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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324664/limited-understanding-of-the-functional-diversity-of-n-linked-glycans-as-a-major-gap-of-prion-biology
#1
Ilia V Baskakov
Among a broad range of hypotheses on the molecular nature of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy or scrapie agents discussed in 1960s was a hypothesis of self-replicating polysaccharides. While the studies of the past 40 years provided unambiguous proof that this is not the case, emerging evidence suggests that carbohydrates in the form of sialylated N-linked glycans, which are a constitutive part of mammalian prions or PrP(Sc), are essential in determining prion fate in an organism. The current extra-view article discusses recent advancements on the role of N-linked glycans and specifically their sialylation status in controlling prion fate...
March 21, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298604/prion-strain-characterization-of-a-novel-subtype-of-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#2
Roberta Galeno, Michele Angelo Di Bari, Romolo Nonno, Franco Cardone, Marco Sbriccoli, Silvia Graziano, Loredana Ingrosso, Michele Fiorini, Angelina Valanzano, Giulia Pasini, Anna Poleggi, Ramona Vinci, Anna Ladogana, Maria Puopolo, Salvatore Monaco, Umberto Agrimi, Gianluigi Zanusso, Maurizio Pocchiari
In 2007, we reported a patient with an atypical form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), heterozygous for methionine-valine (MV) at codon 129, who showed a novel pathological prion protein (PrP(TSE)) conformation with an atypical glycoform (AG) profile and an intraneuronal PrP deposition. In the present study, we further characterized the conformational properties of this pathological prion protein (PrP(TSE) MV(AG)) showing that PrP(TSE) MV(AG) is composed by multiple conformers with biochemical properties distinct from PrP(TSE) type 1 and type 2 of MV sporadic CJD (sCJD)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283281/trends-in-vitreoretinal-procedures-for-medicare-beneficiaries-2000-to-2014
#3
Michael D McLaughlin, John C Hwang
TOPIC: The purpose of this study was to identify changes in use for vitreoretinal procedures by measuring the number of allowed services using data from the US Medicare Part B Fee-for-Service (FFS) beneficiaries and their providers. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To analyze vitreoretinal procedural trends, which may indicate standard of care and importance of developing methods of treatments. METHODS: Medicare Part B National Summary Data Files for calendar years 2000 to 2014 were used to identify the number of allowed services for vitreoretinal procedures and commonly used pharmacologic agents...
March 7, 2017: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282030/platelet-rich-plasma-for-regeneration-of-neural-feedback-pathways-around-dental-implants-a-concise-review-and-outlook-on-future-possibilities
#4
REVIEW
Yan Huang, Michael M Bornstein, Ivo Lambrichts, Hai-Yang Yu, Constantinus Politis, Reinhilde Jacobs
Along with the development of new materials, advanced medical imaging and surgical techniques, osseointegrated dental implants are considered a successful and constantly evolving treatment modality for the replacement of missing teeth in patients with complete or partial edentulism. The importance of restoring the peripheral neural feedback pathway and thus repairing the lack of periodontal mechanoreceptors after tooth extraction has been highlighted in the literature. Nevertheless, regenerating the nerve fibers and reconstructing the neural feedback pathways around osseointegrated implants remain a challenge...
March 10, 2017: International Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265109/comparative-evaluation-of-leukocyte-and-platelet-rich-plasma-and-pure-platelet-rich-plasma-for-cartilage-regeneration
#5
Zhengliang Xu, Wenjing Yin, Yuelei Zhang, Xin Qi, Yixuan Chen, Xuetao Xie, Changqing Zhang
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has gained growing popularity in the treatment of articular cartilage lesions in the last decade. However, the potential harmful effects of leukocytes in PRP on cartilage regeneration have seldom been studied in vitro, and not at all in vivo yet. The objective of the present study is to compare the effects of leukocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP) and pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) on cartilage repair and NF-κB pathway, in order to explore the mechanism underlying the function of leukocytes in PRP in cartilage regeneration...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255815/effects-of-prion-protein-devoid-of-the-n-terminal-residues-25-50-on-prion-pathogenesis-in-mice
#6
Nandita Rani Das, Hironori Miyata, Hideyuki Hara, Keiji Uchiyama, Junji Chida, Masashi Yano, Hitomi Watanabe, Gen Kondoh, Suehiro Sakaguchi
The N-terminal polybasic region of the normal prion protein, PrP(C), which encompasses residues 23-31, is important for prion pathogenesis by affecting conversion of PrP(C) into the pathogenic isoform, PrP(Sc). We previously reported transgenic mice expressing PrP with residues 25-50 deleted in the PrP-null background, designated as Tg(PrP∆preOR)/Prnp (0/0) mice. Here, we produced two new lines of Tg(PrP∆preOR)/Prnp (0/0) mice, each expressing the mutant protein, PrP∆preOR, 1.1 and 1.6 times more than PrP(C) in wild-type mice, and subsequently intracerebrally inoculated RML and 22L prions into them...
March 2, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250130/pathways-of-prion-spread-during-early-chronic-wasting-disease-in-deer
#7
Clare E Hoover, Kristen A Davenport, Davin M Henderson, Nathaniel D Denkers, Candace K Mathiason, Claudio Soto, Mark D Zabel, Edward A Hoover
Among prion infections, two scenarios of prion spread are generally observed: (a) early lymphoid tissue replication or (b) direct neuroinvasion without substantial antecedent lymphoid amplification. In nature, cervids are infected with chronic wasting disease (CWD) prions by oral and nasal mucosal exposure, and studies of early CWD pathogenesis have implicated pharyngeal lymphoid tissue as the earliest sites of prion accumulation. However, knowledge of chronological events in prion spread during early infection remains incomplete...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245395/-preparation-of-platelet-rich-plasma-from-the-white-slurry-and-its-effect-on-msc-proliferation
#8
Ke-Tao Wang, Zhong-Li Li, Heng Zhu, Yuan-Yuan Qin, Yi-Meng Yang, Ji Li, Ru-Ju Lv, Yuan-Lin Liu, Ning Mao, Yi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To isolate platelet-rich plasma(PRP) from the white slurry(WS), a depleted fraction of the clinical blood supply, so as to provide an easier method to harvest PRP for related studies and clinical use. METHODS: The protocols preparing PRP from whole blood and WS were compared. The morphological characteristics of the different PRPs were observed under transmission electron microscope; the expression of the platelet markers CD41a and CD42b were detected by the flow cytometry...
February 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210651/analysis-of-platelet-rich-plasma-extraction-variations-in-platelet-and-blood-components-between-4-common-commercial-kits
#9
Jane Fitzpatrick, Max K Bulsara, Paul Robert McCrory, Martin D Richardson, Ming Hao Zheng
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been extensively used as a treatment in tissue healing in tendinopathy, muscle injury, and osteoarthritis. However, there is variation in methods of extraction, and this produces different types of PRP. PURPOSE: To determine the composition of PRP obtained from 4 commercial separation kits, which would allow assessment of current classification systems used in cross-study comparisons. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
January 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202758/endogenous-brain-lipids-inhibit-prion-amyloid-formation-in-vitro
#10
Clare E Hoover, Kristen A Davenport, Davin M Henderson, Mark D Zabel, Edward A Hoover
The normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) resides in detergent-resistant outer membrane lipid rafts in which conversion to the pathogenic misfolded form is believed to occur. Once misfolding occurs, the pathogenic isoform polymerizes into highly stable amyloid fibrils. In vitro assays have demonstrated an intimate association between prion conversion and lipids, specifically phosphatidylethanolamine, which is a critical cofactor in the formation of synthetic infectious prions. In the current work, we demonstrate an alternative inhibitory function of lipids in the prion conversion process as assessed in vitro by real-time, quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202394/platelet-rich-plasma-prp-induces-chondroprotection-via-increasing-autophagy-anti-inflammatory-markers-and-decreasing-apoptosis-in-human-osteoarthritic-cartilage
#11
Mayssam Moussa, Daniel Lajeunesse, George Hilal, Oula El Atat, Gaby Haykal, Rim Serhal, Antonio Chalhoub, Charbel Khalil, Nada Alaaeddine
OBJECTIVES: Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration...
March 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193770/%C3%AE-amyloid-prions-and-the-pathobiology-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Joel C Watts, Stanley B Prusiner
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in humans and will pose a considerable challenge to healthcare systems in the coming years. Aggregation of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide within the brain is thought to be an initiating event in AD pathogenesis. Many recent studies in transgenic mice have provided evidence that Aβ aggregates become self-propagating during disease, leading to a cascade of protein aggregation in the brain, which may underlie the progressive nature of AD. The ability to self-propagate and the existence of distinct "strains" reveals that Aβ aggregates exhibit many properties indistinguishable from those of prions composed of PrP(Sc) proteins...
February 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147229/identification-and-structural-characterization-of-the-precursor-conformation-of-the-prion-protein-which-directly-initiates-misfolding-and-oligomerization
#13
Roumita Moulick, Jayant B Udgaonkar
To identify and structurally characterize the precursor conformation of the prion protein (PrP), from which misfolding and aggregation directly commence, has been a long-standing goal. Misfolding converts the α-helical, non-pathogenic functional form of PrP to pathogenic, β-structured oligomeric and amyloidogenic forms, which are the cause of prion diseases. Susceptibility to sporadic prion disease correlates well with the propensity of PrP to misfold to cytotoxic, proteinase K resistant oligomeric conformations at low pH...
January 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145687/phototransformation-of-the-herbicide-propanil-in-paddy-field-water
#14
Luca Carena, Marco Minella, Francesco Barsotti, Marcello Brigante, Marco Milan, Aldo Ferrero, Silvia Berto, Claudio Minero, Davide Vione
When irradiated in paddy-field water, propanil (PRP) undergoes photodegradation by direct photolysis, by reactions with (•)OH and CO3(•-), and possibly also with the triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. Irradiation also inhibits the nonphotochemical (probably biological) degradation of PRP. The dark- and light-induced pathways can be easily distinguished because 3,4-dichloroaniline (34DCA, a transformation intermediate of considerable environmental concern) is produced with almost 100% yield in the dark but not at all through photochemical pathways...
February 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145076/low-agreement-between-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-platelet-rich-plasma-in-the-calibrated-automated-thrombogram-assay
#15
M Ljungkvist, S Lövdahl, E Zetterberg, E Berntorp
INTRODUCTION: Thrombin generation tests (TGTs) are considered to give more detailed information of the overall coagulation capability of a patient than clotting-based routine assays. The TGT thrombin generation assay-calibrated automated thrombogram (TGA-CAT) uses both platelet-poor plasma (PPP) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Assessing PRP gives more physiological test conditions and is of great interest considering the important role platelets play in haemostasis. However, PRP needs to be assessed close after blood draw/preparation as freezing fragments the platelets...
January 31, 2017: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144628/de-novo-generation-of-a-unique-cervid-prion-strain-using-protein-misfolding-cyclic-amplification
#16
Crystal Meyerett-Reid, A Christy Wyckoff, Terry Spraker, Bruce Pulford, Heather Bender, Mark D Zabel
Substantial evidence supports the hypothesis that prions are misfolded, infectious, insoluble, and protease-resistant proteins (PrP(RES)) devoid of instructional nucleic acid that cause transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) has provided additional evidence that PrPRes acts as a template that can convert the normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) present in uninfected normal brain homogenate (NBH) into the infectious misfolded PrP(RES) isoform. Human PrP(C) has been shown to spontaneously convert to a misfolded pathological state causing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD)...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130042/intravitreal-bevacizumab-for-the-treatment-of-vitreous-hemorrhage-due-to-proliferative-diabetic-retinopathy
#17
Rupin N Parikh, Anastasia Traband, Anton M Kolomeyer, Brian L VanderBeek, Benjamin J Kim, Albert M Maguire, Alexander J Brucker
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) use in patients with a vitreous hemorrhage (VH) secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional case series. METHODS: Patients who presented to Scheie Eye Institute between January 2008 and January 2015 with a new VH secondary to PDR and treated with IVB were included. Exclusion criteria consisted of IVB treatment prior to the study, a history of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), and less than one year of follow-up...
January 24, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119114/evaluation-of-platelet-rich-plasma-gel-potential-in-acceleration-of-wound-healing-duration-in-patients-underwent-pilonidal-sinus-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-parallel-clinical-trial
#18
Saeed Mohammadi, Shirzad Nasiri, Mohammad Hossein Mohammadi, Ashraf Malek Mohammadi, Mohsen Nikbakht, Mahdi Zahed Panah, Hiva Safar, Shayan Mostafaei, Amir Hossein Norooznezhad, Ahmad Reza Soroosh, Kamran Alimoghaddam, Ardeshir Ghavamzadeh
OBJECTIVES: One of the most important surgical issues applied in the treatment of pilonidal sinus disease is wound healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel on accelerating wound healing in these patients. METHODS: In this randomized, controlled, parallel group clinical trial, 110 patients were randomly allocated into two parallel groups with the same size (controls and treatment arm) after meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria...
January 4, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118747/in-silico-strategies-on-prion-pathogenic-conversion-and-inhibition-from-prp-c-prp-sc
#19
Nataraj S Pagadala, Khajamohiddin Syed, Rakesh Bhat
To date, various therapeutic strategies identified numerous anti-prion compounds and antibodies that stabilize PrP(C), block the conversion of PrP(C)-PrP(Sc) and increased effect on PrP(Sc) clearance. However, no suitable drug has been identified clinically so far due to the poor oral absorption, low blood-brain-barrier [BBB] penetration, and high toxicity. Although some of the drugs were proven to be effective in prion-infected cell culture and whole animal models, none of them increased the rate of survival compared to placebo...
February 2, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110950/vancomycin-associated-hemorrhagic-occlusive-retinal-vasculitis-clinical-characteristics-of-36-eyes
#20
Andre J Witkin, David F Chang, J Michael Jumper, Steve Charles, Dean Eliott, Richard S Hoffman, Nick Mamalis, Kevin M Miller, Charles C Wykoff
PURPOSE: To expand understanding of presentation, diagnosis, and outcomes of hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis (HORV). DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six eyes of 23 patients. METHODS: The American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery (ASCRS) and the American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS) formed a joint task force to define clinical characteristics of HORV and to study its prevalence, cause, treatment, and outcomes...
January 19, 2017: Ophthalmology
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