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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910656/the-design-of-the-optical-thomson-scattering-diagnostic-for-the-national-ignition-facility
#1
P S Datte, J S Ross, D H Froula, K D Daub, J Galbraith, S Glenzer, B Hatch, J Katz, J Kilkenny, O Landen, D Manha, A M Manuel, W Molander, D Montgomery, J Moody, G F Swadling, J Weaver
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a 192 laser beam facility designed to support the Stockpile Stewardship, High Energy Density and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs. We report on the design of an Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic that has the potential to transform the community's understanding of NIF hohlraum physics by providing first principle, local, time-resolved measurements of under-dense plasma conditions. The system design allows operation with different probe laser wavelengths by manual selection of the appropriate beam splitter and gratings before the shot...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910646/a-streaked-x-ray-spectroscopy-platform-for-rapidly-heated-near-solid-density-plasmas
#2
C R Stillman, P M Nilson, S T Ivancic, C Mileham, I A Begishev, R K Junquist, D J Nelson, D H Froula
A picosecond, time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy platform was developed to study the thermal line emission from rapidly heated solid targets containing buried aluminum or iron layers. The targets were driven by high-contrast 1ω or 2ω laser pulses at focused intensities up to 1 × 10(19) W/cm(2). The experimental platform combines time-integrating and time-resolved x-ray spectrometers. Picosecond time resolution was achieved with a pair of ultrafast x-ray streak cameras coupled to high-throughput Hall spectrometers...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910567/a-high-resolution-ir-visible-imaging-system-for-the-w7-x-limiter
#3
G A Wurden, L A Stephey, C Biedermann, M W Jakubowski, J P Dunn, M Gamradt
A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910532/improving-the-off-axis-spatial-resolution-and-dynamic-range-of-the-nif-x-ray-streak-cameras-invited
#4
A G MacPhee, A K L Dymoke-Bradshaw, J D Hares, J Hassett, B W Hatch, A L Meadowcroft, P M Bell, D K Bradley, P S Datte, O L Landen, N E Palmer, K W Piston, V V Rekow, T J Hilsabeck, J D Kilkenny
We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910491/measurement-of-high-dynamic-range-x-ray-thomson-scattering-spectra-for-the-characterization-of-nano-plasmas-at-lcls
#5
M J MacDonald, T Gorkhover, B Bachmann, M Bucher, S Carron, R N Coffee, R P Drake, K R Ferguson, L B Fletcher, E J Gamboa, S H Glenzer, S Göde, S P Hau-Riege, D Kraus, J Krzywinski, A L Levitan, K-H Meiwes-Broer, C P O'Grady, T Osipov, T Pardini, C Peltz, S Skruszewicz, M Swiggers, C Bostedt, T Fennel, T Döppner
Atomic clusters can serve as ideal model systems for exploring ultrafast (∼100 fs) laser-driven ionization dynamics of dense matter on the nanometer scale. Resonant absorption of optical laser pulses enables heating to temperatures on the order of 1 keV at near solid density conditions. To date, direct probing of transient states of such nano-plasmas was limited to coherent x-ray imaging. Here we present the first measurement of spectrally resolved incoherent x-ray scattering from clusters, enabling measurements of transient temperature, densities, and ionization...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910490/single-shot-mega-electronvolt-ultrafast-electron-diffraction-for-structure-dynamic-studies-of-warm-dense-matter
#6
M Z Mo, X Shen, Z Chen, R K Li, M Dunning, K Sokolowski-Tinten, Q Zheng, S P Weathersby, A H Reid, R Coffee, I Makasyuk, S Edstrom, D McCormick, K Jobe, C Hast, S H Glenzer, X Wang
We have developed a single-shot mega-electronvolt ultrafast-electron-diffraction system to measure the structural dynamics of warm dense matter. The electron probe in this system is featured by a kinetic energy of 3.2 MeV and a total charge of 20 fC, with the FWHM pulse duration and spot size at sample of 350 fs and 120 μm respectively. We demonstrate its unique capability by visualizing the atomic structural changes of warm dense gold formed from a laser-excited 35-nm freestanding single-crystal gold foil...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910393/a-single-shot-spatial-chirp-method-for-measuring-initial-ac-conductivity-evolution-of-femtosecond-laser-pulse-excited-warm-dense-matter
#7
Z Chen, P Hering, S B Brown, C Curry, Y Y Tsui, S H Glenzer
To study the rapid evolution of AC conductivity from ultrafast laser excited warm dense matter (WDM), a spatial chirp single-shot method is developed utilizing a crossing angle pump-probe configuration. The pump beam is shaped individually in two spatial dimensions so that it can provide both sufficient laser intensity to excite the material to warm dense matter state and a uniform time window of up to 1 ps with sub-100 fs FWHM temporal resolution. Temporal evolution of AC conductivity in laser excited warm dense gold was also measured...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910382/fast-imaging-diagnostics-on-the-c-2u-advanced-beam-driven-field-reversed-configuration-device
#8
E M Granstedt, P Petrov, K Knapp, M Cordero, V Patel
The C-2U device employed neutral beam injection, end-biasing, and various particle fueling techniques to sustain a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma. As part of the diagnostic suite, two fast imaging instruments with radial and nearly axial plasma views were developed using a common camera platform. To achieve the necessary viewing geometry, imaging lenses were mounted behind re-entrant viewports attached to welded bellows. During gettering, the vacuum optics were retracted and isolated behind a gate valve permitting their removal if cleaning was necessary...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910306/a-high-speed-two-frame-1-2-ns-gated-x-ray-cmos-imager-used-as-a-hohlraum-diagnostic-on-the-national-ignition-facility-invited
#9
Hui Chen, N Palmer, M Dayton, A Carpenter, M B Schneider, P M Bell, D K Bradley, L D Claus, L Fang, T Hilsabeck, M Hohenberger, O S Jones, J D Kilkenny, M W Kimmel, G Robertson, G Rochau, M O Sanchez, J W Stahoviak, D C Trotter, J L Porter
A novel x-ray imager, which takes time-resolved gated images along a single line-of-sight, has been successfully implemented at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This Gated Laser Entrance Hole diagnostic, G-LEH, incorporates a high-speed multi-frame CMOS x-ray imager developed by Sandia National Laboratories to upgrade the existing Static X-ray Imager diagnostic at NIF. The new diagnostic is capable of capturing two laser-entrance-hole images per shot on its 1024 × 448 pixels photo-detector array, with integration times as short as 1...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903839/the-effect-of-brain-tomography-findings-on-mortality-in-sniper-shot-head-injuries
#10
Çağdaş Can, M Bolatkale, A Sarıhan, Y Savran, A Ç Acara, M Bulut
OBJECTIVES: Penetrating gunshot head injuries have a poor prognosis and require prompt care. Brain CT is a routine component of the standard evaluation of head wounds and suspected brain injury. We aimed to investigate the effect of brain CT findings on mortality in gunshot head injury patients who were admitted to our emergency department (ED) from the Syrian Civil War. METHODS: The study group comprised patients who were admitted to the ED with gunshot brain injury...
November 30, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897352/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-in-vivo-quantification-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-sugen-5416-hypoxia-mouse
#11
Ellen C Breen, Miriam Scadeng, N Chin Lai, Fiona Murray, Timothy D Bigby
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressures and right heart failure. PAH mouse models are instrumental in understanding disease pathophysiology. However, few methods are available to evaluate right cardiac function in small animals. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure in vivo cardiac dimensions in the Sugen 5416/hypoxia mouse model. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was induced in C57BL/6 mice by three weeks of exposure to 10% oxygen and VEGF receptor inhibition (20 mg kg(-1) SU5416)...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891550/improved-diagnosis-of-common-bile-duct-stone-with-single-shot-balanced-turbo-field-echo-sequence-in-mrcp
#12
Yoshifumi Noda, Satoshi Goshima, Toshihisa Kojima, Shimpei Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Kawada, Nobuyuki Kawai, Hiromi Koyasu, Masayuki Matsuo, Kyongtae T Bae
PURPOSE: To evaluate the value of adding single-shot balanced turbo field-echo (b-TFE) sequence to conventional magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) for the detection of common bile duct (CBD) stone. METHODS: One hundred thirty-seven consecutive patients with suspected CBD stone underwent MRCP including single-shot b-TFE sequence. Twenty-five patients were confirmed with CBD stone by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or ultrasonography...
November 28, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889460/evaluation-of-time-lapse-for-establishing-distal-tubal-occlusion-diagnosis-during-hysterosalpingography-procedure-performed-by-using-water-soluble-contrast-media
#13
Serkan Kahyaoglu, Omer Hamid Yumusak, Inci Kahyaoglu, Gokce Naz Kucukbas, Alev Esercan, Yasemin Tasci
BACKGROUND: Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the most frequently used diagnostic measure for simultaneously determining uterine abnormalities and tubal status among subfertile women. Despite several broader advantages such as availability and increased experience, the subjectivity involved during administration of the HSG procedure itself, and necessary imaging review, decreases the reliability and accuracy of HSG. In this study, we evaluated the time intervals between X-ray imaging during HSG procedure to establish the presence of distal tubal occlusion...
November 24, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882914/propulsive-limb-coordination-and-body-acceleration-in-sprint-breaststroke-swimming
#14
Marek Strzała, Arkadiusz Stanula, Andrzej Ostrowski, Marcin Kaca, Piotr Kreżałek, Jacek Głodzik
BACKGROUND: This work is aimed at examining how coordination and kinematic indices interplay with swimming performance measured by average speed in 50m all-out test. METHODS: The group of 34 male competitive swimmers (19.1± 1.91 years old) participated in the study. The underwater movements of swimmers' bodies were recorded providing side- shots. Accelerations and angular velocity of pitch rotation of swimmer's sacrum were measured with inertial sensor device (three-axial accelerometer and gyroscope)...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881663/periodic-actin-structures-in-neuronal-axons-are-required-to-maintain-microtubules
#15
Yue Qu, Ines Hahn, Stephen Webb, Simon P Pearce, Andreas Prokop
Axons are the cable-like neuronal processes wiring the nervous system. They contain parallel bundles of microtubules as structural backbones, surrounded by regularly-spaced actin rings termed the periodic membrane skeleton (PMS). Despite being an evolutionarily-conserved, ubiquitous, highly-ordered feature of axons, the function of PMS is unknown. Here we studied PMS abundance, organisation and function, combining versatile Drosophila genetics with super-resolution microscopy and various functional readouts...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878620/the-role-of-single-shot-metronidazole-in-the-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-following-ileostomy-reversal-surgery
#16
Roland Fernandes, Paul Robinson, Karan Rangarajan, Sophie Scott, Laura Angco
PURPOSE: Symptomatic infection with Clostridium difficile is strongly linked to antibiotic use and rates are higher for colorectal surgery. In February 2015, trust policy for antibiotic prophylaxis of ileostomy reversal surgery was changed from three doses of metronidazole plus cefuroxime to single-dose metronidazole, in a bid to reduce rates of Clostridium difficile infection. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a single, large hospital trust between February 2014 and February 2016, before and after change in antimicrobial policy...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865025/mr-targeted-imaging-for-the-expression-of-tenascin-c-in-myocardial-infarction-in-vivo
#17
Jiacheng Song, Jing Yu, Yan Li, Shanshan Lu, Zhanlong Ma, Haibin Shi
PURPOSE: To investigate the presence of viable myocardium in mice with acute myocardial infarction (MI) using a molecular targeted probe. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles and tenascin-C antibody were conjugated as an MRI probe. Fifteen mice with infarction were injected with SPIO-anti-tenascin-C (3 days [d], 5d, 7d after infarction; n = 5 for each group). Another five mice with infarction (5d, n = 5) were injected with SPIO for comparison...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859614/a-comparison-of-navigators-snap-shot-field-monitoring-and-probe-based-field-model-training-for-correcting-b0-induced-artifacts-in-t2-weighted-images-at-7%C3%A2-t
#18
Joep Wezel, Vincent O Boer, Tijl A van der Velden, Andrew G Webb, Dennis W J Klomp, Maarten J Versluis, Matthias J P van Osch, Anders Garpebring
PURPOSE: To compare methods for estimating B0 maps used in retrospective correction of high-resolution anatomical images at ultra-high field strength. The B0 maps were obtained using three methods: (1) 1D navigators and coil sensitivities, (2) field probe (FP) data and a low-order spherical harmonics model, and (3) FP data and a training-based model. METHODS: Data from nine subjects were acquired while they performed activities inducing B0 field fluctuations. Estimated B0 fields were compared with reference data, and the reductions of artifacts were compared in corrected T2* images...
November 17, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857430/two-shot-x-ray-dark-field-imaging
#19
M Marschner, L Birnbacher, K Mechlem, W Noichl, A Fehringer, M Willner, K Scherer, J Herzen, P B Noël, F Pfeiffer
In this article, we report on a novel acquisition scheme for time- and dose-saving retrieval of dark-field data in grating-based phase-contrast imaging. In comparison to currently available techniques, the proposed approach only requires two phase steps. More importantly, our method is capable of accurately retrieving the dark-field signal where conventional approaches fail, for instance in the case of very low photon statistics. Finally, we successfully extend two-shot dark-field imaging to tomographic investigations, by implementing an iterative reconstruction with appropriate weights...
November 14, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855705/myocardial-t1-mapping-at-3t-using-saturation-recovery-reference-values-precision-and-comparison-with-molli
#20
Sebastian Weingärtner, Nadja M Meßner, Johannes Budjan, Dirk Loßnitzer, Uwe Mattler, Theano Papavassiliu, Frank G Zöllner, Lothar R Schad
BACKGROUND: Myocardial T1-mapping recently emerged as a promising quantitative method for non-invasive tissue characterization in numerous cardiomyopathies. Commonly performed with an inversion-recovery (IR) magnetization preparation at 1.5T, the application at 3T has gained due to increased quantification precision. Alternatively, saturation-recovery (SR) T1-mapping has recently been introduced at 1.5T for improved accuracy. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the robustness and precision of SR T1-mapping at 3T and to establish accurate reference values for native T1-times and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) of healthy myocardium...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
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