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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538581/the-misconception-of-case-control-studies-in-the-plastic-surgery-literature-a-literature-audit
#1
Alexandra C Hatchell, Forough Farrokhyar, Matthew Choi
BACKGROUND: Case-control study designs are commonly used. However, many published case-control studies are not true case-controls and are in fact mislabeled. The purpose of this study was to identify all case-control studies published in the top three plastic surgery journals over the past 10 years, assess which were truly case-control studies, clarify the actual design of the articles, and address common misconceptions. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control studies in the three highest-impact factor plastic surgery journals (2005 to 2015)...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538335/bigaussian-wavefront-model-for-normal-and-keratoconic-eyes
#2
Jos J Rozema, Pablo Rodríguez, Rafael Navarro, Carina Koppen
PURPOSE: To report bigaussian multivariate wavefront models capable of stochastically generating an unlimited amount of plausible wavefront data for either normal or keratoconic eyes. METHODS: The models use centroid wavefront data measured previously with an iTrace in 330 healthy right eyes and 122 keratoconic right eyes. These centroids were fitted to an 11th-order Zernike series, followed by principal component analysis to reduce dimensionality and remove correlations...
June 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538203/uhplc-ms-ms-method-with-sample-dilution-to-test-therapeutic-adherence-through-quantification-of-ten-antihypertensive-drugs-in-urine-samples
#3
Amedeo De Nicolò, Valeria Avataneo, Franco Rabbia, Mauro Sciandra, Francesco Tosello, Jessica Cusato, Elisa Perlo, Paolo Mulatero, Franco Veglio, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
Nowadays, hypertension represents an important health problem, particularly in developed countries. In some cases the standard therapeutic approaches are not able to reestablish the normal blood pressure values: this condition is called "resistant hypertension". However, a fraction of cases of resistant hypertension are actually due to poor adherence to the prescribed therapy. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring could represent a direct and useful tool to correctly identify non-compliant patients. Nevertheless, high throughput methods for the simultaneous monitoring of a wide panel of drugs in the same analysis are lacking and, furthermore, there is not a generally acknowledged "standard" matrix for this test (plasma or urine)...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538055/high-reliability-principles-must-be-tied-to-value-based-outcomes
#4
Mitchell L Wasden
WellStar Health System and the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), highlighted in this issue's feature articles, are two organizations seeking to drive high reliability by educating leaders and incorporating high-reliability principles into their quality improvement (QI) efforts. The organizations have taken slightly different approaches to executing on high reliability, yet both are encouraged by the apparent success of high-reliability principles in other industries.The high-reliability framework is often applied to healthcare despite the limitations of comparing healthcare organizations to nuclear reactors, commercial airlines, and aircraft carriers...
July 2017: Frontiers of Health Services Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537990/impact-of-the-primary-information-source-used-for-decision-making-on-treatment-perceptions-and-regret-in-prostate-cancer
#5
Narek Shaverdian, Amar U Kishan, Darlene Veruttipong, D Jeffrey Demanes, Patrick Kupelian, Susan McCloskey, Michael L Steinberg, Christopher R King
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the primary source of information used by prostate cancer patients to select a radiation treatment on their overall treatment experience and on treatment regret. METHODS: Patients with low to favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, or high-dose rate brachytherapy were surveyed. The questionnaire explored the decision-making experience, treatment experience, and treatment regret...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537791/mental-rotation-of-tactical-instruction-displays-affects-information-processing-demand-and-execution-accuracy-in-basketball
#6
Till Koopmann, Yvonne Steggemann-Weinrich, Jochen Baumeister, Daniel Krause
PURPOSE: In sports games, coaches often use tactic boards to present tactical instructions during time-outs (e.g., 20 s to 60 s in basketball). Instructions should be presented in a way that enables fast and errorless information processing for the players. The aim of this study was to test the effect of different orientations of visual tactical displays on observation time and execution performance. High affordances in visual-spatial transformation (e.g., mental rotation processes) might impede information processing and might decrease execution performance with regard to the instructed playing patterns...
May 24, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537784/the-dangerousness-of-mountain-recreation-a-quantitative-overview-of-fatal-and-non-fatal-accidents-in-france
#7
Bastien Soulé, Brice Lefèvre, Eric Boutroy
In France, there is a growing enthusiasm for outdoor sports and recreation. In the meantime, the risk of both severe and frequent injury associated with active pursuits in mountain areas is acknowledged. This paper tackles accidents related to mountain sports, with a focus on three critical activities: hiking, mountaineering and ski touring. The aim consists of estimating the actual number of accidents (whether they entailed deaths or injuries) in the three above-mentioned activities. In order to align the information collected, then provide estimations based on the reasoned crossing of these secondary data, we consulted and summarised all the databases available on the French territory...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537720/chromone-as-a-privileged-scaffold-in-drug-discovery-recent-advances
#8
Joana Reis, Alexandra Gaspar, Nuno Milhazes, Fernanda M Borges
The use of privileged structures in drug discovery has proven to be an effective strategy allowing the generation of innovative hits/leads and successful optimization processes. Chromone is actually recognized as a privileged structure and a valid template for the design of novel compounds with potential pharmacological interest, particularly in the field of neurodegenerative, inflammatory and infectious diseases as well as diabetes and cancer. Within this framework, this review provides the reader with a literature update following the preceding article entitled Chromone: a valid scaffold in Medicinal Chemistry...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535410/effect-of-enzyme-inhibition-on-perampanel-pharmacokinetics-why-study-design-matters
#9
Barry E Gidal, Rama Maganti, Antonio Laurenza, Haichen Yang, David A Verbel, Edgar Schuck, Jim Ferry
OBJECTIVES: Perampanel, a selective, noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist, is indicated as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with epilepsy aged 12years and older. In vitro studies and Phase I trials indicate that perampanel is metabolized almost exclusively by CYP3A, with an elimination half-life (t1/2) averaging approximately 105h. Understanding of pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions-enzyme inhibition or induction-and anticipating their occurrence are important for management of patients with epilepsy...
April 26, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535245/invited-commentary-the-continuing-need-for-the-sufficient-cause-model-today
#10
Tyler J VanderWeele
In this commentary, I review the insights that have been gained using Rothman's sufficient cause model (Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104(6):587-592). Discussion pertains to the relations of the model to similar conceptualizations in other fields of study, the advances and extensions that have been made to the model since the paper's publication, and its relation to questions of actual causation, along with questions concerning the use of the model in the future of epidemiology.
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535130/home-manufacture-of-drugs-an-online-investigation-and-a-toxicological-reality-check-of-online-discussions-on-drug-chemistry
#11
Evelyn Hearne, Emanuele Amorim Alves, Marie Claire Van Hout, Jean-Paul C Grund
Emerging trends in market dynamics and the use of new psychoactive substances are both a public health concern and a complex regulatory issue. One novel area of investigation is the availability of homemade opioids, amphetamines and dissociatives, and the potential fueling of interest in clandestine home manufacture of drugs via the Internet. We illustrate here how online communal folk pharmacology of homemade drugs on drug website forums may actually inform home manufacture practices or contribute to the reduction of harms associated with this practice...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535065/silica-polymerization-from-supersaturated-dilute-aqueous-solutions-in-the-presence-of-alkaline-earth-salts
#12
Marina Kley, Andreas Kempter, Volodymyr Boyko, Klaus Huber
The early stages of silica polymerization in aqueous solution proceeds according to a mechanism based on three steps: nucleation, particle growth and agglomeration of the particles. Application of time-resolved static and dynamic light scattering as a powerful in-situ technique in combination with spectrophotometric analysis of the monomer consumption based on the molybdenum blue method was carried out to further investigate this 3-step process. Experiments were carried out at four different initial silicic acid contents covering a range between 350 ppm and 750 ppm in the presence of either 10 mM NaCl or 5 mM of a mixture of CaCl2 and MgCl2...
May 23, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534870/time-compressed-preplay-of-anticipated-events-in-human-primary-visual-cortex
#13
Matthias Ekman, Peter Kok, Floris P de Lange
Perception is guided by the anticipation of future events. It has been hypothesized that this process may be implemented by pattern completion in early visual cortex, in which a stimulus sequence is recreated after only a subset of the visual input is provided. Here we test this hypothesis using ultra-fast functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure BOLD activity at precisely defined receptive field locations in visual cortex (V1) of human volunteers. We find that after familiarizing subjects with a spatial sequence, flashing only the starting point of the sequence triggers an activity wave in V1 that resembles the full stimulus sequence...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534792/neural-ailc-for-error-tracking-against-arbitrary-initial-shifts
#14
Mingxuan Sun, Tao Wu, Lejian Chen, Guofeng Zhang
This paper concerns with the adaptive iterative learning control using neural networks for systems performing repetitive tasks over a finite time interval. Two standing issues of such iterative learning control processes are addressed: one is the initial condition problem and the other is that related to the approximation error. Instead of the state tracking, an error tracking approach is proposed to tackle the problem arising from arbitrary initial shifts. The desired error trajectory is prespecified at the design stage, suitable to different tracking tasks...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534604/the-influence-of-expectations-on-improvements-in-pain-and-function-in-patients-with-neck-back-shoulder-complaints-a-cohort-study
#15
Sigrid Skatteboe, Cecilie Røe, Morten W Fagerland, Lars-Petter Granan
BACKGROUND: In musculoskeletal research, patients' expectations have recently received increased attention. However, few prospective studies have investigated these expectations or their prognostic significance and possible clinical value. AIM: To investigate the influence of patients' expectations on improvements in pain and functional status six months after an outpatient physical medicine assessment. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PMR) outpatient clinic...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534599/untreated-dyslipidemia-in-lebanese-patients-with-schizophrenia
#16
Marouan Zoghbi, Chadia Haddad, Pascale Salameh, Georges Haddad, Souheil Hallit
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of statin-untreated schizophrenic patients needing treatment according to the 2013 American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines and to compare the performance of these guidelines to the 2004 National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP-III) recommendations. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using medical charts, patient inverventions, and various anthropometric measures between April 2016 and July 2016 at the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross enrolled 329 patients with schizophrenia (DSM-5 criteria) to determine dyslipidemia and risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
May 18, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534402/passive-air-samplers-as-a-tool-for-assessing-long-term-trends-in-atmospheric-concentrations-of-semivolatile-organic-compounds
#17
Jiří Kalina, Martin Scheringer, Jana Boruvkova, Petr Kukucka, Petra Přibylová, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Jana Klánová
Many attempts have been made to quantify the relationship between the amount of persistent organic pollutants sequestered by passive air sampling devices and their actual concentrations in ambient air. However, this information may not be necessary for some applications. In this study, two sets of 30 ten-year-long time series of simultaneous passive and high-volume active air sampling carried out at the Košetice observatory in the Czech Republic were used for a comparison of temporal trends. Fifteen polyaromatic hydrocarbons, seven polychlorinated biphenyls and eight organochlorine pesticides were investigated...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534151/opening-the-ventricle-during-surgery-diminishes-survival-among-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-treated-with-carmustine-wafers-a-multi-center-retrospective-study
#18
Yukihiko Sonoda, Ichiyo Shibahara, Ken-Ichiro Matsuda, Ryuta Saito, Tomoyuki Kawataki, Masaya Oda, Yuichi Sato, Hirokazu Sadahiro, Sadahiro Nomura, Toshio Sasajima, Takaaki Beppu, Masayuki Kanamori, Kaori Sakurada, Toshihiro Kumabe, Teiji Tominaga, Hiroyuki Kinouchi, Hiroaki Shimizu, Kuniaki Ogasawara, Michiyasu Suzuki
Carmustine wafers (CW) were approved in Japan for newly diagnosed and recurrent malignant gliomas during 2013. The ventricle is often opened during surgery to achieve maximum resection. While not generally recommended in such situations, CW might be safely achieved by occluding an opened ventricle using gelform or collagen sheets. However, whether CW implantation actually confers a survival benefit for patients who undergo surgery with an open ventricle to treat glioblastoma remains unclear. Clinical, imaging, and survival data were collected in this multicenter retrospective study of 122 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma to determine adverse events and efficacy...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533895/effects-of-nitrogen-and-tiller-type-on-grain-yield-and-physiological-responses-in-rice
#19
Yang Wang, Jianwei Lu, Tao Ren, Saddam Hussain, Chen Guo, Sen Wang, Rihuan Cong, Xiaokun Li
The increasing food demands from an expanding population necessitate global efforts to increase crop production and ensure food security. The rate of nitrogen (N) fertilizer application is strongly related to crop yield. However, although the application of N fertilizer significantly increases the number of tillers in rice, late emerging tillers usually produce lower yields compared with early emerging tillers. Understanding the physiological constraints of late emerging rice tillers is critical for further increasing rice grain yields...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533820/medip-seq-and-ncpg-analyses-illuminate-sexually-dimorphic-methylation-of-gonadal-development-genes-with-high-historic-methylation-in-turtle-hatchlings-with-temperature-dependent-sex-determination
#20
Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert Literman, Beatriz Mizoguchi, Nicole Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation alters gene expression but not DNA sequence and mediates some cases of phenotypic plasticity. Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) epitomizes phenotypic plasticity where environmental temperature drives embryonic sexual fate, as occurs commonly in turtles. Importantly, the temperature-specific transcription of two genes underlying gonadal differentiation is known to be induced by differential methylation in TSD fish, turtle and alligator. Yet, how extensive is the link between DNA methylation and TSD remains unclear...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
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