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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637294/over-time-impacts-of-pictorial-health-warning-labels-and-their-differences-across-smoker-subgroups-results-from-adult-smokers-in-canada-and-australia
#1
Kamala Swayampakala, James F Thrasher, Hua-Hie Yong, Gera E Nagelhout, Lin Li, Ron Borland, David Hammond, Richard J O'Connor, James W Hardin
Introduction: This study examines patterns of change in different smoker subgroups' responses to new pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) over the initial, two year post-implementation period in Canada, where HWLs include package inserts with cessation messages, and Australia, where "plain" packaging (i.e., prohibition of brand imagery) was also implemented. Methods: Data were collected from online consumer panels in Canada (nsmokers=3,153; nobservations=5,826) and Australia (nsmokers=2,699; nobservations=5,818) from September 2012 to September 2014, with approximately 1,000 adult smokers surveyed in each country every four months, using replenishment to maintain sample size...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637189/assessment-of-whole-body-vibration-exposure-in-mining-earth-moving-equipment-and-other-vehicles-used-in-surface-mining
#2
Luz S Marin, Andres C Rodriguez, Estefany Rey-Becerra, Hugo Piedrahita, Lope H Barrero, Jack T Dennerlein, Peter W Johnson
This study characterized whole-body vibration exposures in a set of vehicles that operate in open-pit mines and compared three different daily exposure parameters based on the ISO 2631-1:1997 and ISO 2631-5:2004 standards. Full-shift, 6 to 12-hour, continuous whole-body vibration measurements were collected from 11 representative types of vehicles in terms of hours of operation and number of vehicles used. For each type of vehicle, the exposure parameters (A(8), VDV(8), and Sed(8)) were calculated for each axis (x, y, and z), and in addition, shear or horizontal (∑xy) and vector sum (∑xyx) whole-body vibration exposure...
June 20, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637173/crystallographic-analyses-illustrate-significant-plasticity-and-efficient-recoding-of-meganuclease-target-specificity
#3
Rachel Werther, Jazmine P Hallinan, Abigail R Lambert, Kyle Havens, Mark Pogson, Jordan Jarjour, Roberto Galizi, Nikolai Windbichler, Andrea Crisanti, Tony Nolan, Barry L Stoddard
The retargeting of protein-DNA specificity, outside of extremely modular DNA binding proteins such as TAL effectors, has generally proved to be quite challenging. Here, we describe structural analyses of five different extensively retargeted variants of a single homing endonuclease, that have been shown to function efficiently in ex vivo and in vivo applications. The redesigned proteins harbor mutations at up to 53 residues (18%) of their amino acid sequence, primarily distributed across the DNA binding surface, making them among the most significantly reengineered ligand-binding proteins to date...
June 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637069/-preference-changes-regarding-future-work-area-and-intended-position-among-german-residents-after-four-years-of-residency
#4
Stine Ziegler, Hendrik van den Bussche, Farina Römer, Lea Krause-Solberg, Martin Scherer
Introduction We investigated the preferences of medical residents in Germany with regard to future working place (hospital or private practice) and position (employment/self-employment in private practice; resp. specialist/senior or chief physician in the hospital). This is analysed in a gender comparative perspective, including the influence of parenthood. Methods Annual postal surveys among graduates of seven medical faculties in Germany from their last year ("Practical Year") until after four years of postgraduate training...
June 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637053/a-new-analytical-method-for-characterizing-nonlinear-visual-processes-with-stimuli-of-arbitrary-distribution-theory-and-applications
#5
Ryusuke Hayashi, Osamu Watanabe, Hiroki Yokoyama, Shin'ya Nishida
Characterization of the functional relationship between sensory inputs and neuronal or observers' perceptual responses is one of the fundamental goals of systems neuroscience and psychophysics. Conventional methods, such as reverse correlation and spike-triggered data analyses are limited in their ability to resolve complex and inherently nonlinear neuronal/perceptual processes because these methods require input stimuli to be Gaussian with a zero mean. Recent studies have shown that analyses based on a generalized linear model (GLM) do not require such specific input characteristics and have advantages over conventional methods...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636818/critical-temperature-of-1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-monolayers-and-its-possible-biological-relevance
#6
Jordi Hernandez Borrell, Oscar Domenech
Since transmembrane proteins (TMPs) can be obtained with sufficient purity for x-ray diffraction studies more frequently than decades ago, their mechanisms of action may now be elucidated. One of the pending issues is the actual interplay between transmembrane proteins and membrane lipids. There is strong evidence of the involvement of specific lipids with some membrane proteins, such as the potassium crystallographically sited activation channel (KcsA) of Streptomyces lividans and the secondary transporter of lactose LacY of Escherichia coli, the activities of which are associated with the presence of anionic phospholipids such as the phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidyethanolamine (PE), respectively...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636631/incidence-and-mortality-due-to-snakebite-in-the-americas
#7
Jean-Philippe Chippaux
BACKGROUND: Better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites could help to take measures to improve their management. The incidence and mortality of snakebites in the Americas are most often estimated from medical and scientific literature, which generally lack precision and representativeness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Authors used the notifications of snakebites treated in health centers collected by the Ministries of Health of the American countries to estimate their incidence and mortality...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636489/evaluation-of-countermeasures-for-red-light-running-by-traffic-simulator-based-surrogate-safety-measures
#8
Changju Lee, Jaehyun Jason So, Jiaqi Ma
OBJECTIVE: The conflicts among motorists entering a signalized intersection with the red light indication have become a national safety issue. Because of its sensitivity, efforts have been made to investigate the possible causes and effectiveness of countermeasures by the comparison sites and/or before-and-after studies. Nevertheless, these approaches are ineffective when comparison sites cannot be found, or crash data sets are not readily available or not reliable for statistical analysis...
June 21, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636289/loss-of-idealism-or-realistic-optimism-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-dental-hygiene-students-and-registered-dental-hygienists-professional-identity-perceptions
#9
J M Champine, M R Inglehart, D Furgeson, J F Halaris, M Fitzgerald, T E Danciu, J S Kinney
OBJECTIVES: The dental hygiene profession in the U.S. is in the process of establishing a direct access model of care and contributing to the creation of the profession of a dental therapist. The objectives were to analyse the professional role perceptions of dental hygiene students and registered dental hygienists in these times of change. Specifically, it was explored whether dental hygiene students' current professional identities differ (i) from their expected future identities, and (ii) from dental hygienists' current and (iii) past identities...
June 21, 2017: International Journal of Dental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636264/desmopressin-in-haemophilia-the-need-for-a-standardised-clinical-response-and-individualised-test-regimen
#10
S C M Stoof, L M Schütte, F W G Leebeek, M H Cnossen, M J H A Kruip
INTRODUCTION: Due to interindividual variation in desmopressin response, non-severe haemophilia A patients require desmopressin testing prior to therapeutic treatment. However, adequate response or frequency of blood sampling is not standardised in international guidelines. Consequently, various definitions and blood sampling protocols are currently applied. Interestingly, sustainability of desmopressin response is not incorporated into these definitions. AIM: To study desmopressin response rates in a cohort of non-severe haemophilia A patients using currently accepted desmopressin response definitions...
June 21, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636213/distribution-and-hypoxia-regulation-of-haemocyanin-in-springtails-collembola
#11
S Flachsbarth, M Kruse, T Burmester
Haemocyanin is the copper-containing respiratory protein present in many arthropods. In the hexapods, respiratory proteins had long been considered unnecessary as sufficient O2 was thought to be obtained via the trachea. Nevertheless, many ametabolous and hemimetabolous hexapod species actually possess haemocyanin. Here we investigated the occurrence of haemocyanin in Collembola (springtails). Haemocyanin was found in 22 collembolan species of the suborders Symphypleona, Tomoceroidea and Entomobryomorpha, demonstrating its widespread occurrence...
June 21, 2017: Insect Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635962/growth-of-organic-crystals-via-attachment-and-transformation-of-nanoscopic-precursors
#12
Yuan Jiang, Matthias Kellermeier, Denis Gebaue, Zihao Lu, Rose Rosenberg, Adrian Moise, Michael Przybylski, Helmut Cölfen
A key requirement for the understanding of crystal growth is to detect how new layers form and grow at the nanoscale. Multistage crystallization pathways involving liquid-like, amorphous or metastable crystalline precursors have been predicted by theoretical work and have been observed experimentally. Nevertheless, there is no clear evidence that any of these precursors can also be relevant for the growth of crystals of organic compounds. Herein, we present a new growth mode for crystals of DL-glutamic acid monohydrate that proceeds through the attachment of preformed nanoscopic species from solution, their subsequent decrease in height at the surface and final transformation into crystalline 2D nuclei that eventually build new molecular layers by further monomer incorporation...
June 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635335/a-novel-synergetic-targeting-strategy-for-glioma-therapy-employing-borneol-combination-with-angiopep-2-modified-dox-loaded-pamam-dendrimer
#13
Shunping Han, Hongyue Zheng, Yanping Lu, Yue Sun, Anhao Huang, Weidong Fei, Xiaowei Shi, Xiuling Xu, Jingjing Li, Fanzhu Li
Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor and the effect of chemotherapy is hampered by low permeability across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Borneol is a time-honored 'Guide' drug in traditional Chinese medicine and has been proved to be capable of promoting free drugs into the brain efficiently, but there are still risks that free drugs, especially anti-glioma drugs, may be disassembled and metabolized before penetrating the BBB and caused the whole brain distribution. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether borneol intervention could facilitate the BBB penetration and assist glioma treatment by combining with doxorubicin (DOX) loaded PAMAM dendrimers drug delivery system modified with Angiopep-2 (a ligand of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, which overexpress both in the BBB and gliomas)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635084/primary-tumor-sites-in-relation-to-ultraviolet-radiation-exposure-and-skin-visibility-correlate-with-survival-in-cutaneous-melanoma
#14
Daniela Gordon, Johan Hansson, Sandra Eloranta, Max Gordon, Peter Gillgren, Karin E Smedby
The prognostic value of detailed anatomic site and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure patterns has not been fully determined in cutaneous melanoma. Thus, we reviewed medical records for detailed site in a population-based retrospective Swedish patient cohort diagnosed with primary invasive melanoma 1976 - 2003 (n=5,973). We followed the patients from date of diagnosis until death, emigration or December 31(st) 2013, and evaluated melanoma-specific survival by subsite in a multivariable regression model adjusting for established prognostic factors...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634857/computational-modelling-of-cancer-development-and-growth-modelling-at-multiple-scales-and-multiscale-modelling
#15
Zuzanna Szymańska, Maciej Cytowski, Elaine Mitchell, Cicely K Macnamara, Mark A J Chaplain
In this paper, we present two mathematical models related to different aspects and scales of cancer growth. The first model is a stochastic spatiotemporal model of both a synthetic gene regulatory network (the example of a three-gene repressilator is given) and an actual gene regulatory network, the NF-[Formula: see text]B pathway. The second model is a force-based individual-based model of the development of a solid avascular tumour with specific application to tumour cords, i.e. a mass of cancer cells growing around a central blood vessel...
June 20, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634754/value-of-endometrial-thickness-assessed-by-transvaginal-ultrasound-for-the-prediction-of-endometrial-cancer-in-patients-with-postmenopausal-bleeding
#16
Amelie Schramm, Florian Ebner, Emanuel Bauer, Wolfgang Janni, Ulrike Friebe-Hoffmann, Miriam Pellegrino, Nikolaus De Gregorio, Thomas W P Friedl
PURPOSE: Histological confirmation of endometrial cancer by dilatation/curettage (D/C) in women with postmenopausal bleeding (PMB) can be challenging due to anesthesiological and/or surgical risks. Thus, less invasive methods for diagnostics are required to identify patients with minimal risk for endometrial cancer (EC) to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention. The objective of this single-center cohort study was to assess the diagnostic validity of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) measurements of endometrial thickness (ET) in patients with PMB for the detection of EC...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634632/can-a-virtual-reality-surgical-simulation-training-provide-a-self-driven-and-mentor-free-skills-learning-investigation-of-the-practical-influence-of-the-performance-metrics-from-the-virtual-reality-robotic-surgery-simulator-on-the-skill-learning-and-associated
#17
Gyusung I Lee, Mija R Lee
BACKGROUND: While it is often claimed that virtual reality (VR) training system can offer self-directed and mentor-free skill learning using the system's performance metrics (PM), no studies have yet provided evidence-based confirmation. This experimental study investigated what extent to which trainees achieved their self-learning with a current VR simulator and whether additional mentoring improved skill learning, skill transfer and cognitive workloads in robotic surgery simulation training...
June 20, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634512/diffusion-weighted-imaging-for-the-detection-and-evaluation-of-cholesteatoma
#18
REVIEW
Benjamin Henninger, Christian Kremser
Cholesteatoma is a collection of keratinous debris and stratified squamous epithelium. It is trapped in the middle ear and can lead to bony erosion. The disease is treated surgically often followed by a second-look procedure to check for residual tissue or recurrence. Cholesteatoma has specific signal-intensity characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging with very high signal intensity on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Various DWI techniques exist: Echo-planar imaging (EPI)-based and non-EPI-based techniques as well as new approaches like multi-shot EPI DWI...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634369/forecasting-effusive-dynamics-and-decompression-rates-by-magmastatic-model-at-open-vent-volcanoes
#19
Maurizio Ripepe, Marco Pistolesi, Diego Coppola, Dario Delle Donne, Riccardo Genco, Giorgio Lacanna, Marco Laiolo, Emanuele Marchetti, Giacomo Ulivieri, Sébastien Valade
Effusive eruptions at open-conduit volcanoes are interpreted as reactions to a disequilibrium induced by the increase in magma supply. By comparing four of the most recent effusive eruptions at Stromboli volcano (Italy), we show how the volumes of lava discharged during each eruption are linearly correlated to the topographic positions of the effusive vents. This correlation cannot be explained by an excess of pressure within a deep magma chamber and raises questions about the actual contributions of deep magma dynamics...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633643/enhancement-of-thermoalkaliphilic-xylanase-production-by-pichia-pastoris-through-novel-fed-batch-strategy-in-high-cell-density-fermentation
#20
Tingting Shang, Dayong Si, Dongyan Zhang, Xuhui Liu, Longmei Zhao, Cong Hu, Yu Fu, Rijun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Xylanase degrades xylan into monomers of various sizes by catalyzing the endohydrolysis of the 1,4-β-D-xylosidic linkage randomly, possessing potential in wide industrial applications. Most of xylanases are susceptible to be inactive when suffering high temperature and high alkaline process. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a high amount of effective thermoalkaliphilic xylanases. This study aims to enhance thermoalkaliphilic xylanase production in Pichia pastoris through fermentation parameters optimization and novel efficient fed-batch strategy in high cell-density fermentation...
June 21, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
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