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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933669/characterization-of-nitrated-sugar-alcohols-by-atmospheric-pressure-chemical-ionization-mass-spectrometry
#1
Alla Ostrinskaya, Jude A Kelley, Roderick R Kunz
RATIONALE: The nitrated sugar alcohols mannitol hexanitrate (MHN), sorbitol hexanitrate (SHN) and xylitol pentanitrate (XPN) are in the same class of compounds as the powerful military grade explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and the homemade explosive erythritol tetranitrate (ETN) but, unlike for PETN and ETN, ways to detect MHN, SHN and XPN by mass spectrometry (MS) have not been fully investigated. METHODS: Atmospheric-pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) was used to detect ions characteristic of nitrated sugar alcohols...
December 9, 2016: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933363/spatially-resolved-metabolic-distribution-for-unraveling-the-physiological-change-and-responses-in-tomato-fruit-using-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometry-imaging-maldi-msi
#2
Junya Nakamura, Tomomi Morikawa-Ichinose, Yoshinori Fujimura, Eisuke Hayakawa, Katsutoshi Takahashi, Takanori Ishii, Daisuke Miura, Hiroyuki Wariishi
Information on spatiotemporal metabolic behavior is indispensable for a precise understanding of physiological changes and responses, including those of ripening processes and wounding stress, in fruit, but such information is still limited. Here, we visualized the spatial distribution of metabolites within tissue sections of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) technique combined with a matrix sublimation/recrystallization method...
December 8, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932973/decline-in-proliferation-and-immature-neuron-markers-in-the-human-subependymal-zone-during-aging-relationship-to-egf-and-fgf-related-transcripts
#3
Christin Weissleder, Samantha J Fung, Matthew W Wong, Guy Barry, Kay L Double, Glenda M Halliday, Maree J Webster, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Neuroblasts exist within the human subependymal zone (SEZ); however, it is debated to what extent neurogenesis changes during normal aging. It is also unknown how precursor proliferation may correlate with the generation of neuronal and glial cells or how expression of growth factors and receptors may change throughout the adult lifespan. We found evidence of dividing cells in the human SEZ (n D 50) in conjunction with a dramatic age-related decline (21-103 years) of mRNAs indicative of proliferating cells (Ki67) and immature neurons (doublecortin)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932942/loss-of-fractalkine-signaling-exacerbates-axon-transport-dysfunction-in-a-chronic-model-of-glaucoma
#4
Kevin T Breen, Sarah R Anderson, Michael R Steele, David J Calkins, Alejandra Bosco, Monica L Vetter
Neurodegeneration in glaucoma results in decline and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and is associated with activation of myeloid cells such as microglia and macrophages. The chemokine fractalkine (FKN or Cx3cl1) mediates communication from neurons to myeloid cells. Signaling through its receptor Cx3cr1 has been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, but the effects on neuronal pathology are variable. Since it is unknown how FKN-mediated crosstalk influences RGC degeneration in glaucoma, we assessed this in a chronic mouse model, DBA/2J...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932699/a-systematic-investigation-of-the-best-buffers-for-use-in-screening-by-maldi-mass-spectrometry
#5
Jessica Chandler, Carl Haslam, Neil Hardy, Melanie Leveridge, Peter Marshall
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) offers a label-free alternative for the screening of biochemical targets in both 1536- and 6144-assay formats, as well as potentially providing increased sensitivity, reproducibility, and the simultaneous detection of multiple assay components within a specified m/z range. Ion suppression effects are one of the principal limitations reported for MS analysis. Within MALDI-MS screening, it has been identified that certain biochemical components incorporated into the assay (e...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932526/human-plasma-n-glycosylation-as-analyzed-by-maldi-fticr-ms-associates-with-markers-of-inflammation-and-metabolic-health
#6
Karli R Reiding, L Renee Ruhaak, Hae-Won Uh, Said El Bouhaddani, Erik B van den Akker, Rosina Plomp, Liam A McDonnell, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, P Eline Slagboom, Marian Beekman, Manfred Wuhrer
Glycosylation is an abundant co- and post-translational protein modification of importance to protein processing and activity. While not template-defined, glycosylation does reflect the biological state of an organism and is a high-potential biomarker for disease and patient stratification. However, to interpret a complex but informative sample like the total plasma N-glycome (TPNG), it is important to establish its baseline association with plasma protein levels and systemic processes. Thus far, large scale studies (n > 200) of the TPNG have been performed with methods of chromatographic and electrophoretic separation, which, while being informative, are limited in resolving the structural complexity of plasma N-glycans...
December 8, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932274/a-glutathione-s-transferase-tugstd05-associated-with-acaricide-resistance-in-tetranychus-urticae-directly-metabolizes-the-complex-ii-inhibitor-cyflumetofen
#7
Nena Pavlidi, Mousaalreza Khalighi, Antonis Myridakis, Wannes Dermauw, Nicky Wybouw, Dimitra Tsakireli, Euripides G Stephanou, Nikolaos E Labrou, John Vontas, Thomas Van Leeuwen
Cyflumetofen is a recently introduced acaricide with a novel mode of action, acting as an inhibitor of complex II of mitochondrial electron transport chain. It is activated by hydrolysis and the resulting de-esterified metabolite is a much stronger inhibitor. Cyflumetofen represents a great addition for the control of mite species including Tetranychus urticae, a major agricultural pest, which has the ability to develop resistance to most classes of pesticides rapidly. A resistant strain (Tu008R) was recently described and synergism experiments pointed towards the involvement of GSTs...
December 5, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931949/differentiation-of-staphylococcus-argenteus-formerly-staphylococcus-aureus-clonal-complex-75-by-mass-spectrometry-from-s-aureus-using-the-first-strain-isolated-from-a-wild-african-great-ape
#8
Dominik Schuster, Jasmin Rickmeyer, Mike Gajdiss, Thorsten Thye, Stephan Lorenzen, Marion Reif, Michaele Josten, Christiane Szekat, Luís D R Melo, Ricarda M Schmithausen, Florian Liégeois, Hans-Georg Sahl, Jean-Paul J Gonzalez, Michael Nagel, Gabriele Bierbaum
The species Staphylococcus argenteus was separated recently from Staphylococcus aureus (Tong S.Y., F. Schaumburg, M.J. Ellington, J. Corander, B. Pichon, F. Leendertz, S.D. Bentley, J. Parkhill, D.C. Holt, G. Peters, and P.M. Giffard, 2015). The objective of this work was to characterise the genome of a non-human S. argenteus strain, which had been isolated from the faeces of a wild-living western lowland gorilla in Gabon, and analyse the spectrum of this species in matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931845/immuno-oncology-allying-forces-of-radio-and-immuno-therapy-to-enhance-cancer-cell-killing
#9
REVIEW
Jacques Bernier
Besides the local effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular and molecular levels in tumor tissues, the interactions of radiotherapy with the host's immune system are nowadays at the center of many investigations. In some cases, these interactions can be strong enough to immunize the patient against the tumor, leading to a rejection by the host of both the irradiated tumor and distant metastases. In this latter case, the rejection mechanism is called "abscopal effect". Over the last two decades, increasing attention has also been paid to the combination of various forms of immunotherapies with radiation, as an attempt to boost cancer cell killing mechanisms...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931527/radiobiology-in-cardiovascular-imaging
#10
REVIEW
Pat Zanzonico, Lawrence Dauer, H William Strauss
The introduction of ionizing radiation in medicine revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of disease and dramatically improved and continues to improve the quality of health care. Cardiovascular imaging and medical imaging in general, however, are associated with a range of radiobiologic effects, including, in rare instances, moderate to severe skin damage resulting from cardiac fluoroscopy. For the dose range associated with diagnostic imaging (corresponding to effective doses on the order of 10 mSv [1 rem]), the possible effects are stochastic in nature and largely theoretical...
December 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930838/fermentation-profile-and-identification-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-and-yeasts-of-rehydrated-corn-kernel-silage
#11
B F Carvalho, C L S Ávila, T F Bernardes, M N Pereira, C Santos, R F Schwan
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical and microbiological characteristics and to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts involved in rehydrated corn kernel silage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four replicates for each fermentation time: 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 150, 210, and 280 days were prepared. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF-MS) and PCR-based identification were utilized to identify LAB and yeasts...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930728/profiling-and-identification-of-novel-immunogenic-proteins-of-staphylococcus-hyicus-zc-4-by-immunoproteomic-assay
#12
Lei Wang, Zhi-Wei Wu, Yan Li, Jian-Guo Dong, Le-Yi Zhang, Peng-Shuai Liang, Yan-Ling Liu, Ya-Hua Zhao, Chang-Xu Song
Staphylococcus hyicus has caused great losses in the swine industry by inducing piglet exudative epidermitis (EE), sow mastitis, metritis, and other diseases and is a threat to human health. The pathogenesis of EE, sow mastitis, and metritis involves the interaction between the host and virulent protein factors of S. hyicus, however, the proteins that interact with the host, especially the host immune system, are unclear. In the present study, immunoproteomics was used to screen the immunogenic proteins of S...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930700/simultaneous-quantification-of-antidiabetic-agents-in-human-plasma-by-a-uplc-qtof-ms-method
#13
Mariana Millan Fachi, Letícia Bonancio Cerqueira, Letícia Paula Leonart, Thais Martins Guimarães de Francisco, Roberto Pontarolo
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of chlorpropamide, glibenclamide, gliclazide, glimepiride, metformin, nateglinide, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, and vildagliptin in human plasma was developed and validated, using isoniazid and sulfaquinoxaline as internal standards. Following plasma protein precipitation using acetonitrile with 1% formic acid, chromatographic separation was performed on a cyano column using gradient elution with water and acetonitrile, both containing 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929655/quantitative-analysis-of-3-oh-oxylipins-in-fermentation-yeast
#14
Greg Potter, Wei Xia, Suzanne M Budge, R Alex Speers
Despite the ubiquitous distribution of oxylipins in plants, animals, and microbes, and the application of numerous analytical techniques to study these molecules, 3-OH oxylipins have never been quantitatively assayed in yeasts. The formation of heptafluorobutyrate methyl ester derivatives and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography - negative chemical ionization - mass spectrometry allowed for the first determination of yeast 3-OH oxylipins. The concentration of 3-OH 10:0 (0.68-4.82 ng/mg dry cell mass) in the SMA strain of Saccharomyces pastorianus grown in laboratory-scale beverage fermentations was elevated relative to oxylipin concentrations in plant tissues and macroalgae...
September 6, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929497/a-comparison-of-methods-for-monitoring-photon-beam-energy-constancy
#15
Song Gao, Peter A Balter, Mark Rose, William E Simon
In extension of a previous study, we compared several photon beam energy metrics to determine which was the most sensitive to energy change; in addition to those, we accounted for both the sensitivity of each metric and the uncertainty in determining that metric for both traditional flattening filter (FF) beams (4, 6, 8, and 10 MV) and for flattening filter-free (FFF) beams (6 and 10 MV) on a Varian TrueBeam. We examined changes in these energy metrics when photon energies were changed to ± 5% and ± 10% from their nominal energies: 1) an attenuation-based metric (the percent depth dose at 10 cm depth, PDD(10)) and, 2) profile-based metrics, including flatness (Flat) and off-axis ratios (OARs) measured on the orthogonal axes or on the diagonals (diagonal normalized flatness, FDN)...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929496/experimental-evaluation-of-a-gpu-based-monte-carlo-dose-calculation-algorithm-in-the-monaco-treatment-planning-system
#16
Moti R Paudel, Anthony Kim, Arman Sarfehnia, Sayed B Ahmad, David J Beachey, Arjun Sahgal, Brian M Keller
A new GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithm (GPUMCD), devel-oped by the vendor Elekta for the Monaco treatment planning system (TPS), is capable of modeling dose for both a standard linear accelerator and an Elekta MRI linear accelerator. We have experimentally evaluated this algorithm for a standard Elekta Agility linear accelerator. A beam model was developed in the Monaco TPS (research version 5.09.06) using the commissioned beam data for a 6 MV Agility linac. A heterogeneous phantom representing several scenarios - tumor-in-lung, lung, and bone-in-tissue - was designed and built...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929491/validation-of-an-improved-helical-diode-array-and-dose-reconstruction-software-using-tg-244-datasets-and-stringent-dose-comparison-criteria
#17
Saeed Ahmed, Benjamin Nelms, Jakub Kozelka, Geoffrey Zhang, Eduardo Moros, Vladimir Feygelman
The original helical ArcCHECK (AC) diode array and associated software for 3D measurement-guided dose reconstruction were characterized and validated; however, recent design changes to the AC required that the subject be revisited. The most important AC change starting in 2014 was a significant reduction in the overresponse of diodes to scattered radiation outside of the direct beam, accom-plished by reducing the amount of high-Z materials adjacent to the diodes. This change improved the diode measurement accuracy, but in the process invalidated the dose reconstruction models that were assembled based on measured data acquired with the older version of the AC...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929490/rounded-leaf-end-modeling-in-pinnacle-vmat-treatment-planning-for-fixed-jaw-linacs
#18
Lori A Young, Fei Yang, Ning Cao, Juergen Meyer
During volume-modulated arc therapies (VMAT), dosimetric errors are introduced by multiple open dynamic leaf gaps that are present in fixed diaphragm linear accelerators. The purpose of this work was to develop a methodology for adjusting the rounded leaf end modeling parameters to improve out-of-field dose agreement in SmartArc VMAT treatment plans delivered by fixed jaw linacs where leaf gap dose is not negligible. Leaf gap doses were measured for an Elekta beam modulator linac with 0.4 cm micro-multileaf collimators (MLC) using an A16 micro-ionization chamber, a MatriXX ion chamber detector array, and Kodak EDR2 film dosimetry in a solid water phantom...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929465/using-multi-fluorinated-bile-acids-and-in-vivo-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-measure-bile-acid-transport
#19
Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Anan Said, Aaron C Shang, Su Xu, Diana Vivian, Melissa Metry, James E Polli, Jean-Pierre Raufman
Along with their traditional role as detergents that facilitate fat absorption, emerging literature indicates that bile acids are potent signaling molecules that affect multiple organs; they modulate gut motility and hormone production, and alter vascular tone, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy utilization. Changes in fecal bile acids may alter the gut microbiome and promote colon pathology including cholerrheic diarrhea and colon cancer. Key regulators of fecal bile acid composition are the small intestinal Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter (ASBT) and fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19)...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929413/exosome-proteome-of-u-87mg-glioblastoma-cells
#20
Sohyun Chun, Seunghyun Ahn, Chang-Hwan Yeom, Seyeon Park
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles between 30 and 100 nm in diameter secreted by many cell types, and are associated with a wide range of physiological and/or pathological processes. Exosomes containing proteins, lipids, mRNA, and microRNA contribute to cell-to-cell communication and cell-to-environment regulation, however, their biological functions are not yet fully understood. In this report, exosomes in the glioblastoma cell line, U-87MG, were isolated and the proteome was investigated. In addition, exosome proteome changes in U-87MG cells exposed to a low temperature were investigated to elucidate whether the exosome proteome could respond to an external stimulus...
December 6, 2016: Biology
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