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Canlan Jiang, Yuefei Ji, Yuanyuan Shi, Jifei Chen, Tianming Cai
Widespread occurrence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics (FQs) in surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment has been reported and their remediation is essentially needed. Sulfate radical (SO4(-)) based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs) are promising technologies for soil and groundwater remediation. In this study, the degradation kinetics, mechanisms, and effects of natural water matrices on heat-activated persulfate (PS) oxidation of FQs were systematically investigated. Experimental results clearly demonstrated that 92% of CIP was removed within 180 min (pH = 7, 60 °C)...
October 12, 2016: Water Research
Tahereh Zargar, Taghi Khayamian, Mohammad T Jafari
A selective thin-film microextraction based on aptamer immobilized on cellulose paper was used as a paper spray ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry (PSI-IMS), for the first time. In this method, the paper is not only used as an ionization source but also it is utilized for the selective extraction of analyte, based on immobilized aptamer. This combination integrates both sample preparation and analyte ionization in a Whatman paper. To that end, an appropriate sample introduction system with a novel design was constructed for the paper spray ionization source...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Juliet Richetto, Renaud Massart, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Moshe Szyf, Marco A Riva, Urs Meyer
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infectious or inflammatory insults increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Using a well-established mouse model of prenatal viral-like immune activation, we examined whether this pathological association involves genome-wide DNA methylation differences at single nucleotide resolution. METHODS: Prenatal immune activation was induced by maternal treatment with the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid in middle or late gestation...
August 12, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Ji Ye Lee, Na Hyun Park, Wonwoong Lee, Eun Hye Kim, Young Ho Jin, Eun Kyung Seo, Jongki Hong
A comprehensive profiling method was established for the determination of various chemicals in Pinellia (P.) ternata and pedatisecta species. The profiling method comprises a fast ultrasonic extraction with various solvents, followed by GC-MS and LC-APCI-MS analysis. A total of 73 polar components as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were detected in methanol extract by GC-MS. The main components of the P. species were profiled as several kinds of fatty acids, amino acids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phenolic compounds...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Wei Liu, Jichun Jiang, Keyong Hou, Weiguo Wang, Yachen Qi, Yan Wang, Yuanyuan Xie, Lei Hua, Haiyang Li
Chlorinated benzenes are typical precursors and indicators for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) emissions from waste incinerators. Online and real-time monitoring of chlorobenzenes is a challenge due to their low concentration and complex nature of the flue gas. In this work, a continuous online monitoring system was built for detection of trace chlorinated benzenes based on a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS). A single photon ionization (SPI) source based on a radiofrequency-excited windowless vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp was developed for the first time to eliminate the signal attenuation resulting from the contamination of magnesium fluoride windows and to avoid the fragment ions...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Ilaria Degano, Jacopo La Nasa, Elisa Ghelardi, Francesca Modugno, Maria Perla Colombini
Lipid binders have traditionally been determined in paintings by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the characteristic profiles and ratios of fatty acids . However, the presence of mixtures in contemporary and modern oil paints makes the GC/MS determination of fatty acids insufficient to fully characterize the lipid binding media. In this study we prove that triacylglycerol (TAG) profiling by high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, using ESI in positive and negative ionization modes is highly effective...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Wenjie Gao, Henghui Li, Yanyan Liu, Yuhong Liu, Xiaojun Feng, Bi-Feng Liu, Xin Liu
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has become an important technology for glycan analysis due to its ease of operation, short analysis time and impurity tolerance. However, the low ionization efficiency of N-glycans led to the difficulty in analyzing glycans of low abundance in complex biological samples due to the lack of basic site for protonation. Therefore, highly sensitive method for the glycans analysis is in urgent demand. Here we report a new strategy to introduce a permanent charge at the reducing end of N-linked glycans by a one pot reaction, where glycosylamines that were obtained by rapid deglycosylation within 5min were labeled with N-succinimidyloxycarbonylmethyl tris (2,4,6- trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium bromide (TMPP-Ac-OSu)...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Per J R Sjöberg, Pernilla Thelin, Emil Rydin
A method for isomeric separation of inositol phosphates (InsPn) in environmental samples originating from different sources such as soil, manure/compost, and aquatic sediments has been developed. The method includes a single NaOH-EDTA extraction step, centrifugation and direct injection of a particle free solution into an ion chromatographic column. Isomeric liquid chromatographic separation was achieved with an ammonium carbonate gradient compatible with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-ESI-MS/MS)...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Na Wei, Xian-En Zhao, Shuyun Zhu, Yongrui He, Longfang Zheng, Guang Chen, Jinmao You, Shu Liu, Zhiqiang Liu
This paper, for the first time, reported a simple, rapid, sensitive and environmental friendly ultrasonic-assisted in situ derivatization-dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (in situ UAD-DLLME) method followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their biosynthesis precursors and metabolites in rat brain microdialysates. In this work, a commercial reagent, Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonylchloride (LRSC), was proposed as a derivatization reagent...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Hongli Li, Victoria M Hitchins, Samanthi Wickramasekara
Bacterial endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides bound to the bacterial cell wall and released when bacteria rupture or disintegrate. Possible contamination of endotoxin in ophthalmic devices can cause a painful eye inflammation or result in toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery. Measurement of bacterial endotoxin in medical device materials is difficult since endotoxin binds with polymer matrix and some of the materials are very viscous and non-water soluble, where traditional enzyme-based Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay cannot be applied...
November 2, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Guosheng Song, Chenghong Ji, Chao Liang, Xuejiao Song, Xuan Yi, Ziliang Dong, Kai Yang, Zhuang Liu
Cancer radiotherapy (RT) is a clinically used tumor treatment strategy applicable for a wide range of solid tumors. However, during RT treatment of tumors, only a small portion of applied ionizing irradiation energy is absorbed by the tumor, in which the largely hypoxic microenvironment also limits the anti-tumor efficacy of RT. In this work, we rationally fabricate polyethylene glycol (PEG) stabilized perfluorocarbon (PFC) nano-droplets decorated with TaOx nanoparticles (TaOx@PFC-PEG) as a multifunctional RT sensitizer...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Xiang-Xin Huang, Yun-Xuan Li, Xiang-Yu Li, Xiao-Xia Hu, Peng-Fei Tang, Guo-Xin Hu
Currently, crizotinib is the first generation drug, which has been used in the treatment of ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, more and more patients are found in crizotinib-resistance. In the last year, alectinib has been approved for treatment of patients with crizotinib-resistance. In this study, we aim to develop and validate a simple, rapid and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of alectinib in rat plasma. Diazepam was chosen as an internal standard (IS)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Richard A Manderville, Stacey D Wetmore
The formation of DNA adducts by the attack of intermediates derived from toxic substances at the C8 position of 2-deoxyguanosine (dG) is a common damaging event. Although the majority of studies on C8-dG adducts have focused on lesions containing a C8-N-C tether between the bulky moiety and the nucleobase, the formation of O-linked lesions with a similar tether topology and C-linked adducts involving direct C8-C connectivity have also been uncovered. Several studies have been done to try to better understand the structural impact and mutagenicity of O-linked and C-linked aryl C8-dG adducts, including lesions arising from unsubstituted and chloro substituted phenols, and the food mutagen ochratoxin A (OTA)...
October 21, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Matteo Bonomo, Danilo Dini, Andrea Giacomo Marrani
The adsorption of I(-) and I3(-) anions, i.e. the two species constituting the most common redox couple of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), onto the surface of screen-printed nanoporous NiO was studied by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Mesoporous NiO films were deposited on transparent metallic fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and polarized as working electrodes in a three-electrode cell with differently concentrated I(-)/I3(-) electrolytes to simulate the different conditions experienced by the NiO cathodes during the lifecycle of a p-type DSC (p-DSC) at those atomic sites not passivated by the dye...
October 21, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Giuseppe Lanza, Maria A Chiacchio
Exploration of interfacial hydration networks of zwitterion and non-ionized trialanine has been performed using DFT-M062X quantum chemical computations explicitly considering up to 41 water molecules. The step-by-step water molecules peptide surrounding, carried out for unfolded extended (β), polyproline II (PPII) conformations reveals the crucial importance of explicit solvent effects in stabilizing the zwitterion form and the left-handed PPII-helix ubiquitously found at room temperature for short polyalanines...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Elena Sugrue, Paul D Carr, Colin Scott, Colin J Jackson
The desolvation of ionizable residues in the active sites of enzymes and the subsequent effects on catalysis and thermostability have been studied in model systems, yet little is known regarding how enzymes can naturally evolve active sites with highly reactive and desolvated charges. Variants of triazine hydrolase (TrzN) with significant differences in their active sites have been isolated from different bacterial strains: TrzN from Nocardioides sp. strain MTD22 contains a catalytic glutamate residue (Glu241) that is surrounded by hydrophobic and aromatic second-shell residues (Pro214, Tyr215), whereas TrzN from Nocardioides sp...
October 21, 2016: Biochemistry
Yaoyao Zhao, Zhenwei Wei, Hansen Zhao, Jia Jia, Zhenzhen Chen, Sichun Zhang, Zheng Ouyang, Xiaoxiao Ma, Xinrong Zhang
Current detection methods for paper-based analytical devices (PADs) rely on spectroscopic and electrochemical properties, which place special requirements on the analyte or need analyte labelling. Here, ion-transmission mass spectrometry (MS) was proposed for coupling with PADs to enable rapid in situ MS analysis of the sample on paper. The sample was analyzed directly on paper via analyte ionization by ions transmitted through the paper, generated by a low-temperature plasma probe. Prior to MS analysis, the sample can be separated by paper electrophoresis or by paper chromatography, among a variety of other features offered by PADs...
October 21, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Kyle D Custard, Kerri A Pratt, Siyuan Wang, Paul B Shepson
During springtime, unique halogen chemistry involving chlorine and bromine atoms controls the prevalence of volatile organic compounds, ozone, and mercury in the Arctic lower troposphere. In situ measurements of the chlorine monoxide radical (ClO) and its precursor Cl2, along with BrO and Br2, were conducted using chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) during the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) near Barrow, Alaska in March 2012. To our knowledge, these data represent the first ClO measurements made using CIMS...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Michelle R Robinson, Jennifer S Brodbelt
Tyrosine sulfation is an important post-translational modification but remains difficult to detect in biological samples owing to its low stoichiometric abundance and the lack of effective enrichment methods. In the present study, weak anion exchange (WAX) is evaluated for the enrichment of sulfopeptides that have been modified via carbamylation to convert all primary amines to less basic carbamates. The decrease in basicity enhanced the binding of carbamylated sulfopeptides to WAX resin relative to non-sulfated peptides...
October 21, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Wei Zhang, M Can Gulersonmez, Thomas Hankemeier, Rawi Ramautar
In metabolomics, a wide range of analytical techniques is used for the global profiling of (endogenous) metabolites in complex samples. In this paper, a protocol is presented for the analysis of anionic and cationic metabolites in biological samples by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS). CE is well-suited for the analysis of highly polar and charged metabolites as compounds are separated on the basis of their charge-to-size ratio. A recently developed sheathless interfacing design, i.e., a porous tip interface, is used for coupling CE to electrospray ionization (ESI) MS...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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