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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902452/mgrn1-mediated-ubiquitination-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-regulates-microtubule-dynamics-and-intracellular-transport
#1
Rukmini Mukherjee, Priyanka Majumder, Oishee Chakrabarti
MGRN1 mediated ubiquitination of α-tubulin regulates microtubule stability and mitotic spindle positioning in mitotic cells. This study elucidates the effect of MGRN1 mediated ubiquitination of α-tubulin in interphase cells. Here, we show that MGRN1 mediated ubiquitination regulates dynamics of EB1 labelled plus ends of microtubules. Intracellular transport of mitochondria and endosomes are affected in cultured cells where functional MGRN1 is depleted. Defects in microtubule-dependent organellar transport are evident in cells where noncanonical K6 mediated ubiquitination of α-tubulin by MGRN1 is compromised...
September 13, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900035/prion-protein-is-required-for-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-tnf%C3%AE-triggered-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-and-cytokine-production
#2
Gui-Ru Wu, Tian-Chen Mu, Zhen-Xing Gao, Jun Wang, Man-Sun Sy, Chao-yang Li
The expression of normal cellular prion protein (PrP) is required for the pathogenesis of prion diseases. However, the physiological functions of PrP remain ambiguous. Here, we identified PrP as being critical for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-triggered signaling in a human melanoma cell line, M2, and a pancreatic ductal cell adenocarcinoma cell line, BxPC-3. In M2 cells, TNFα upregulates the expression of p-I-kappa-B-kinase α/β (p-IKKα/β), p-p65, and p-JNK, but downregulates the IκBα protein, all of which are downstream signaling intermediates in the TNF receptor signaling cascade...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898525/analyses-of-n-linked-glycans-of-prp-s-c-revealed-predominantly-2-6-linked-sialic-acid-residues
#3
Elizaveta Katorcha, Ilia V Baskakov
Mammalian prions (PrP(S)(c) ) consist of misfolded, conformationally altered, self-replicating states of the sialoglycoprotein called prion protein or PrP(C) . Recent studies revealed that the sialylation status of PrP(S)(c) plays a major role in evading innate immunity and infecting a host. Establishing the type of linkage by which sialic acid residues are attached to galactose is important, as it helps to identify the sialyltransferases responsible for sialylating PrP(C) and outline strategies for manipulating the sialyation status of PrP(S)(c) ...
September 12, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886194/a-new-rabbit-model-of-impaired-wound-healing-in-an-x-ray-irradiated-field
#4
Kazutoshi Fujita, Soh Nishimoto, Toshihiro Fujiwara, Yohei Sotsuka, Maki Tonooka, Kenichiro Kawai, Masao Kakibuchi
Radiation is an important therapy for cancer with many benefits; however, its side effects, such as impaired wound healing, are a major problem. While many attempts have been made to overcome this particular disadvantage, there are few effective treatments for impaired wound healing in an X-ray-irradiated field. One reason for this deficiency is the lack of experimental models, especially animal models. We have previously reported a mouse model of impaired wound healing in which the irradiation area was restricted to the hindlimbs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861790/methods-of-protein-misfolding-cyclic-amplification
#5
Natallia Makarava, Regina Savtchenko, Ilia V Baskakov
Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) amplifies infectious prions in vitro. Over the past decade, PMCA has become an essential tool in prion research. The current chapter describes in detail the PMCA format with beads (PMCAb) and several methods that rely on PMCAb for assessing strain-specific prion amplification rates, for selective amplification of subtypes of PrP(Sc) from a mixture, and a PMCAb approach that can replace animal titration of scrapie material. Development of PMCAb-based methodology is important for addressing a number of research topics including prion strain evolution, selection and adaptation, strain-typing, prion detection, and biochemical requirements for prion replication...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861787/analysis-of-cellular-prion-protein-endoproteolytic-processing
#6
Victoria Lewis
Like numerous proteins of various structural and functional classes, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) has been recognized to undergo endoproteolytic processing for decades, a phenomenon observed in various cultured cell lines, as well as human and several animal tissue extracts. Despite this, the physiological significance of PrP(C) proteolytic cleavage has not yet been entirely elucidated. Experimental evidence suggests independent normal biological functions of the full-length and truncated PrP(C) species, as well as probable links of endoproteolysis to prion disease transmission susceptibility, pathogenesis, and toxicity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859737/techniques-for-optimizing-surgical-scars-part-1-wound-healing-and-depressed-atrophic-scars
#7
Sailesh Konda, Kathryn Potter, Vicky Zhen Ren, Apphia Lihan Wang, Aditya Srinivasan, Suneel Chilukuri
Surgical management of benign or malignant cutaneous tumors may result in noticeable scars that are of great concern to patients, regardless of sex, age, or ethnicity. Techniques to optimize surgical scars are discussed in this three-part review. In part 1, an overview of the importance of preoperative planning, intraoperative technique, and pathophysiology of wound healing is followed by a discussion of scar revision options for depressed/atrophic scars. Scar revision options for these scars include dermabrasion, needling and subcision, punch excision and grafts, fillers, nonablative fractional lasers, ablative and fractional ablative lasers, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP)...
2017: Skinmed
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838675/cell-biology-of-prion-protein
#8
Daniela Sarnataro, Anna Pepe, Chiara Zurzolo
Cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) is a mammalian glycoprotein which is usually found anchored to the plasma membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. The precise function of PrP(C) remains elusive but may depend upon its cellular localization. PrP(C) misfolds to a pathogenic isoform PrP(Sc), the causative agent of neurodegenerative prion diseases. Nonetheless some forms of prion disease develop in the apparent absence of infectious PrP(Sc), suggesting that molecular species of PrP distinct from PrP(Sc) may represent the primary neurotoxic culprits...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838659/the-prion-concept-and-synthetic-prions
#9
Giuseppe Legname, Fabio Moda
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases caused by unconventional infectious agents, known as prions (PrP(Sc)). Prions derive from a conformational conversion of the normally folded prion protein (PrP(C)), which acquires pathological and infectious features. Moreover, PrP(Sc) is able to transmit the pathological conformation to PrP(C) through a mechanism that is still not well understood. The generation of synthetic prions, which behave like natural prions, is of fundamental importance to study the process of PrP(C) conversion and to assess the efficacy of therapeutic strategies to interfere with this process...
2017: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835493/prp-p102l-and-nearby-lysine-mutations-promote-spontaneous-in-vitro-formation-of-transmissible-prions
#10
Allison Kraus, Gregory J Raymond, Brent Race, Katrina J Campbell, Andrew G Hughson, Kelsie J Anson, Lynne D Raymond, Byron Caughey
Accumulation of fibrillar protein aggregates is a hallmark of many diseases. While numerous proteins form fibrils by prion-like seeded polymerization in vitro, only some are transmissible and pathogenic in vivo To probe the structural features that confer transmissibility to prion protein (PrP) fibrils, we have analyzed synthetic PrP amyloids with or without the human prion disease-associated P102L mutation. The formation of infectious prions from PrP molecules in vitro has required cofactors and/or unphysiological denaturing conditions...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835207/adverse-events-following-immunization-with-pentavalent-vaccine-experiences-of-newly-introduced-vaccine-in-iran
#11
Manoochehr Karami, Pegah Ameri, Jalal Bathaei, Zeinab Berangi, Tahereh Pashaei, Ali Zahiri, Seyed Mohsen Zahraei, Hussein Erfani, Koen Ponnet
BACKGROUND: The most important factors that affect the incidence of vaccine-related complications are the constituent biological components of the vaccine, injection site reactions, age and sex. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence rate of adverse events following immunization with pentavalent vaccine (DTPw-Hep B-Hib (PRP-T) vaccine (pentavac) (adsorbed) is manufactured by Serum Institute of India ltd), which was introduced in Iran in November 2014. It is important to monitor vaccine-related adverse events because of the role of vaccine safety in immunization program success...
August 23, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821618/region-specific-protein-misfolding-cyclic-amplification-reproduces-brain-tropism-of-prion-strains
#12
Nicolas Privat, Etienne Levavasseur, Serfildan Yildirim, Samia Hannaoui, Jean-Philippe Brandel, Jean-Louis Laplanche, Vincent Béringue, Danielle Seilhean, Stéphane Haïk
Human prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are transmissible brain proteinopathies, characterized by the accumulation of a misfolded isoform of the host cellular prion protein (PrP) in the brain. According to the prion model, prions are defined as proteinaceous infectious particles composed solely of this abnormal isoform of PrP (PrPSc). Even in the absence of genetic material, various prion strains can be propagated in experimental models. They can be distinguished by the pattern of disease they produce and especially by the localization of PrPSc deposits within the brain and the spongiform lesions they induce...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814578/genetic-human-prion-disease-modelled-in-prp-transgenic-drosophila
#13
Alana M Thackray, Alzbeta Cardova, Hanna Wolf, Lydia Pradl, Ina Vorberg, Walker S Jackson, Raymond Bujdoso
Inherited human prion diseases, such as FFI and familial CJD (fCJD), are associated with autosomal dominant mutations in the human prion protein gene PRNP and accumulation of PrPSc, an abnormal isomer of the normal host protein PrPC, in the brain of affected individuals. PrPSc is the principal component of the transmissible neurotoxic prion agent. It is important to identify molecular pathways and cellular processes that regulate prion formation and prion-induced neurotoxicity. This will allow identification of possible therapeutic interventions for individuals with, or at risk from, genetic human prion disease...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800624/destabilizing-polymorphism-in-cervid-prion-protein-hydrophobic-core-determines-prion-conformation-and-conversion-efficiency
#14
Samia Hannaoui, Sara Amidian, Yo Ching Cheng, Camilo Duque Velásquez, Lyudmyla Dorosh, Sampson Law, Glenn Telling, Maria Stepanova, Debbie McKenzie, Holger Wille, Sabine Gilch
Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals caused by misfolded forms of the cellular prion protein PrPC. Prions cause disease by converting PrPC into aggregation-prone PrPSc. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the most contagious prion disease with substantial lateral transmission, affecting free-ranging and farmed cervids. Although the PrP primary structure is highly conserved among cervids, the disease phenotype can be modulated by species-specific polymorphisms in the prion protein gene...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771982/original-article-platelet-rich-plasma-with-microneedling-in-androgenetic-alopecia-along-with-dermoscopic-pre-and-post-treatment-evaluation
#15
Abhijeet Kumar Jha, Uday Kumar Udayan, Prasoon Kumar Roy, Amar Kant Jha Amar, R K P Chaudhary
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma has shown beneficial effects in the treatment of androgenic alopecia with its growth factor properties in accelerating the dermal papilla. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive method that allows the in vivo evaluation of microstructures not visible to the naked eye. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with microneedling, and to compare the pre- and post-treatment dermoscopic features in androgenetic alopecia. (AGA)...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760925/the-cholesterol-ester-cycle-regulates-signalling-complexes-and-synapse-damage-caused-by-amyloid-%C3%AE
#16
Ewan West, Craig Osborne, Clive Bate
Cholesterol is required for the formation and function of some signalling platforms. In synaptosomes amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, the causative agent in Alzheimer's disease, bind to cellular prion proteins (PrP(C)) resulting in increased cholesterol concentrations, translocation of cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) to lipid rafts and activation of cPLA2 The formation of Aβ:PrP(C) complexes was controlled by the cholesterol ester cycle. Aβ activated cholesterol ester hydrolases which released cholesterol from stores of cholesterol esters and stabilised Aβ:PrP(C) complexes resulting in activated cPLA2 Conversely, cholesterol esterification reduced cholesterol concentrations causing the dispersal of Aβ:PrP(C) complexes...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759287/the-use-of-platelet-rich-plasma-to-treat-chronic-tendinopathies-a-technical-analysis
#17
Jean-François Kaux, Thibault Emonds-Alt
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is blood plasma with a high concentration of autologous platelets which constitute an immense reservoir of growth factors. The clinical use of PRP is widespread in various medical applications. Although highly popular with athletes, the use of PRP for the treatment of tendinopathies remains scientifically controversial, particularly due to the diversity of products that go by the name of "PRP." To optimize its use, it is important to look at the various stages of obtaining PRP. In this literature review, we take a closer look at eight parameters which may influence the quality of PRP: 1) anticoagulants used to preserve the best platelet function, 2) the speed of centrifugation used to extract the platelets, 3) the platelet concentrations obtained, 4) the impact of the concentration of red and while blood cells on PRP actions, 5) platelet activators encouraging platelet degranulation and, hence, the release of growth factors, and 6) the use or nonuse of local anesthetics when carrying out infiltration...
July 31, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758836/contributions-for-classification-of-platelet-rich-plasma-proposal-of-a-new-classification-marspill
#18
Jose Fabio Santos Duarte Lana, Joseph Purita, Christian Paulus, Stephany Cares Huber, Bruno Lima Rodrigues, Ana Amélia Rodrigues, Maria Helena Santana, João Lopo Madureira, Ângela Cristina Malheiros Luzo, William Dias Belangero, Joyce Maria Annichino-Bizzacchi
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a significant therapy used in medical conditions with heterogeneous results. There are some important classifications to try to standardize the PRP procedure. The aim of this report is to describe PRP contents studying celular and molecular components, and also propose a new classification for PRP. The main focus is on mononuclear cells, which comprise progenitor cells and monocytes. In addition, there are important variables related to PRP application incorporated in this study, which are the harvest method, activation, red blood cells, number of spins, image guidance, leukocytes number and light activation...
July 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755319/a-novel-family-of-proline-serine-rich-proteins-which-are-phospho-targets-of-stress-related-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-differentially-regulates-growth-and-pathogen-defense-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Mieder Anthony Thomas Palm-Forster, Lennart Eschen-Lippold, Joachim Uhrig, Dierk Scheel, Justin Lee
The molecular actions of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are ultimately accomplished by the substrate proteins where phosphorylation affects their molecular properties and function(s), but knowledge regarding plant MAPK substrates is currently still fragmentary. Here, we uncovered a previously uncharacterized protein family consisting of three proline/serine-rich proteins (PRPs) that are substrates of stress-related MAPKs. We demonstrated the importance of a MAPK docking domain necessary for protein-protein interaction with MAPKs and consequently also for phosphorylation...
July 28, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722340/a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-prion-replication-and-mutant-prion-protein-toxicity
#20
Tania Massignan, Valeria Sangiovanni, Silvia Biggi, Claudia Stincardini, Saioa R Elezgarai, Giulia Maietta, Ivan A Andreev, Nina K Ratmanova, Dmitry S Belov, Evgeny R Lukyanenko, Grigory M Belov, Maria Letizia Barreca, Andrea Altieri, Alexander V Kurkin, Emiliano Biasini
Into the fold: Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation in the brain of a self-replicating, misfolded isoform (PrP(Sc) ) of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C) ). No therapies are available for these pathologies. We capitalized on previously described cell-based assays to screen a library of small molecules, and identified 55, a compound capable of counteracting both prion replication and toxicity. Compound 55 may represent the starting point for the development of a completely new class of therapeutics for prion diseases...
July 19, 2017: ChemMedChem
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