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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329906/development-of-a-quick-bioassay-for-the-evaluation-of-transmission-properties-of-acquired-prion-diseases
#1
Yoshiko Munesue, Taishi Shimazaki, Zechen Qi, Norikazu Isoda, Hirofumi Sawa, Keisuke Aoshima, Takashi Kimura, Shirou Mohri, Tetsuyuki Kitamoto, Atsushi Kobayashi
Evaluation of transmission properties is important for the differential diagnosis of a subgroup of acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) with methionine homozygosity at polymorphic codon 129 of the PRNP gene, an intermediate type abnormal prion protein (PrP), and kuru plaques, denoted as acquired CJD-MMiK. The present study aimed to develop a quick evaluation system of the transmission properties of acquired CJD-MMiK. In the PrP-humanized mice intraperitoneally inoculated with brain homogenates from an acquired CJD-MMiK patient, accumulation of abnormal PrP was observed in follicular dendritic cells of the spleen at 75 days post-inoculation...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310497/differential-effects-of-divalent-cations-on-elk-prion-protein-fibril-formation-and-stability
#2
Daniel Samorodnitsky, Eric M Nicholson
Misfolding of the normally folded prion protein of mammals (PrPC) into infectious fibrils causes a variety of diseases, from scrapie in sheep to chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids. The misfolded form of PrPC, termed PrPSc, or in this case PrPCWD, interacts with PrPC to create more PrPCWD. This process is not clearly defined but is affected by the presence and interactions of biotic and abiotic cofactors. These include nucleic acids, lipids, glycosylation, pH, and ionic character. PrPC has been shown to act as a copper-binding protein in vivo, though it also binds to other divalents as well...
January 9, 2018: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250765/a-simple-non-biological-model-for-percutaneous-renal-access-training
#3
Ahsen Karagozlu Akgul, Dursun Unal, Murat Demirbas, Sedat Oner, Murat Ucar, Korhan Akgul, Muhammet Guzelsoy, Murat Aydos
PURPOSE: Percutaneous renal puncture (PRP) is one of the most important and critical step of urology, especially while performing percutaneous nephrostomy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). In the learning period of this procedures, there is a need for validated, effective, economical models for such training. This study describes a simple non - biological model for learning PRP. The aim was to determine the effectivity of this model as a training and assessment tool, and to assess its cost relative to other models...
December 17, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238734/platelet-rich-plasma-injection-with-percutaneous-needling-for-recalcitrant-lateral-epicondylitis-comparison-of-tenotomy-and-fenestration-techniques
#4
Michael P Gaspar, Michael A Motto, Sarah Lewis, Sidney M Jacoby, Randall W Culp, A Lee Osterman, Patrick M Kane
Background: Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. Purpose: To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the treatment of recalcitrant LE...
December 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217386/early-worsening-of-diabetic-retinopathy-after-rapid-improvement-of-blood-glucose-control-in-patients-with-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
S Feldman-Billard, É Larger, P Massin
AIM: To review the frequency, importance of and risk factors for "early worsening of diabetic retinopathy" (EWDR) after rapid improvement of blood glucose in patients with diabetes. METHODS: This was a systematic review of key references (PubMed 1980-2016) and the current international recommendations for the above-mentioned topics. RESULTS: EWDR has been described during intensive treatment (IT) in patients with uncontrolled type 1 or 2 diabetes, and after pancreas transplantation or bariatric surgery...
November 11, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211968/men-and-women-differ-in-the-biochemical-composition-of-platelet-rich-plasma
#6
Grace Xiong, Nithya Lingampalli, Jayme C B Koltsov, Lawrence L Leung, Nidhi Bhutani, William H Robinson, Constance R Chu
BACKGROUND: Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used for a variety of clinical applications. However, clinical outcome studies have not consistently shown positive effects. The composition of PRP differs based on many factors. An improved understanding of factors influencing the composition of PRP is important for the optimization of PRP use. HYPOTHESIS: Age and sex influence the PRP composition in healthy patients. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204993/update-on-the-use-of-anti-vegf-intravitreal-therapies-for-retinal-vein-occlusions
#7
REVIEW
Yi Jiang, William F Mieler
The use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy in ophthalmology has profoundly changed our management and treatment of conditions such as cystoid macular edema, diabetic macular edema, choroidal neovascularization, and other proliferative retinopathies. Although initially used for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in neovascular age-related macular degeneration, their application has spread rapidly for other indications as their outcomes have often outperformed previously existing treatments...
November 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204880/formation-and-properties-of-amyloid-fibrils-of-prion-protein
#8
REVIEW
Kei-Ichi Yamaguchi, Kazuo Kuwata
Amyloid fibrils formed from prion protein (PrP) are associated with prion diseases. In this review we discuss a number of extrinsic and intrinsic experimental factors related to the formation of PrP amyloid fibrils in vitro. We first examined the effects of ultrasonic power on the induction of amyloid fibrillation from PrP. The most important conclusion drawn from the results is that an applied ultrasonic power of approximately 2 W enhanced the nucleation of amyloid fibrils efficiently but that more powerful ultrasonication led to retardation of growth...
December 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161325/the-mechanisms-of-humic-substances-self-assembly-with-biological-molecules-the-case-study-of-the-prion-protein
#9
Gabriele Giachin, Ridvan Nepravishta, Walter Mandaliti, Sonia Melino, Alja Margon, Denis Scaini, Pierluigi Mazzei, Alessandro Piccolo, Giuseppe Legname, Maurizio Paci, Liviana Leita
Humic substances (HS) are the largest constituent of soil organic matter and are considered as a key component of the terrestrial ecosystem. HS may facilitate the transport of organic and inorganic molecules, as well as the sorption interactions with environmentally relevant proteins such as prions. Prions enter the environment through shedding from live hosts, facilitating a sustained incidence of animal prion diseases such as Chronic Wasting Disease and scrapie in cervid and ovine populations, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157304/a-novel-vector-for-transgenesis-in-the-rat-cns
#10
T Peter Lopez, Kurt Giles, Brittany N Dugger, Abby Oehler, Carlo Condello, Zuzana Krejciova, Julian A Castaneda, George A Carlson, Stanley B Prusiner
The larger brain of the rat enables a much greater repertoire of complex behaviors than mice, likely making rats preferential for investigating neurodegeneration. Because molecular tools for specific expression of transgenes in the rat brain are sparse, we chose Prnp encoding the prion protein (PrP) to develop a novel vector to drive transgene expression in the rat brain. We compared the rat Prnp sequence with mouse and Syrian hamster Prnp sequences, identifying conserved genetic elements and hypothesizing that these elements would be able to drive neuronal transgene expression...
November 21, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151170/the-function-of-the-cellular-prion-protein-in-health-and-disease
#11
REVIEW
Joel C Watts, Matthew E C Bourkas, Hamza Arshad
The essential role of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) in prion disorders such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is well documented. Moreover, evidence is accumulating that PrPC may act as a receptor for protein aggregates and transduce neurotoxic signals in more common neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Although the pathological roles of PrPC have been thoroughly characterized, a general consensus on its physiological function within the brain has not yet been established. Knockout studies in various organisms, ranging from zebrafish to mice, have implicated PrPC in a diverse range of nervous system-related activities that include a key role in the maintenance of peripheral nerve myelination as well as a general ability to protect against neurotoxic stimuli...
November 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149024/the-role-of-the-mammalian-prion-protein-in-the-control-of-sleep
#12
REVIEW
Amber Roguski, Andrew C Gill
Sleep disruption is a prevalent clinical feature in many neurodegenerative disorders, including human prion diseases where it can be the defining dysfunction, as in the case of the "eponymous" fatal familial insomnia, or an early-stage symptom as in certain types of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. It is important to establish the role of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), the key molecule involved in prion pathogenesis, within the sleep-wake system in order to understand fully the mechanisms underlying its contribution to both healthy circadian rhythmicity and sleep dysfunction during disease...
November 17, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138803/toll-like-receptors-tlr1-2-tlr6-and-muc5b-as-binding-interaction-partners-with-cytostatic-proline-rich-polypeptide-1-in-human-chondrosarcoma
#13
Karina Galoian, Silva Abrahamyan, Gor Chailyan, Amir Qureshi, Parthik Patel, Gil Metser, Alexandra Moran, Inesa Sahakyan, Narine Tumasyan, Albert Lee, Tigran Davtyan, Samvel Chailyan, Armen Galoyan
Metastatic chondrosarcoma is a bone malignancy not responsive to conventional therapies; new approaches and therapies are urgently needed. We have previously reported that mTORC1 inhibitor, antitumorigenic cytostatic proline rich polypeptide 1 (PRP-1), galarmin caused a significant upregulation of tumor suppressors including TET1/2 and SOCS3 (known to be involved in inflammatory processes), downregulation of oncoproteins and embryonic stem cell marker miR-302C and its targets Nanog, c-Myc and Bmi-1 in human chondrosarcoma...
January 2018: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134118/an-overview-of-platelet-products-prp-prgf-prf-etc-in-the-iranian-studies
#14
REVIEW
Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat, Marzieh Babaee, Seyed Mansour Rayegani, Zahra Hashemi, Amir Ali Hamidieh, Parviz Mojgani, Hossein Fouladi Vanda
Aim: The aim of the study was to carry out a review of published studies on various platelet products in Iranian studies. Materials & methods: Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles. Two review authors independently extracted data via a tested extraction sheet, and disagreements were resolved by a meeting with a third review author. Results: Bone disorders (25%), wound and fistula (16%), dental and gingival disorders (14%) and osteoarthritis (11%) have more relative frequency based on different fields...
November 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133563/a-promising-anti-prion-trimethoxychalcone-binds-to-the-globular-domain-of-prp-c-and-changes-its-cellular-location
#15
N C Ferreira, L M Ascari, A G Hughson, G R Cavalheiro, C F Góes, P N Fernandes, J R Hollister, R A da Conceição, D S Silva, A M T Souza, M L C Barbosa, F A Lara, R A P Martins, B Caughey, Y Cordeiro
The search for anti-prion compounds has been encouraged by the fact that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) share molecular mechanisms with more prevalent neurodegenerative pathologies, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Cellular prion protein conversion into protease-resistant forms (PrP(Res) or PrP(Sc)) is a critical step in the development of TSEs, thus being one of the main targets in the screening for anti-prion compounds. In this work, three trimethoxychalcones (J1, J8, J20) and one oxadiazole (Y17), previously identified in vitro as potential anti-prion compounds, were evaluated through different approaches in order to gain inferences about their mechanism of action...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125811/does-leukocyte-poor-or-leukocyte-rich-platelet-rich-plasma-applied-with-biopolymers-have-superiority-to-conventional-platelet-rich-plasma-applications-on-chondrocyte-proliferation
#16
Duygu Yaşar Şirin, İbrahim Yılmaz, Mehmet İsyar, Kadir Öznam, Mahir Mahiroğulları
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the possible effects of leukocyte concentration in the content of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the administration of PRP using a drug delivery system on chondrocyte proliferation in vitro conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood from nine male patients (mean age 65 years; range 49 to 81 years) with advanced stage osteoarthritis who had not responded to medical or conservative treatments and underwent total knee arthroplasty was used to prepare two formulations: PRP with low concentration leukocytes (2000-4000 leukocytes/µL) was designated as pure PRP (P-PRP), whereas PRP with high concentration leukocytes (9000-11000 leukocytes/µL) as leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP)...
December 2017: Eklem Hastalıkları Ve Cerrahisi, Joint Diseases & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102974/inflammatory-optic-disc-neovascularisation-managed-with-oral-steroids-immunosuppressants-and-intravitreal-ranibizumab
#17
Babu Lal Kumawat, Rohan Chawla, Pradeep Venkatesh, Koushik Tripathy
Inflammatory optic disc neovascularisation (NVD) has been treated with periocular or systemic steroids, immunosuppressants, panretinal photocoagulation and bevacizumab. However, the role of intravitreal ranibizumab in inflammatory NVD has not been explored in the peer-reviewed indexed literature. In case 1, NVD and associated subhyaloid haemorrhage showed rapid and dramatic regression after intravitreal ranibizumab. Recurrence was noted 8 weeks after injection which was managed by oral steroids. In case 2, intravitreal ranibizumab led to partial resolution of NVD...
November 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094186/cofactors-influence-the-biological-properties-of-infectious-recombinant-prions
#18
Natalia Fernández-Borges, Michele A Di Bari, Hasier Eraña, Manuel Sánchez-Martín, Laura Pirisinu, Beatriz Parra, Saioa R Elezgarai, Ilaria Vanni, Rafael López-Moreno, Gabriele Vaccari, Vanessa Venegas, Jorge M Charco, David Gil, Chafik Harrathi, Claudia D'Agostino, Umberto Agrimi, Tomás Mayoral, Jesús R Requena, Romolo Nonno, Joaquín Castilla
Prion diseases are caused by a misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrP) to a pathogenic isoform named PrP(Sc). Prions exist as strains, which are characterized by specific pathological and biochemical properties likely encoded in the three-dimensional structure of PrP(Sc). However, whether cofactors determine these different PrP(Sc) conformations and how this relates to their specific biological properties is largely unknown. To understand how different cofactors modulate prion strain generation and selection, Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification was used to create a diversity of infectious recombinant prion strains by propagation in the presence of brain homogenate...
November 1, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076011/hepatitis-c-virus-induced-prion-protein-expression-facilitates-hepatitis-c-virus-replication
#19
Huixia Zhang, Shanshan Gao, Rongjuan Pei, Xinwen Chen, Chaoyang Li
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects approximately 180 million people worldwide. Significant progress has been made since the establishment of in vitro HCV infection models in cells. However, the replication of HCV is complex and not completely understood. Here, we found that the expression of host prion protein (PrP) was induced in an HCV replication cell model. We then showed that increased PrP expression facilitated HCV genomic replication. Finally, we demonstrated that the KKRPK motif on the N-terminus of PrP bound nucleic acids and facilitated HCV genomic replication...
October 25, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074011/analysis-of-reasons-for-noncompliance-with-laser-treatment-in-patients-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#20
Wen Hua, Sijia Cao, Jing Cui, David Maberley, Joanne Matsubara
OBJECTIVE: To identify the underlying reasons for noncompliance among Chinese patients undergoing laser photocoagulation treatment for diabetic retinopathy (DR). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 262 patients with DR with indications for panretinal photocoagulation and focal laser treatment were recruited. METHODS: Those who did not complete the prescribed laser treatment were categorized into 2 types of defaulters: Type 1 defaulters were those who did not initiate laser treatment as scheduled; type 2 defaulters were those who did not complete the entire laser sessions, including terminating midterm or defaulting prompt supplement of laser treatment...
November 2017: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
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