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Blood clotting factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815418/availability-of-angiography-and-therapeutic-embolization-for-the-treatment-of-acute-bleeding-in-patients-with-hemophilia
#1
Mi Jin Kim, Ji Young Oh, Young Shil Park
Clotting factor replacement therapy alone is often inadequate for acute bleeding in hemophilia patients, and surgery for such patients poses significant clinical challenges. Arterial angiographic intervention is used to control bleeding in local blood vessels. In the present study, we examined the clinical course and prognosis of hemophilia patients with bleeding who had undergone angiography, and evaluated the validity of diagnostic angiography and therapeutic embolization in these patients. Angiography was performed in five hemophilia patients, who experienced bleeding that was difficult to control even after treatment with clotting factor replacement or bypassing agent therapy...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814942/awareness-of-venous-thromboembolism-and-thromboprophylaxis-among-hospitalized-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Hind Almodaimegh, Lama Alfehaid, Nada Alsuhebany, Rami Bustami, Shmylan Alharbi, Abdulmalik Alkatheri, Abdulkareem Albekairy
BACKGROUND: Patient awareness of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and thromboprophylaxis is essential for their safety. In this study, we evaluated patients' awareness of VTE and their perceptions of thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: We administered a cross-sectional survey to patients hospitalized at the King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS: Of 190 patients approached, 174 completed the survey, constituting a response rate of 95%...
2017: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809406/clot-entrapped-blood-cells-in-synergy-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-create-a-pro-angiogenic-healing-response
#3
Melanie A Burkhardt, Isabel Gerber, Cameron Moshfegh, Miriam S Lucas, Jasmin Waser, Maximilian Y Emmert, Simon P Hoerstrup, Falko Schlottig, Viola Vogel
Blood clots stop bleeding and provide cell-instructive microenvironments. Still, in vitro models used to study implant performance typically neglect any possible interactions of recruited cells with surface-adhering blood clots. Here we study the interaction and synergies of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with surface-induced blood clots in an in vitro model by fluorescence microscopy, scanning and correlative light and electron microscopy, ELISA assays and zymography. The clinically used alkali-treated rough titanium (Ti) surfaces investigated here are known to enhance blood clotting compared to native Ti and to improve the healing response, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive...
August 15, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804827/assessment-of-hereditary-thrombophilia-performance-of-antithrombin-at-testing
#4
Jana N Gausman, Richard A Marlar
Antithrombin (AT) is a naturally occurring plasma inhibitor of coagulation, which is a synthesized in the liver. AT inhibits coagulation serine proteases (the enzymatically activated forms of the clotting factors), mainly thrombin (factor IIa) and factor Xa, but also to a lesser extent factors IXa, XIa, and XIIa. Acting alone, AT inhibits coagulation factors, but does this very slowly; however, when coupled with heparin as a cofactor, the speed of inhibition is increased many fold. The AT/Heparin complex is the most powerful naturally occurring anticoagulant in blood...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804823/an-overview-of-thrombophilia-and-associated-laboratory-testing
#5
Martina Montagnana, Giuseppe Lippi, Elisa Danese
Venous thromboembolism, usually entailing deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or both, is a complex and multifactorial disorder, in which a number of putative conditions interplay and finally contribute to propel the individual risk over a certain degree, so ultimately culminating in the development of venous occlusive disorders. Thrombophilia is commonly defined as a propensity to develop venous thromboembolism on the basis of an underlying hypercoagulable state attributable to inherited or acquired disorders of blood coagulation or fibrinolysis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802974/characteristics-of-thrombin-generation-in-a-fulminant-porcine-sepsis-model
#6
Judit Tóth, Ildikó Beke Debreceni, Ádám Deák, Katalin Pető, Mariann Berhés, Endre Hajdú, Judit Szabó, Norbert Németh, Béla Fülesdi, János Kappelmayer
INTRODUCTION: The activation of blood coagulation has been demonstrated in most cases of sepsis, however previous studies in humans could not detect hypercoagulability with global hemostasis assays. In a fulminant porcine sepsis model we analysed coagulation screening tests and thrombin generation to evaluate hemostatic alterations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Live Escherichia coli bacteria were inoculated to female pigs and prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen were measured by coagulometry...
August 1, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801460/multiplexed-silicon-photonic-sensor-arrays-enable-facile-characterization-of-coagulation-protein-binding-to-nanodiscs-with-variable-lipid-content
#7
Ellen M Muehl, Joshua M Gajsiewicz, Sara M Medfisch, Zachary S B Wiersma, James H Morrissey, Ryan C Bailey
Interactions of soluble proteins with the cell membrane are critical within the blood coagulation cascade. Of particular interest are the interactions of γ-carboxyglutamic acid-rich (GLA) domain-containing clotting proteins with lipids. Variability among conventional analytical methods presents challenges for comparing clotting protein-lipid interactions. Most previous studies have investigated only a single clotting protein and lipid composition and have yielded widely different binding constants. Herein, we demonstrate that a combination of lipid bilayer Nanodiscs and a multiplexed silicon photonic analysis technology enables high-throughput probing of many protein-lipid interactions among blood-clotting proteins...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801136/outcomes-of-pharmacomechanical-catheter-directed-thrombolysis-for-acute-and-subacute-inferior-vena-cava-thrombosis-a-retrospective-evaluation-in-a-single-institution
#8
K Ye, J Qin, M Yin, X Liu, X Lu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The objective was to assess the mid-term results of pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT) for symptomatic acute and subacute inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis; the risk factors of early thrombosis recurrence and iliocaval patency were also evaluated. METHODS: From January 2010 to December 2015, 54 patients (33 men; mean age 47.1 years) with symptomatic acute and subacute IVC thrombosis were treated with PCDT. Primary technical success (clot lysis ≥ 50% after PCDT), stent-assisted technical success (residual stenosis < 30% after stenting), clinical success (freedom from thrombosis recurrence within 30 days), complications, frequency of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS; Villalta score ≥ 5), and iliocaval patency were recorded at follow-up evaluation...
August 8, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793786/hemophilia-gene-therapy-ready-for-prime-time
#9
Thierry VandenDriessche, Marinee K L Chuah
Hemophilia A and B are congenital X-linked bleeding disorders caused by mutations in the genes encoding for the blood clotting factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX), respectively. Since the beginning of gene therapy, hemophilia has been considered an attractive disease target that served as a trailblazer for the field at large. Different technologies have been explored to efficiently and safely deliver the therapeutic FVIII and FIX genes into the patients' cells. Currently, the most promising vectors for hemophilia gene therapy are adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) and lentiviral vectors...
August 10, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774197/thrombotic-and-hemorrhagic-conditions-due-to-a-gain-of-function-of-coagulation-proteins-a-special-type-of-clotting-disorders
#10
Antonio Girolami, Elisabetta Cosi, Silvia Ferrari, Annamaria Lombardi, Fabrizio Fabris
Coagulation disorders can be classified into 2 types, namely, type I and type II. In the former, there is a concomitant decrease in factor activity and antigen (activity-antigen ratio is 1), whereas in the latter, there is a discrepancy between factor activity which is always low and antigen which is normal or near normal (activity-antigen ratio is <1, eg, 0.5). Recently, several gain-of-function disorders have been described. These are characterized by an increased activity with respect to the antigen level...
January 1, 2017: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766731/microparticles-from-stored-red-blood-cells-enhance-procoagulant-and-proinflammatory-activity
#11
Dania Fischer, Julian Büssow, Patrick Meybohm, Christian Friedrich Weber, Kai Zacharowski, Anja Urbschat, Markus Matthias Müller, Carla Jennewein
BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms of morbidity due to blood transfusions are not yet entirely understood. Elevated levels of red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) are found in coagulation-related pathologies and also in stored blood. Previous research has shown that RMPs mediate transfusion-related complications by the intrinsic pathway. We hypothesized that RMPs might play a role in post-transfusion thrombotic complications by enhancing procoagulant activity also through the extrinsic pathway of coagulation...
August 2, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765353/hemostatic-management-of-trauma-induced-coagulopathy
#12
Janise B Phillips, Phillip L Mohorn, Rebecca E Bookstaver, Tanya O Ezekiel, Christopher M Watson
Trauma-induced coagulopathy is a primary factor in many trauma-related fatalities. Management hinges upon rapid diagnosis of coagulation abnormalities and immediate administration of appropriate hemostatic agents. Use of crystalloids and packed red blood cells has traditionally been the core of trauma resuscitation, but current massive transfusion protocols include combination therapy with fresh frozen plasma and predefined ratios of platelets to packed red blood cells, limiting crystalloid administration. Hemostatic agents such as tranexamic acid, prothrombin complex concentrate, fibrinogen concentrate, and, in cases of refractory bleeding, recombinant activated factor VIIa may also be warranted...
August 2017: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761875/inhibition-of-fibrinolysis-by-coagulation-factor-xiii
#13
REVIEW
Dingeman C Rijken, Shirley Uitte de Willige
The inhibitory effect of coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) on fibrinolysis has been studied for at least 50 years. Our insight into the underlying mechanisms has improved considerably, aided in particular by the discovery that activated FXIII cross-links α2-antiplasmin (α2AP) to fibrin. In this review, the most important effects of different cross-linking reactions on fibrinolysis are summarized. A distinction is made between fibrin-fibrin cross-links studied in purified systems and fibrin-α2AP cross-links studied in plasma or whole blood systems...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757215/catch-a-tiger-snake-by-its-tail-differential-toxicity-co-factor-dependence-and-antivenom-efficacy-in-a-procoagulant-clade-of-australian-venomous-snakes
#14
Callum Lister, Kevin Arbuckle, Timothy N W Jackson, Jordan Debono, Christina N Zdenek, Daniel Dashevsky, Nathan Dunstan, Luke Allen, Chris Hay, Brian Bush, Amber Gillett, Bryan G Fry
A paradigm of venom research is adaptive evolution of toxins as part of a predator-prey chemical arms race. This study examined differential co-factor dependence, variations relative to dietary preference, and the impact upon relative neutralisation by antivenom of the procoagulant toxins in the venoms of a clade of Australian snakes. All genera were characterised by venoms rich in factor Xa which act upon endogenous prothrombin. Examination of toxin sequences revealed an extraordinary level of conservation, which indicates that adaptive evolution is not a feature of this toxin type...
July 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754649/stretching-single-fibrin-fibers-hampers-their-lysis
#15
Wei Li, Tomas Lucioni, Rongzhong Li, Keith Bonin, Samuel S Cho, Martin Guthold
Blood clots, whose main structural component is a mesh of microscopic fibrin fibers, experience mechanical strain from blood flow, clot retraction and interactions with platelets and other cells. We developed a transparent, striated and highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue (a styrenic block copolymer) to investigate how mechanical strain affects lysis of single, suspended fibrin fibers. In this suspended fiber assay, lysis manifested itself by fiber elongation, thickening (disassembly), fraying and collapse...
July 25, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754139/evidence-of-altered-haemostasis-in-an-ovine-model-of-venovenous-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-support
#16
Margaret R Passmore, Yoke L Fung, Gabriela Simonova, Samuel R Foley, Sara D Diab, Kimble R Dunster, Michelle M Spanevello, Charles I McDonald, John-Paul Tung, Natalie M Pecheniuk, Karen Hay, Kiran Shekar, John F Fraser
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving modality used in the management of cardiopulmonary failure that is refractory to conventional medical and surgical therapies. The major problems clinicians face are bleeding and clotting, which can occur simultaneously. To discern the impact of pulmonary injury and ECMO on the host's haemostatic response, we developed an ovine model of smoke-induced acute lung injury (S-ALI) and ECMO. The aims of this study were to determine if the ECMO circuit itself altered haemostasis and if this was augmented in a host with pulmonary injury...
July 29, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753957/the-uremic-toxin-indoxyl-sulfate-accelerates-thrombotic-response-after-vascular-injury-in-animal-models
#17
Malgorzata Karbowska, Tomasz W Kaminski, Natalia Marcinczyk, Tomasz Misztal, Tomasz Rusak, Lukasz Smyk, Dariusz Pawlak
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are at high risk for thrombotic events. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is one of the most potent uremic toxins that accumulates during CKD. Even though IS is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, its impact on thrombotic events still remains not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the direct effect of IS on thrombotic process. We examined the impact of acute exposure to IS on thrombus development induced by electric current in Wistar rats, intravital thrombus formation after laser-induced injury in the mice endothelium, coagulation profile, clot formation dynamics, platelet aggregations, and erythrocyte osmotic resistance...
July 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751436/a-striking-image-of-spontaneous-echo-contrast-in-severe-mitral-stenosis-in-a-patient-with-good-inr-control
#18
Daniel A Jeffery, Guy Lloyd, Arjun K Ghosh
A 38 year old man was referred to our valve clinic for assessment. He had been diagnosed with untreated rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) in 2009. He was diagnosed with atrial fibrillation in 2016 [on warfarin with good INR control]. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated severe MS. A large amount of spontaneous echo contrast (SEC) was noted in the severely dilated left atrium and a transoesophageal echocardiogram (TOE) was requested for further assessment of the MS (Image 1 and Videos 1-3). He was symptomatic with shortness of breath and reduced exercise tolerance consistent with NYHA class III-IV...
July 27, 2017: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750474/potential-misdiagnosis-of-von-willebrand-disease-and-haemophilia-caused-by-ineffective-mixing-of-thawed-plasma
#19
E J Favaloro, S Oliver, S Mohammed, M Ahuja, E Grzechnik, S Azimulla, J McDonald, G Lima-Oliveira, G Lippi
INTRODUCTION: von Willebrand disease (VWD) reflects a loss or dysfunction in von Willebrand factor (VWF), while haemophilia represents a loss or dysfunction of clotting factors such as factor VIII (FVIII) or FIX. Their diagnosis requires laboratory testing, with this potentially compromised by preanalytical events, including poor sample quality. This study assessed the effect of inadequate mixing as a potential cause of VWD and haemophilia misdiagnosis. METHODS: After completion of requested testing, 48 consecutive patient samples comprising separate aliquots from single collections were individually pooled, appropriately mixed, then frozen in separate aliquots, either at -20°C or -80°C for 2-7 days...
July 27, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750471/modulation-of-the-activated-protein-c-pathway-in-severe-haemophilia-a-patients-the-effects-of-thrombomodulin-and-a%C3%A2-factor-v-stabilizing-fab
#20
D F Brophy, E J Martin, B M Mohammed, J C Barrett, J G Kuhn, M E Nolte, B Wiinberg, H L Holmberg, J Lund, R Salbo, E K Waters
INTRODUCTION: The thrombomodulin (TM)/activated protein C (APC) system is a key regulator of haemostasis, limiting amplification and propagation of the formed blood clot to the injury site. Dampening APC's inhibition of factor V (FV) and factor VIII (FVIII) may be a future strategy in developing next-generation therapeutic targets for haemophilia treatment. AIMS: To determine ex vivo the respective concentration-dependent effects of TM and a FV-stabilizing Fab on the APC regulatory pathway in severe FVIII-deficient blood and plasma...
July 27, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
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