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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934848/profiling-of-serum-metabolites-using-maldi-tof-and-triple-tof-mass-spectrometry-to-develop-a-screen-for-ovarian-cancer
#1
Jun Hwa Lee, Yun Hwan Kim, Kyung-Hee Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Sang Myung Woo, Byong Chul Yoo, Seung Cheol Kim
Purpose: We sought to develop a matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF)-based, ovarian cancer (OVC), low-mass-ion discriminant equation (LOME) and to evaluate a possible supportive role for triple-TOF mass analysis in identifying metabolic biomarkers. Materials and Methods: A total of 114 serum samples from patients with OVC and benign ovarian tumors were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis and a total of 137 serum samples from healthy female individuals and patients with OVC, colorectal cancer, hepatobiliary cancer, and pancreatic cancer were subjected to triple-TOF analysis...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934716/automatic-detection-of-micronuclei-by-cell-microscopic-image-processing
#2
Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi, Hosein Azimian, Omid Sarrafzadeh, Shokoufeh Mohebbi, Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard
With the development and applications of ionizing radiation in medicine, the radiation effects on human health get more and more attention. Ionizing radiation can lead to various forms of cytogenetic damage, including increased frequencies of micronuclei (MNi) and chromosome abnormalities. The cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay is widely used method for measuring MNi to determine chromosome mutations or genome instability in cultured human lymphocytes. The visual scoring of MNi is time-consuming and scorer fatigue can lead to inconsistency...
August 12, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934681/simultaneous-determination-of-gentiopicroside-and-its-two-active-metabolites-in-rat-plasma-by-lc-ms-ms-and-its-application-in-pharmacokinetic-studies
#3
Kai Xiong, Tingting Gao, Tong Zhang, Zhengtao Wang, Han Han
Gentiopicroside is a natural secoiridoid glycoside that may require metabolic activation to exert pharmacological effects. In this study, two active metabolites of gentiopicroside (M1 and M2) were isolated from rat urines and identified with our previous method. Most importantly, a fast, sensitive and selective ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to simultaneously determine gentiopicroside and its two metabolites in rat plasma. The analytes and internal standard (swertiamarin) were separated on an ACQUITY UPLC(®) BEH C18 column (2...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934029/comparative-proteomics-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-response-to-vancomycin-treatment
#4
Xiao-Yan Yang, Jing-Yu Xu, Qiu-Xia Wei, Xuesong Sun, Qing-Yu He
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive pathogen that causes otitis media, pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious diseases. Vancomycin is one of the most important drugs currently used for the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections, representing, importantly, the last line of defense against bacteria that have developed resistance to other antibiotics. While primary efforts of most investigations focused on the antibacterial mechanism of vancomycin, few studies have been performed to assess the tolerance mechanism of bacteria to vancomycin...
September 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933814/the-effect-of-concentration-on-the-electrochemistry-and-speciation-of-the-magnesium-aluminum-chloride-complex-electrolyte-solution
#5
Kimberly See, Yao-Min Liu, Yeyoung Ha, Christopher J Barile, Andrew A Gewirth
Magnesium batteries offer an opportunity to use naturally abundant Mg and achieve large volumetric capacities reaching over four times that of conventional Li-based intercalation anodes. High volumetric capacity is enabled by the use of a Mg metal anode in which charge is stored via electrodeposition and stripping processes, however, electrolytes that support efficient Mg electrodeposition and stripping are few and are often prepared from highly reactive compounds. One interesting electrolyte solution that supports Mg deposition and stripping without the use of highly reactive reagents is the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC) electrolyte...
September 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933661/suppressing-allostery-in-epitope-mapping-experiments-using-millisecond-hydrogen-deuterium-exchange-mass-spectrometry
#6
Bin Deng, Shaolong Zhu, Andrew M Macklin, Jianrong Xu, Cristina Lento, Adnan Sljoka, Derek J Wilson
Localization of the interface between the candidate antibody and its antigen target, commonly known as epitope mapping, is a critical component of the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. With the recent availability of commercial automated systems, hydrogen / deuterium eXchange (HDX) is rapidly becoming the tool for mapping epitopes preferred by researchers in both industry and academia. However, this approach has a significant drawback in that it can be confounded by 'allosteric' structural and dynamic changes that result from the interaction, but occur far from the point(s) of contact...
September 21, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933458/suppression-of-fragmentation-in-multiphoton-ionization-mass-spectrometry-using-a-near-infrared-femtosecond-laser-as-an-ionization-source
#7
Adan Li, Thang Phan Dinh, Tomoko Imasaka, Totaro Imasaka
The ionization and fragmentation processes for pentachlorobenzene were examined using a femtosecond laser emitting at 400, 800, and 1200 nm. A molecular ion was clearly observed in the mass spectrum, since the molecule can be directly ionized from the singlet electronic exited state before relaxation to triplet levels, because the pulse width of the laser is shorter than the lifetime of the excited state. Fragmentation was minimal at 1200 nm, in contrast to ionization at 800 and 400 nm. Indeed, a doubly-charged molecular ion was prominent at 800 nm, owing to the absorption band of the singly-charged molecular ion at this wavelength...
September 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933279/zinc-transporter-protein-tzn-1-may-also-play-a-role-in-conidiation-pathway-of-neurospora-crassa-an-insight-using-proteogenomic-approachusing-proteogenomic-approach
#8
Divya Rupa Venkata Pandala, Jogeswar Gadi, Kiranmayi Patnala
Zinc transporter (tzn-1) of Neurospora crassa plays a crucial role in conidiation pathway, as its removal results in aconidiation which was reported in our earlier studies. Present study depicts the role of tzn-1 in conidiation process, by comparing knockout (KO) mutants zinc transporter KO (Δtzn-1) and aconidiating gene KO (Δacon-3) with wild oak ridge (OR) 74 'A' strain by 'Proteo-genomic' approach. Firstly, nine commonly overexpressed protein spots from the two sets (Δtzn-1 to wild and Δacon-3 to wild) were analyzed by combining 2-Dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) with Matrix Associated Laser Desorption/Ionization mass spectrometry -Peptide Mass Fingerprint (MALDI-PMF)...
September 19, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933069/optical-tomographic-imaging-for-breast-cancer-detection
#9
Wenxiang Cong, Xavier Intes, Ge Wang
Diffuse optical breast imaging utilizes near-infrared (NIR) light propagation through tissues to assess the optical properties of tissues for the identification of abnormal tissue. This optical imaging approach is sensitive, cost-effective, and does not involve any ionizing radiation. However, the image reconstruction of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a nonlinear inverse problem and suffers from severe illposedness due to data noise, NIR light scattering, and measurement incompleteness. An image reconstruction method is proposed for the detection of breast cancer...
September 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932829/exploring-coherent-electron-excitation-and-migration-dynamics-by-electron-diffraction-with-ultrashort-x-ray-pulses
#10
Kai-Jun Yuan, André D Bandrauk
Exploring ultrafast charge migration is of great importance in biological and chemical reactions. We present a scheme to monitor attosecond charge migration in molecules by electron diffraction with spatial and temporal resolutions from ab initio numerical simulations. An ultraviolet pulse creates a coherent superposition of electronic states, after which a time-delayed attosecond X-ray pulse is used to ionize the molecule. It is found that diffraction patterns in the X-ray photoelectron spectra show an asymmetric structure, which is dependent on the time delay between the pump-probe pulses, encoding the information of molecular orbital symmetry and chemical bonding...
September 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932178/response-to-commentary-treating-alzheimer-dementia-with-ct-induced-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-problematic-yet-potential-for-more-precise-inquiry
#11
Jerry M Cuttler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932177/treating-alzheimer-s-dementia-with-ct-induced-low-dose-ionizing-radiation-problematic-yet-potential-for-more-precise-inquiry
#12
Stephanie Raynor, James Giordano
This commentary evaluates a recent single-case study by Cuttler et al that posits that a series of computerized tomographic (CT) scans ameliorated symptoms and signs of advanced Alzheimer's dementia in an elderly female patient. The report proposes that CT scanning delivered low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) that activated adaptive mechanisms in the brain to induce the effects observed and reported. However, the report evidenced methodologic problems that threaten the validity and value of its approach, stated results, and conclusions...
July 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931353/blueberry-supplementation-attenuates-microglia-activation-and-increases-neuroplasticity-in-mice-consuming-a-high-fat-diet
#13
Amanda N Carey, Kelsea R Gildawie, Abigail Rovnak, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Derek R Fisher, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
OBJECTIVES: Consuming a high-fat diet (HFD) may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. Blueberries may prevent and even reverse age-related alterations in neurochemistry and behavior. It was previously demonstrated that middle-aged mice fed HFD had impaired memory; however, supplementation of HFD with blueberry reduced these memory deficits. As a follow-up to that study, the brain tissue from HFD-fed mice with and without blueberry supplementation was assessed to determine the neuroprotective mechanism(s) by which blueberry allayed cognitive dysfunction associated with HFD...
September 21, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931006/up-regulation-of-calreticulin-in-mouse-liver-tissues-after-long-term-irradiation-with-low-dose-rate-gamma-rays
#14
Lan Yi, Nan Hu, Jie Yin, Jing Sun, Hongxiang Mu, Keren Dai, Dexin Ding
The biological effects of low-dose or low-dose-rate ionizing radiation on normal tissues has attracted attention. Based on previous research, we observed the morphology of liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice that received <50, 50-500, and 500-1000 μGy/h of 137Cs radiation for 180 d. We found that the pathological changes in liver tissues were more obvious as the irradiation dose rates increased. Additionally, differential protein expression in liver tissues was analyzed using a proteomics approach. Compared with the matched group in the 2D gel analysis of the irradiated groups, 69 proteins had ≥ 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930678/dna-ligase-iv-guides-end-processing-choice-during-nonhomologous-end-joining
#15
Michael P Conlin, Dylan A Reid, George W Small, Howard H Chang, Go Watanabe, Michael R Lieber, Dale A Ramsden, Eli Rothenberg
Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) must adapt to diverse end structures during repair of chromosome breaks. Here, we investigate the mechanistic basis for this flexibility. DNA ends are aligned in a paired-end complex (PEC) by Ku, XLF, XRCC4, and DNA ligase IV (LIG4); we show by single-molecule analysis how terminal mispairs lead to mobilization of ends within PECs and consequent sampling of more end-alignment configurations. This remodeling is essential for direct ligation of damaged and mispaired ends during cellular NHEJ, since remodeling and ligation of such ends both require a LIG4-specific structural motif, insert1...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930658/defined-sensing-mechanisms-and-signaling-pathways-contribute-to-the-global-inflammatory-gene-expression-output-elicited-by-ionizing-radiation
#16
Prabhat K Purbey, Philip O Scumpia, Peter J Kim, Ann-Jay Tong, Keisuke S Iwamoto, William H McBride, Stephen T Smale
Environmental insults are often detected by multiple sensors that activate diverse signaling pathways and transcriptional regulators, leading to a tailored transcriptional output. To understand how a tailored response is coordinated, we examined the inflammatory response elicited in mouse macrophages by ionizing radiation (IR). RNA-sequencing studies revealed that most radiation-induced genes were strongly dependent on only one of a small number of sensors and signaling pathways, notably the DNA damage-induced kinase ATM, which regulated many IR-response genes, including interferon response genes, via an atypical IRF1-dependent, STING-independent mechanism...
September 19, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930614/inter-species-functional-interactome-of-nuclear-steroid-receptors-r1
#17
Styliani A Geronikolou, Athanasia Pavlopoulou, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, George Chrousos
Steroids exert their actions by binding to the glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, androgen, estrogen and progesterone classes of receptors. Despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of steroid receptors, their interactions with other molecules, subcellular location and functions still need further elucidation. To unravel the mechanism(s) of action of the steroid hormones, as well as the function of their cognate nuclear receptors, an interaction network was created (henceforth referred to as "R1 Interactome")- illustrating that robust interactions have been preserved in rodents, frog, zebra fish and drosophila...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930547/use-of-non-ionizing-electromagnetic-fields-for-the-treatment-of-cancer
#18
Hugo Jimenez, Carl Blackman, Glenn Lesser, Waldemar Debinski, Michael Chan, Sambad Sharma, Kounosuke Watabe, Hui-Wen Lo, Alexandra Thomas, Dwayne Godwin, William Blackstock, Albert Mudry, James Posey, Rodney O'Connor, Ivan Brezovich, Keith Bonin, Daniel Kim-Shapiro, Alexandre Barbault, Boris Pasche
Cancer treatment and treatment options are quite limited in circumstances such as when the tumor is inoperable, in brain cancers when the drugs cannot penetrate the blood-brain-barrier, or when there is no tumor-specific target for generation of effective therapeutic antibodies. Despite the fact that electromagnetic fields (EMF) in medicine have been used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, the use of non-ionizing EMF for cancer treatment is a new emerging concept. Here we summarize the history of EMF from the 1890's to the novel and new innovative methods that target and treat cancer by non-ionizing radiation...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930532/neuroprotective-role-of-asiatic-acid-in-aluminium-chloride-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Mashoque Ahmad Rather, Arokiasamy Justin Thenmozhi, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Mathiyazahan Dhivya Bharathi, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Gilles J Guillemin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by memory loss, cognitive impairment and personality disorders accompanied by diffuse structural abnormalities in the brain of elderly people. The current investigation explored the neuroprotective potential of asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene of Centella asiatica on aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced rat model of AD. Oral administration of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg b.w.) for 42 days significantly elevated the levels of Al, activity of acetyl cholinesterase and expressions of amyloid precursor protein, amyloid beta1-42, beta and gamma secretases, glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, interleukins -1β, 6, 4, 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor- k beta and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus and cortex  compared to the control group...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930460/imaging-the-photodissociation-dynamics-of-nitrous-acid-hono-the-role-of-torsion
#20
Chandika Amarasinghe, Alexander Kamasah, Casey D Foley, James O F Thompson, Arthur G Suits
We present the findings of the first imaging study of trans-HONO and cis-HONO photodissociation through the band and of the 1A" -1A' transition. The NO photofragment was probed by (1+1) Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) and studied using the DC slice imaging technique with our Finite Slice reconstruction method (FinA). The NO state-specific translational energy distributions show some rotational structure corresponding to the internal state distribution in the OH co-fragment. All images showed a perpendicular angular distribution with a recoil anisotropy parameter around -0...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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