-ray imaging in radiation therapy can give a substantial dose to the patient. A Cobalt machine combined with an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was recently introduced to clinical work. One positive aspect of using non-ionizing imaging devices is the reduction of the patient exposure. The purpose of this study was to quantify the difference in out-of-field dose to the patient between the image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatment applied with a linear accelerator with cone beam CT (CBCT) equipment and a Cobalt machine combined with an MRI...
April 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436854/manifold-embedding-and-semantic-segmentation-for-intraoperative-guidance-with-hyperspectral-brain-imaging
#8
Daniele Ravi, Himar Fabelo, Gustavo Marrero Callico, GuangZhong Yang
Recent advances in hyperspectral imaging have made it a promising solution for intra-operative tissue characterization, with the advantages of being non-contact, non-ionizing and non-invasive. Working with hyperspectral images in vivo, however, is not straightforward as the high dimensionality of the data makes real-time processing challenging. In this paper, a novel dimensionality reduction scheme and a new processing pipeline are introduced to obtain a detailed tumour classification map for intra-operative margin definition during brain surgery...
April 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436658/chemical-composition-and-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activity-of-essential-oils-from-piper-species
#9
Cai-Peng Xiang, Jia-Xin Han, Xing-Cong Li, Yun-Hui Li, Yi Zhang, Lin Chen, Yan Qu, Chao-Yun Hao, Hai-Zhou Li, Chong-Ren Yang, San-Jun Zhao, Min Xu
The essential oils (EOs) derived from aromatic plants such as Piper species are considered to play a role in alleviating neuronal ailments that are associated with inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The chemical compositions of 23 EOs prepared from 16 Piper spp. were analyzed by both gas chromatography with aflame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 76 compounds were identified in the EOs from the leaves and stems of 19 samples, while 30 compounds were detected in the EOs from the fruits of four samples...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436612/effects-of-zero-point-vibration-on-the-reaction-dynamics-of-water-dimer-cations-following-ionization
#10
Hiroto Tachikawa
Reactions of water dimer cation (H2O)2+ following ionization have been investigated by means of a direct ab initio molecular dynamics method. In particular, the effects of zero point vibration and zero point energy (ZPE) on the reaction mechanism were considered in this work. Trajectories were run on two electronic potential energy surfaces (PESs) of (H2O)2+: ground state ((2) A″-like state) and the first excited state ((2) A'-like state). All trajectories on the ground-state PES lead to the proton-transferred product: H2 O(+) (Wd)-H2 O(Wa) → OH(Wd)-H3 O(+) (Wa), where Wd and Wa refer to the proton donor and acceptor water molecules, respectively...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436573/mapping-energy-levels-for-organic-heterojunctions
#11
Yiying Li, Peicheng Li, Zheng-Hong Lu
An organic semiconductor thin film is a solid-state matter comprising one or more molecules. For applications in electronics and photonics, several distinct functional organic thin films are stacked together to create a variety of devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells. The energy levels at these thin-film junctions dictate various electronic processes such as the charge transport across these junctions, the exciton dissociation rates at donor-acceptor molecular interfaces, and the charge trapping during exciton formation in a host-dopant system...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436495/electrochemistry-mass-spectrometry-for-mechanism-study-of-oxygen-reduction-at-water-oil-interface
#12
Shu-Juan Liu, Zheng-Wei Yu, Liang Qiao, Bao-Hong Liu
Electrochemistry methods have been widely employed in the development of renewable energy, and involved in various processes, e.g. water splitting and oxygen reduction. Remarkable progress notwithstanding, there are still many challenges in further optimization of catalysts to achieve high performance. For this purpose, an in-depth understanding of reaction mechanism is needed. In this study, an electrochemistry-mass spectrometry method based on a Y-shaped dual-channel microchip as electrochemical cell and ionization device was demonstrated...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436335/localization-of-the-werner-protein-together-with-h2ax-in-%C3%AE-irradiation-induced-neoplastic-transformed-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#13
Nedime Serakinci, Tufan Cankaya, Steen Kølvraa
The H2A histone family, member X (H2AX), and Werner (WRN) are important proteins for genome and telomere maintenance. WRN has a major role in genome stability, particularly during DNA replication, transcription, recombination, and repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) via base excision repair, homologous recombination, or nonhomologous end joining. H2AX plays a part in the rapid, sensitive, cellular response to the ionizing radiation or DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents that cause DSBs. This occurs when radiation-induced DSBs trigger the activation of H2AX and begin the damage-repair process...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436032/application-of-maldi-tof-ms-for-estimating-the-postmortem-interval-in-rat-muscle-samples
#14
Chengzhi Li, Dong Ma, Kaifei Deng, Yijiu Chen, Ping Huang, Zhenyuan Wang
Estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) is very important in the forensic sciences. Although many approaches have been used for estimating the PMI, accurate PMI calculations are still difficult. In this study, four Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were sacrificed by suffocation, and muscle samples were collected by dissection at various time intervals (0, 48, 96, and 144 h) after death. All samples were probed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) to obtain molecular images and data for principal component analysis (PCA)...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435968/unexpected-proton-mobility-in-the-bulk-phase-of-cholinium-based-ionic-liquids-new-insights-from-theoretical-calculations
#15
Marco Campetella, Maria Montagna, Lorenzo Gontrani, Eleonora Scarpellini, Enrico Bodo
We have explored by means of ab initio molecular dynamics two ionic liquids based on the combination of a choline cation with deprotonated cysteine and aspartic acid anions. While the combination of the strong base choline with various other amino-acids leads to the formation of a highly ionized medium where proton transfer is negligible, the presence of additional protic functions on the SH and COOH groups leads to an unexpected and interesting behavior and to a sizable migration of their acidic protons onto the NH2 basic terminals...
April 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435962/dissociation-of-cyclopropane-in-double-ionization-continuum
#16
Shabnam Oghbaie, Mathieu Gisselbrecht, Erik P Månsson, Joakim Laksman, Christian Stråhlman, Anna Sankari, Stacey L Sorensen
Dissociative double photoionization of cyclopropane is studied in the inner-valence region using tunable synchrotron radiation. With the aid of ab initio quantum chemical calculations the energies of dication states and their favoured fragmentation pathways are determined. These are compared to the experimental appearance energies of two-body fragmentation processes and to the kinetic energy released upon dissociation. Photon energy dependent state-selective dissociation in the 25-35 eV range is found. Calculations of dissociation pathways suggest that cyclopropane ring-deformation is selectively triggered at certain photon energies...
April 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435354/control-efficacy-of-streptomyces-sp-a501-against-ginseng-damping-off-and-its-antifungal-substance
#17
Nguyen Van Minh, E-Eum Woo, Gang-Seon Lee, Dae-Won Ki, In-Kyoung Lee, Sang-Yeob Lee, Kyeonghun Park, Jaekyeong Song, Jae Eul Choi, Bong-Sik Yun
Ginseng damping-off, caused by the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp., is a critical disease in ginseng seedling. In a continuing effort to find microorganisms with the potential of acting as a biocontrol agent against Rhizoctonia damping-off, we found that a Streptomyces sp. A501 showed significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. In field experiment to test the efficacy of Streptomyces sp. A501 in controlling ginseng damping-off, the incidence of damping-off disease was meaningfully reduced when ginseng seeds were soaked in the culture broth of Streptomyces sp...
March 2017: Mycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435185/influence-of-rb-cs-cation-exchange-on-inorganic-sn-halide-perovskites-from-chemical-structure-to-physical-properties
#18
Young-Kwang Jung, Ji-Hwan Lee, Aron Walsh, Aloysius Soon
CsSnI3 is a potential lead-free inorganic perovskite for solar energy applications due to its nontoxicity and attractive optoelectronic properties. Despite these advantages, photovoltaic cells using CsSnI3 have not been successful to date, in part due to low stability. We demonstrate how gradual substitution of Rb for Cs influences the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties on the basis of first-principles density functional theory calculations. By examining the effect of the Rb:Cs ratio, we reveal a correlation between octahedral distortion and band gap, including spin-orbit coupling...
April 11, 2017: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434974/proteomic-approach-to-detect-changes-in-hippocampal-protein-levels-in-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#19
Sung Min Nam, Dae Young Yoo, Hyun Jung Kwon, Jong Whi Kim, Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, Ho Jae Han, Moo-Ho Won, Je Kyung Seong, In Koo Hwang, Yeo Sung Yoon
In our previous study, we demonstrated that type 2 diabetes affects blood-brain barrier integrity and ultrastructural morphology in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats at 40 weeks of age. In the present study, we investigated the possible candidates for diabetes-related proteins in the hippocampus of ZDF rats and their control littermates (Zucker lean control, ZLC), by using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF)...
April 20, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434865/allergens-involved-in-the-cross-reactivity-of-aedes-aegypti-with-other-arthropods
#20
Jose Fernando Cantillo, Leonardo Puerta, Sylvie Lafosse-Marin, Jose Luis Subiza, Luis Caraballo, Enrique Fernandez-Caldas
BACKGROUND: Cross-reactivity between Aedes aegypti and mites, cockroaches, and shrimp has been previously suggested, but the involved molecular components have not been fully described. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cross-reactivity between A aegypti and other arthropods. METHODS: Thirty-four serum samples from patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis were selected, and specific IgE to A aegypti, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Periplaneta americana...
April 20, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
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