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prp importance

S Jo Moore, Catherine E Vrentas, Soyoun Hwang, M Heather West Greenlee, Eric M Nicholson, Justin J Greenlee
BACKGROUND: The Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) prion protein gene (PRNP) is polymorphic at codon 132, with leucine (L132) and methionine (M132) allelic variants present in the population. In elk experimentally inoculated with the chronic wasting disease (CWD) agent, different incubation periods are associated with PRNP genotype: LL132 elk survive the longest, LM132 elk are intermediate, and MM132 elk the shortest. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms underlying variations in incubation period in elk of different prion protein genotypes...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Kati Frid, Orli Binyamin, Nina Fainstein, Guy Keller, Tamir Ben-Hur, Ruth Gabizon
TgMHu2ME199K mice, a transgenic line mimicking genetic prion disease, are born healthy and gradually deteriorate to a terminal neurological condition concomitant with the accumulation of disease-related PrP. To investigate whether transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) to these mice can delay disease aggravation, we first tested the properties of mutant PrP in homogenates and enriched NPCs from TgMHu2ME199K embryos, as compared to PrP in sick TgMHu2ME199K brains. Next, we tested the clinical effect of NPCs transplantation into newborn TgMHu2ME199K mice...
January 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Valerija Kovač, Vladka Čurin Šerbec
Prion protein (PrP) is a biomolecule that is involved in neuronal signaling, myelinization, and the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In the cell, PrP is shed by the ADAM10 protease. This process generates PrP molecules that lack glycophosphatidylinositol anchor, and these molecules incorporate into toxic aggregates and neutralize toxic oligomers. Due to this dual role, these molecules are important biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we present shed PrP as a potential biomarker, with a focus on PrP226*, which may be the main biomarker for predicting neurodegenerative diseases in humans...
2018: Biomarker Insights
Mikel Sánchez, Diego Delgado, Orlando Pompei, Juan Carlos Pérez, Pello Sánchez, Ane Garate, Ane Miren Bilbao, Nicolás Fiz, Sabino Padilla
Objective Assessing the therapeutic effects of a combination of intra-articular and intra-osseous infiltrations of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to treat severe knee osteoarthritis (KOA) using intra-articular injections of PRP as the control group. Design In this observational study, 60 patients suffering from severe KOA were treated with intra-articular infiltrations of PRP (IA group) or with a combination of intra-osseous and intra-articular infiltrations of PRP (IO group). Both groups were matched for sex, age, body mass index, and radiographic severity (III and IV degree according to Ahlbäck scale)...
February 1, 2018: Cartilage
Michal Bijak, Rafal Szelenberger, Angela Dziedzic, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is the major platelet agonist, which is important in the shape changes, stability, and growth of the thrombus. Platelet activation by ADP is associated with the G protein-coupled receptors P2Y1 and P2Y12. The pharmacologic blockade of the P2Y12 receptor significantly reduces the risk of peripheral artery disease, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and vascular death. Recent studies demonstrated the inhibition of ADP-induced blood platelet activation by three major compounds of the flavonolignans group: silybin, silychristin, and silydianin...
February 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mehran Ghasemzadeh, Ehteramolsadat Hosseini, Zahra Oushyani Roudsari, Parvin Zadkhak
Platelets storage lesion is mainly orchestrated by platelet activating signals during storage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are being considered as important signaling molecules modulating platelet function while their production has also been shown to be augmented by platelet activation. This study investigated to what extent endogenous ROS generation during platelet storage could be correlated with platelet receptor shedding, microvesiculation and adhesive function. 10 PRP-platelet concentrates were subjected to flow cytometry analysis to examine the generation of intraplatelet ROS on days 1, 5 and 7 after storage...
February 1, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Qi Shi, Cao Chen, Bao-Yun Zhang, Wei Zhou, Kang Xiao, Xiao-Ping Dong
Normal prion protein (PrP) contains two cysteines at amino acids 179 and 214, which may form intra‑ and interpeptide disulfide bonds. To determine the possible effects of this disulfide bridge on the biochemical features of PrP, prokaryotic recombinant human wild‑type PrP (PG5), and mutated PrPs with seven extra octarepeats (PG12) or with all five octarepeats removed (PG0), were subjected to redox in vitro. Sedimentation assays revealed a large portion of aggregation in redox‑treated PG5, but not in PG0 and PG12...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Natalia Fernández-Borges, Hasier Eraña, Joaquín Castilla
Historically, the observation of naturally occurring cases of prion disease led to the classification of different susceptibility grades and to the designation of prion resistant species. However, the development of highly efficient in vitro prion propagation systems and the generation of ad hoc transgenic models allowed determining that leporidae and equidae families have been erroneously considered resistant to prion infection. On the contrary, similar approaches revealed an unexpected high level of resistance of the canidae family...
February 1, 2018: Prion
Yoshiko Munesue, Taishi Shimazaki, Zechen Qi, Norikazu Isoda, Hirofumi Sawa, Keisuke Aoshima, Takashi Kimura, Shirou Mohri, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Atsushi Kobayashi
Evaluation of transmission properties is important for the differential diagnosis of a subgroup of acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with methionine homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129 of the PRNP gene, an intermediate type abnormal prion protein (PrP), and kuru plaques, denoted as acquired CJD-MMiK. The present study aimed to develop a quick evaluation system of the transmission properties of acquired CJD-MMiK. In the PrP-humanized mice intraperitoneally inoculated with brain homogenates from an acquired CJD-MMiK patient, accumulation of abnormal PrP was observed in follicular dendritic cells of the spleen at 75 days post-inoculation...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Daniel Samorodnitsky, Eric M Nicholson
Misfolding of the normally folded prion protein of mammals (PrPC) into infectious fibrils causes a variety of diseases, from scrapie in sheep to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. The misfolded form of PrPC, termed PrPSc, or in this case PrPCWD, interacts with PrPC to create more PrPCWD. This process is not clearly defined but is affected by the presence and interactions of biotic and abiotic cofactors. These include nucleic acids, lipids, glycosylation, pH, and ionic character. PrPC has been shown to act as a copper-binding protein in vivo, though it also binds to other divalents as well...
January 9, 2018: Prion
Ahsen Karagozlu Akgul, Dursun Unal, Murat Demirbas, Sedat Oner, Murat Ucar, Korhan Akgul, Muhammet Guzelsoy, Murat Aydos
PURPOSE: Percutaneous renal puncture (PRP) is one of the most important and critical step of urology, especially while performing percutaneous nephrostomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). In the learning period of this procedures, there is a need for validated, effective, economical models for such training. This study describes a simple non - biological model for learning PRP. The aim was to determine the effectivity of this model as a training and assessment tool, and to assess its cost relative to other models...
December 17, 2017: Urology Journal
Michael P Gaspar, Michael A Motto, Sarah Lewis, Sidney M Jacoby, Randall W Culp, A Lee Osterman, Patrick M Kane
Background: Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. Purpose: To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the treatment of recalcitrant LE...
December 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
S Feldman-Billard, É Larger, P Massin
AIM: To review the frequency, importance of and risk factors for "early worsening of diabetic retinopathy" (EWDR) after rapid improvement of blood glucose in patients with diabetes. METHODS: This was a systematic review of key references (PubMed 1980-2016) and the current international recommendations for the above-mentioned topics. RESULTS: EWDR has been described during intensive treatment (IT) in patients with uncontrolled type 1 or 2 diabetes, and after pancreas transplantation or bariatric surgery...
February 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism
Grace Xiong, Nithya Lingampalli, Jayme C B Koltsov, Lawrence L Leung, Nidhi Bhutani, William H Robinson, Constance R Chu
BACKGROUND: Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used for a variety of clinical applications. However, clinical outcome studies have not consistently shown positive effects. The composition of PRP differs based on many factors. An improved understanding of factors influencing the composition of PRP is important for the optimization of PRP use. HYPOTHESIS: Age and sex influence the PRP composition in healthy patients. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
February 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Yi Jiang, William F Mieler
The use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in ophthalmology has profoundly changed our management and treatment of conditions such as cystoid macular edema, diabetic macular edema, choroidal neovascularization, and other proliferative retinopathies. Although initially used for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in neovascular age-related macular degeneration, their application has spread rapidly for other indications as their outcomes have often outperformed previously existing treatments...
November 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
Kei-Ichi Yamaguchi, Kazuo Kuwata
Amyloid fibrils formed from prion protein (PrP) are associated with prion diseases. In this review we discuss a number of extrinsic and intrinsic experimental factors related to the formation of PrP amyloid fibrils in vitro. We first examined the effects of ultrasonic power on the induction of amyloid fibrillation from PrP. The most important conclusion drawn from the results is that an applied ultrasonic power of approximately 2 W enhanced the nucleation of amyloid fibrils efficiently but that more powerful ultrasonication led to retardation of growth...
December 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
Gabriele Giachin, Ridvan Nepravishta, Walter Mandaliti, Sonia Melino, Alja Margon, Denis Scaini, Pierluigi Mazzei, Alessandro Piccolo, Giuseppe Legname, Maurizio Paci, Liviana Leita
Humic substances (HS) are the largest constituent of soil organic matter and are considered as a key component of the terrestrial ecosystem. HS may facilitate the transport of organic and inorganic molecules, as well as the sorption interactions with environmentally relevant proteins such as prions. Prions enter the environment through shedding from live hosts, facilitating a sustained incidence of animal prion diseases such as Chronic Wasting Disease and scrapie in cervid and ovine populations, respectively...
2017: PloS One
T Peter Lopez, Kurt Giles, Brittany N Dugger, Abby Oehler, Carlo Condello, Zuzana Krejciova, Julian A Castaneda, George A Carlson, Stanley B Prusiner
The larger brain of the rat enables a much greater repertoire of complex behaviors than mice, likely making rats preferential for investigating neurodegeneration. Because molecular tools for specific expression of transgenes in the rat brain are sparse, we chose Prnp encoding the prion protein (PrP) to develop a novel vector to drive transgene expression in the rat brain. We compared the rat Prnp sequence with mouse and Syrian hamster Prnp sequences, identifying conserved genetic elements and hypothesizing that these elements would be able to drive neuronal transgene expression...
November 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Joel C Watts, Matthew E C Bourkas, Hamza Arshad
The essential role of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in prion disorders such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is well documented. Moreover, evidence is accumulating that PrPC may act as a receptor for protein aggregates and transduce neurotoxic signals in more common neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Although the pathological roles of PrPC have been thoroughly characterized, a general consensus on its physiological function within the brain has not yet been established. Knockout studies in various organisms, ranging from zebrafish to mice, have implicated PrPC in a diverse range of nervous system-related activities that include a key role in the maintenance of peripheral nerve myelination as well as a general ability to protect against neurotoxic stimuli...
November 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
Amber Roguski, Andrew C Gill
Sleep disruption is a prevalent clinical feature in many neurodegenerative disorders, including human prion diseases where it can be the defining dysfunction, as in the case of the "eponymous" fatal familial insomnia, or an early-stage symptom as in certain types of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is important to establish the role of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), the key molecule involved in prion pathogenesis, within the sleep-wake system in order to understand fully the mechanisms underlying its contribution to both healthy circadian rhythmicity and sleep dysfunction during disease...
November 17, 2017: Pathogens
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