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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092848/the-initial-use-of-arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-and-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-images-in-the-diagnosis-of-nonconvulsive-partial-status-epileptics
#1
Takafumi Shimogawa, Takato Morioka, Tetsuro Sayama, Sei Haga, Yuka Kanazawa, Kei Murao, Shuji Arakawa, Ayumi Sakata, Koji Iihara
BACKGROUND: In the diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), capture of ongoing ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings is the gold standard; however, this is practically difficult without continuous EEG monitoring facilities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion MRI with arterial spin labeling (ASL), have been applied mainly in emergency situations. Recent reports have described that ictal MRI findings, including ictal hyperperfusion on ASL and cortical hyperintensity of cytotoxic edema on DWI, can be obtained from epileptically activated cortex...
December 21, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092676/intracellular-il-37b-interacts-with-smad3-to-suppress-multiple-signaling-pathways-and-the-metastatic-phenotype-of-tumor-cells
#2
C Luo, Y Shu, J Luo, D Liu, D-S Huang, Y Han, C Chen, Y-C Li, J-M Zou, J Qin, Y Wang, D Li, S-S Wang, G-M Zhang, J Chen, Z-H Feng
Multiple signaling pathways that promote tumor cell metastasis are differentially activated in low/non-metastatic and metastatic tumor cells, resulting in the differential expression of metastasis-related genes. The underlying mechanism may involve the alterations of the intrinsic negative regulation in tumor cells. Here we report that the differential expression of interleukin-37b (IL-37b) in tumor cells alters the intrinsic negative regulation of signaling pathways, resulting in the difference of metastatic capacity...
January 16, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092638/mr-elastography-to-measure-the-effects-of-cancer-and-pathology-fixation-on-prostate-biomechanics-and-comparison-with-t-1-t-2-and-adc
#3
Deirdre M McGrath, Jenny Lee, Warren D Foltz, Navid Samavati, Theo van der Kwast, Michael A S Jewett, Peter Chung, Cynthia Ménard, Kristy K Brock
MRI is under evaluation for image-guided intervention for prostate cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI parameters is determined via correlation with the gold-standard of histopathology. Whole-mount histopathology of prostatectomy specimens can be digitally registered to in vivo imaging for correlation. When biomechanical-based deformable registration is employed to account for deformation during histopathology processing, the ex vivo biomechanical properties are required. However, these properties are altered by pathology fixation, and vary with disease...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092612/evaluation-of-serum-cytokine-levels-in-recurrent-airway-obstruction
#4
A Niedźwiedź, H Borowicz, K Kubiak, J Nicpoń, P Skrzypczak, Z Jaworski, M Cegielski, J Nicpoń
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) represents a serious health problem and is traditionally classified as an allergic disease, where contact with an antigen can induce clinical airway inflammation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and reversible airway obstruction. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of the Th2 response in the lungs of human patients with asthma and horses with heaves. These cells are involved in the production of cytokines which regulate the synthesis of immunoglobulins. 40 horses were evaluated: 30 horses with RAO and 10 healthy animals...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092429/residents-understanding-of-adult-congenital-heart-disease
#5
Paul Cooper, Morgan Hindes, Timothy M Maul, Stephen C Cook
OBJECTIVE: Medical residents are exposed to increasing numbers of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD). While inadequate ACHD knowledge may lead to inappropriate practice, this educational deficit has not been investigated. Our aim was to analyze residents' attitudes, perceived ability, and knowledge of ACHD medicine. DESIGN, METHODS, OUTCOME MEASURES: A single center, multiprogram cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 using an electronic survey to assess 472 medical residents' perceived knowledge and self-assessed skills related to ACHD medicine...
January 16, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092381/miniaturized-devices-for-point-of-care-molecular-detection-of-hiv
#6
REVIEW
Michael Mauk, Jinzhao Song, Haim H Bau, Robert Gross, Frederic D Bushman, Ronald G Collman, Changchun Liu
The HIV pandemic affects 36.7 million people worldwide, predominantly in resource-poor settings. Nucleic acid-based molecular detection of HIV plays a significant role in antiretroviral treatment monitoring for HIV patients, as well as diagnosis of HIV infection in infants. Currently available molecular diagnostic methods are complex, time-consuming and relatively expensive, thus limiting their use in resource-poor settings. Recent advances in microfluidics technology have made possible low-cost integrated miniaturized devices for molecular detection and quantification of HIV at the point of care...
January 16, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092369/context-dependent-role-for-chromatin-remodeling-component-pbrm1-baf180-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#7
A Murakami, L Wang, S Kalhorn, P Schraml, W K Rathmell, A C Tan, R Nemenoff, K Stenmark, B-H Jiang, M E Reyland, L Heasley, C-J Hu
A subset of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tumors exhibit a HIF1A gene mutation, yielding two ccRCC tumor types, H1H2 type expressing both HIF1α and HIF2α, and H2 type expressing HIF2α, but not functional HIF1α protein. However, it is unclear how the H1H2 type ccRCC tumors escape HIF1's tumor-suppressive activity. The polybromo-1 (PBRM1) gene coding for the BAF180 protein, a component of the SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex, is inactivated in 40% ccRCCs, the function and mechanism of BAF180 mutation is unknown...
January 16, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092289/the-impact-of-obesity-on-heart-failure
#8
Alexander B Zhai, Haissam Haddad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity, a growing global health problem, contributes to the development of heart failure. However, increased BMI seems protective for those with established disease, a phenomenon known as the 'obesity paradox'. In this review, we outline the mechanism through which obesity can contribute to the development of heart failure, explore the concept of obesity paradox, and highlight the challenges that obesity presents for advanced heart failure therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the mechanism underlying the obesity paradox is complex, meta-analysis shows that intentional weight loss through bariatric surgery can indeed improve cardiac structure and function...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092288/sutureless-aortic-valves-who-is-the-right-patient
#9
Amine Mazine, Christopher Bonneau, Dimos Karangelis, Bobby Yanagawa, Subodh Verma, Daniel Bonneau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sutureless aortic valve replacement (AVR) has emerged as an alternative to traditional AVR for patients with aortic stenosis who present a higher surgical risk, such as the elderly, or those with small or highly calcified aortic roots. With transcatheter aortic valve implantation - the other major AVR alternative - being used in increasingly lower-risk patients, the place of sutureless valves in the AVR landscape needs to be defined. In this review, we discuss recent data and expert opinion as it pertains to the subject of sutureless AVR...
January 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092213/cellular-and-molecular-factors-influencing-tendon-repair
#10
Sushmitha Durgam, Matthew Stewart
Tendons are complex, hierarchically organized connective tissues that transmit tensile forces between muscles and tendons. Tendon injuries are among the most common orthopedic problems with long-term disability as a frequent consequence due to prolonged healing time. Further, the repair tissue is of inferior quality, predisposing patients to high rates of recurrence following initial injury. Co-ordinated cellular processes and biological factors under the influence of mechanical loading are involved in tendon healing and our understanding of these events lags behind other musculoskeletal tissues...
January 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092200/the-challenges-surrounding-preclinical-testing-in-transcatheter-device-development-and-the-implications-on-the-clinic
#11
Ralf Holzer, Jake Goble, Ziyad Hijazi
Transcatheter devices have contributed significantly to the advances achieved in treating many cardiovascular conditions over the last few decades. Sophisticated and detailed preclinical testing is not only a regulatory requirement to support an investigational device exemption (IDE) application, but more crucially its success and accuracy is needed to safeguard patients during the subsequent clinical testing stages. Areas Covered: This article covers the regulatory background as well as specific considerations related to pre-clinical testing of transcatheter devices...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Medical Devices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092155/discovery-of-first-in-class-potent-and-orally-bioavailable-eed-inhibitor-with-robust-anti-cancer-efficacy
#12
Ying Huang, Jeff Zhang, Zhengtian Yu, Hailong Zhang, Youzhen Wang, Andreas Lingel, Wei Qi, X Justin Gu, Kehao Zhao, Michael David Shultz, Long Wang, Xingnian Fu, Yongfeng Sun, Qiong Zhang, Xiangqing Jiang, Jiang-Wei Zhang, Chunye Zhang, Ling Li, Jue Zeng, Lijian Feng, Chao Zhang, Yueqin Liu, Man Zhang, Lijun Zhang, Mengxi Zhao, Zhenting Gao, Xianghui Liu, Douglas Fang, Haibing Guo, Yuan Mi, Tobias Gabriel, Michael P Dillon, Peter Atadja, Counde Oyang
Overexpression and somatic heterozygous mutations of EZH2, the catalytic subunit Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), are associated with several tumor types. EZH2 inhibitor, EPZ-6438 (Tazemetostat), demonstrated clinical efficacy in patients with acceptable safety profile as monotherapy. EED, another subunit of PRC2 complex, is essential for its histone methyltransferase activity through direct binding to trimethylated lysine 27 on histone 3 (H3K27Me3). Herein we disclose the discovery of a first-in-class potent, selective and orally bioavailable EED inhibitor EED226 (compound 43)...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092070/current-bioengineering-and-regenerative-strategies-for-the-generation-of-kidney-grafts-on-demand
#13
REVIEW
Ximo García-Domínguez, Jose S Vicente, Cesar D Vera-Donoso, Francisco Marco-Jimenez
Currently in the USA, one name is added to the organ transplant waiting list every 15 min. As this list grows rapidly, fewer than one-third of waiting patients can receive matched organs from donors. Unfortunately, many patients who require a transplant have to wait for long periods of time, and many of them die before receiving the desired organ. In the USA alone, over 100,000 patients are waiting for a kidney transplant. However, it is a problem that affects around 6% of the word population. Therefore, seeking alternative solutions to this problem is an urgent work...
January 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092063/appropriate-use-of-progesterone-to-prevent-preterm-birth-approaches-to-measurement-for-driving-improvement
#14
Priya Batra, Ashley Hirai, Sabrina Selk, Vanessa Lee, Michael Lu
Introduction Despite strong evidence supporting the benefit of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17P) in preventing recurrent preterm birth, this treatment still does not reach most eligible patients. This study sought to identify approaches to measuring the appropriate use of 17P, with the goal of helping health systems better monitor and improve the implementation of this intervention. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were used to gather data on measures for 17P use being developed and implemented by state team members participating in the Infant Mortality Collaborative Improvement and Innovation Network (IM CoIIN)-a national quality improvement initiative...
January 16, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091982/death-from-pulmonary-embolism-of-cyanoacrylate-glue-following-gastric-varix-endoscopic-injection
#15
Michael Philip Burke, Chris O'Donnell, Yeliena Baber
We present the case of a 25 year old woman with a complex past medical history including Crigler-Najjar syndrome (Type 1) with a liver transplant in 1993 and subsequent development of cirrhosis with portal hypertension in the transplanted liver. The deceased presented to hospital with hematemesis and investigations showed a large gastric varix. The varix was injected with cyanoacrylate glue. Within 30 min of injection the patient became acutely hypoxic. Urgent chest X-ray demonstrated radio opaque glue within the pulmonary arteries...
January 14, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091937/ocular-mycobacteriosis-dual-infection-of-m-tuberculosis-complex-with-m-fortuitum-and-m-bovis
#16
Kusum Sharma, Natasha Gautam, Megha Sharma, Mohit Dogra, Priya Bajgai, Basavaraj Tigari, Aman Sharma, Vishali Gupta, Surya Prakash Sharma, Ramandeep Singh
BACKGROUND: We report unfavorable outcome in a patient with subretinal granuloma caused by dual infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex with Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium bovis in an immunosuppressed, non-HIV patient. We did a systematic review of literature on dual infection due to M. tuberculosis and M. fortuitum via MEDLINE and PUBMED and could not find any case reported of causing this kind of dual infection in the eye. RESULTS: A 38-year-old Indian male patient presented with decreased vision in the left eye for 3 months, diagnosed as tubercular choroidal granuloma with associated retinal angiomatosis proliferans (RAP) lesion...
December 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091826/paradigms-for-single-patient-multimodality-treatment-for-cerebral-aneurysms-single-center-eleven-year-experience
#17
Abdullah Alobaid, Erez Nossek, Katherine Wagner, Avi Setton, Amir R Dehdashti, David Langer, David Chalif
Endovascular and surgical techniques are conventional options for treating intracranial aneurysms, but criteria for selecting an optimal approach for individual patients remain variable across practitioners and institutions. While endovascular and surgical approaches are generally used alone, both modalities combined in single patients can produce efficacious outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of combined, concomitant endovascular and surgical modalities in the treatment of multiple and/or complex aneurysms in single patients...
January 14, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091752/management-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-practice-patterns-and-outcomes-of-cinacalcet-treatment-with-or-without-active-vitamin%C3%A2-d-in-austria-and-switzerland-the-observational-transit-study
#18
Wolfgang Pronai, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Andreas Bock, Renate Klauser-Braun, Christine Jäger, Gunther Pendl, Margit Hemetsberger, Karl Lhotta
Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a complex disorder requiring an individualized multicomponent treatment approach. This study was conducted to identify treatment combinations used in clinical practice in Austria and Switzerland and the potential to control this disorder. A total of 333 adult hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients were analyzed. All patients received conventional care prior to initiation of a cinacalcet-based regimen. During the study, treatment components, e.g. cinacalcet, active vitamin D analogues and phosphate binders, were adapted to individual patient requirements and treatment dynamics were documented...
January 13, 2017: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091601/massively-parallel-digital-transcriptional-profiling-of-single-cells
#19
Grace X Y Zheng, Jessica M Terry, Phillip Belgrader, Paul Ryvkin, Zachary W Bent, Ryan Wilson, Solongo B Ziraldo, Tobias D Wheeler, Geoff P McDermott, Junjie Zhu, Mark T Gregory, Joe Shuga, Luz Montesclaros, Jason G Underwood, Donald A Masquelier, Stefanie Y Nishimura, Michael Schnall-Levin, Paul W Wyatt, Christopher M Hindson, Rajiv Bharadwaj, Alexander Wong, Kevin D Ness, Lan W Beppu, H Joachim Deeg, Christopher McFarland, Keith R Loeb, William J Valente, Nolan G Ericson, Emily A Stevens, Jerald P Radich, Tarjei S Mikkelsen, Benjamin J Hindson, Jason H Bielas
Characterizing the transcriptome of individual cells is fundamental to understanding complex biological systems. We describe a droplet-based system that enables 3' mRNA counting of tens of thousands of single cells per sample. Cell encapsulation, of up to 8 samples at a time, takes place in ∼6 min, with ∼50% cell capture efficiency. To demonstrate the system's technical performance, we collected transcriptome data from ∼250k single cells across 29 samples. We validated the sensitivity of the system and its ability to detect rare populations using cell lines and synthetic RNAs...
January 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091357/assessment-of-the-need-for-a-cardiac-morphology-curriculum-for-paediatric-cardiology-fellows
#20
Lindsay S Rogers, Melissa Klein, Jeanne James, Michael FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: Expert knowledge of cardiac malformations is essential for paediatric cardiologists. Current cardiac morphology fellowship teaching format, content, and nomenclature are left up to the discretion of the individual fellowship programmes. We aimed to assess practices and barriers in morphology education, perceived effectiveness of current curricula, and preferences for a standardised fellow morphology curriculum. METHODS: A web-based survey was developed de novo and administered anonymously via e-mail to all paediatric cardiology fellowship programme directors and associate directors in the United States of America; leaders were asked to forward the survey to fellows...
January 16, 2017: Cardiology in the Young
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