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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096242/developing-therapeutics-for-prp-prion-diseases
#1
Kurt Giles, Steven H Olson, Stanley B Prusiner
The prototypical PrP prion diseases are invariably fatal, and the search for agents to treat them spans more than 30 years, with limited success. However, in the last few years, the application of high-throughput screening, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacokinetic optimization has led to important advances. The PrP prion inoculation paradigm provides a robust assay for testing therapeutic efficacy, and a dozen compounds have been reported that lead to meaningful extension in survival of prion-infected mice...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086781/effects-of-the-intradiscal-implantation-of-stromal-vascular-fraction-plus-platelet-rich-plasma-in-patients-with-degenerative-disc-disease
#2
Comella Kristin, Silbert Robert, Parlo Michelle
BACKGROUND: Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) can easily be obtained from a mini-lipoaspirate procedure of fat tissue and platelet rich plasma (PRP) can be obtained from peripheral blood. The SVF contains a mixture of cells including ADSCs and growth factors and has been depleted of the adipocyte (fat cell) population. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of administering SVF and PRP intra-discally into patients with degenerative disc disease. METHODS: A total of 15 patients underwent a local tumescent liposuction procedure to remove approximately 60 ml of fat tissue...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079651/branch-retinal-vein-occlusion-secondary-to-a-retinal-arteriolar-macroaneurysm-a-novel-mechanism-supported-by-multimodal-imaging
#3
Yi Chen, Simon D M Chen, Fred K Chen
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To report a case of a branch retinal vein occlusion secondary to a retinal arteriolar macroaneurysm (RAM). METHODS: Retrospective case report describing examination findings, treatment outcome and unique multimodal imaging features demonstrated on fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography and adaptive optics photography of the retinal vessels and RAM. RESULTS: A 61-year-old man presented with 20/200 vision in the right eye because of a branch retinal vein occlusion secondary to a RAM...
January 10, 2017: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077650/melanin-or-melanin-like-substance-interacts-with-the-n-terminal-portion-of-prion-protein-and-inhibits-abnormal-prion-protein-formation-in-prion-infected-cells
#4
Taichi Hamanaka, Keiko Nishizawa, Yuji Sakasegawa, Ayumi Oguma, Kenta Teruya, Hiroshi Kurahashi, Hideyuki Hara, Suehiro Sakaguchi, Katsumi Doh-Ura
Prion diseases are progressive fatal neurodegenerative illnesses caused by the accumulation of transmissible abnormal prion protein (PrP). To find treatments for prion diseases, we searched for substances from natural resources that inhibit abnormal PrP formation in prion-infected cells. We found that high-molecular-weight components from insect cuticle extracts reduced abnormal PrP levels. The chemical nature of these components was consistent with that of melanin. In fact, synthetic melanin produced from tyrosine or 3-hydroxy-l-tyrosine inhibited abnormal PrP formation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029568/differences-in-levels-of-platelet-derived-microparticles-in-platelet-components-prepared-using-the-platelet-rich-plasma-buffy-coat-and-apheresis-procedures
#5
Egarit Noulsri, Prapaporn Udomwinijsilp, Surada Lerdwana, Viroje Chongkolwatana, Parichart Permpikul
BACKGROUND: There has been an increased interest in platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) in transfusion medicine. Little is known about PMP status during the preparation of platelet concentrates for transfusion. AIM: The aim of this study is to compare the PMP levels in platelet components prepared using the buffy coat (BC), platelet-rich plasma platelet concentrate (PRP-PC), and apheresis (AP) processes. METHODS: Platelet components were prepared using the PRP-PC and BC processes...
October 25, 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012636/efficacy-of-platelet-rich-plasma-in-the-treatment-of-knee-osteoarthritis-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#6
Wen-Li Dai, Ai-Guo Zhou, Hua Zhang, Jian Zhang
PURPOSE: To use meta-analysis techniques to evaluate the efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for the treatment knee of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane database through April 2016 to identify Level I randomized controlled trials that evaluated the clinical efficacy of PRP versus control treatments for knee OA. The primary outcomes were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function scores...
December 22, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998976/sialylation-controls-prion-fate-in-vivo
#7
Saurabh Srivastava, Elizaveta Katorcha, Martin L Daus, Peter Lasch, Michael Beekes, Ilia V Baskakov
Prions or PrP(Sc) are proteinaceous infectious agents that consist of misfolded, self-replicating states of a sialoglycoprotein called the prion protein or PrP(C) The current work tests a new hypothesis that sialylation determines the fate of prions in an organism. To begin, we produced control PrP(Sc) from PrP(C) using Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification (PMCAb), and also generated PrP(Sc) with reduced sialylation levels using the same method but with partially desialylated PrP(C) as a substrate (dsPMCAb)...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966263/molecular-and-microarray-based-analysis-of-diversity-among-resting-and-osteogenically-induced-porcine-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-of-several-tissue-origin
#8
Samet Bayraktar, Pascal Jungbluth, René Deenen, Jan Grassmann, Johannes Schneppendahl, Daphne Eschbach, Armin Scholz, Joachim Windolf, Christoph V Suschek, Vera Grotheer
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) play a pivotal role in modern therapeutic approaches in bone healing disorders. Although bone marrow-derived MSC are most frequently used, the knowledge that many other adult tissues represent promising sources for potent MSC has gained acceptance. In the present study, the osteogenic differentiation potential of porcine skin fibroblasts (FB) as well as bone marrow- (BMSC), adipose tissue- (ASC), and dental pulp-derived stromal cells (DSC) were evaluated. However, additional application of BMP-2 significantly elevated the delayed osteogenic differentiation capacity of ASC and FB cultures...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917814/protective-effect-of-intravesical-platelet-rich-plasma-on-cyclophosphamide-induced-hemorrhagic-cystitis
#9
E Ozyuvali, M E Yildirim, T Yaman, B Kosem, E Cimentepe
PURPOSE: Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is the most common urotoxic side effect of cyclophosphamide (CYP). Platelet rich plasma (PRP) plays an important role in wound healing and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intravesical PRP at treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). METHODS: Female rats (n=24) were used. IC was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) and rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups (n = 6 per group): A control group; a sham group with saline (75 mg/kg; i...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917804/protective-effect-of-intravesical-platelet-rich-plasma-on-cyclophosphamide-induced-hemorrhagic-cystitis
#10
E Ozyuvali, M E Yildirim, T Yaman, B Kosem, O Atli, E Cimentepe
PURPOSE: Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is the most common urotoxic side effect of cyclophosphamide (CYP). Platelet rich plasma (PRP) plays an important role in wound healing and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intravesical PRP at treatment of interstitial cystitis (IC). MATERIAL-METHODS: Female rats (n=24) were used. IC was induced by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP). Rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups (n = 6 per group): a control group; a sham group with saline (75 mg/kg; i...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900155/normal-platelet-function-in-platelet-concentrates-requires-non-platelet-cells-a-comparative-in-vitro-evaluation-of-leucocyte-rich-type-1a-and-leucocyte-poor-type-3b-platelet-concentrates
#11
William R Parrish, Breana Roides, Julia Hwang, Michael Mafilios, Brooks Story, Samir Bhattacharyya
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic success of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may vary based on the composition and preparation method. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cellular components of platelet concentrates produced by a leucocyte-rich (LR-PRP) and a leucocyte-poor PRP systems (LP-PRP). METHODS: Parameters evaluated included platelet recovery, platelet concentration, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) composition, platelet growth factor release and stimulation of human tendon cell proliferation in vitro...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900099/effect-of-cytostatic-proline-rich-polypeptide-1-on-tumor-suppressors-of-inflammation-pathway-signaling-in-chondrosarcoma
#12
Karina Galoian, Shihua Luo, Amir Qureshi, Parthik Patel, Rachel Price, Ashlyn S Morse, Gor Chailyan, Silva Abrahamyan, H T Temple
Cytokines produced in the tumour microenvironment exert an important role in cancer pathogenesis and in the inhibition of disease progression. Cancer of the cartilage is termed metastatic chondrosarcoma; however, the signaling events resulting in mesenchymal cell transformation to sarcoma have yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to characterize the cytokine expression profile in the human JJ012 chondrosarcoma cell line, as well as the effect of cytostatic proline-rich polypeptide-1 (PRP-1). Western blot experiments demonstrated that the levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) were upregulated in chondrocytes compared with chondrosarcoma cells...
November 2016: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896708/asymmetric-interference-in-concurrent-time-to-contact-estimation-cousin-or-twin-of-the-psychological-refractory-period-effect
#13
Robin Baurès, Patricia R DeLucia, Megan Olson, Daniel Oberfeld
In a reaction time (RT) task requiring fast responses to two stimuli presented close in time, human observers show a delayed RT to the second stimulus. This phenomenon has been attributed to a psychological refractory period (PRP). A similar asymmetric interference is found when performing multiple concurrent visual time-to-contact (TTC) estimations for moving objects, despite important differences between the tasks. In the present study, we studied the properties of the asymmetric interference found in the TTC task and compared them to the classical PRP effect...
November 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880767/distribution-of-misfolded-prion-protein-seeding-activity-alone-does-not-predict-regions-of-neurodegeneration
#14
James Alibhai, Richard A Blanco, Marcelo A Barria, Pedro Piccardo, Byron Caughey, V Hugh Perry, Tom C Freeman, Jean C Manson
Protein misfolding is common across many neurodegenerative diseases, with misfolded proteins acting as seeds for "prion-like" conversion of normally folded protein to abnormal conformations. A central hypothesis is that misfolded protein accumulation, spread, and distribution are restricted to specific neuronal populations of the central nervous system and thus predict regions of neurodegeneration. We examined this hypothesis using a highly sensitive assay system for detection of misfolded protein seeds in a murine model of prion disease...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849581/amyloid-fibrils-from-the-n-terminal-prion-protein-fragment-are-infectious
#15
Jin-Kyu Choi, Ignazio Cali, Krystyna Surewicz, Qingzhong Kong, Pierluigi Gambetti, Witold K Surewicz
Recombinant C-terminally truncated prion protein PrP23-144 (which corresponds to the Y145Stop PrP variant associated with a Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker-like prion disease) spontaneously forms amyloid fibrils with a parallel in-register β-sheet architecture and β-sheet core mapping to residues ∼112-139. Here we report that mice (both tga20 and wild type) inoculated with a murine (moPrP23-144) version of these fibrils develop clinical prion disease with a 100% attack rate. Remarkably, even though fibrils in the inoculum lack the entire C-terminal domain of PrP, brains of clinically sick mice accumulate longer proteinase K-resistant (PrP(res)) fragments of ∼17-32 kDa, similar to those observed in classical scrapie strains...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847358/prp-knockout-cells-expressing-transmembrane-prp-resist-prion-infection
#16
Karen E Marshall, Andrew Hughson, Sarah Vascellari, Suzette A Priola, Akikazu Sakudo, Takashi Onodera, Gerald S Baron
: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of the prion protein (PrP(C)) influences PrP(C) misfolding into the disease-associated isoform, PrP(res), as well as prion propagation and infectivity. GPI proteins are found in cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane regions called rafts. Exchanging the GPI anchor for a nonraft transmembrane sequence redirects PrP(C) away from rafts. Previous studies showed that nonraft transmembrane PrP(C) variants resist conversion to PrP(res) when transfected into scrapie-infected N2a neuroblastoma cells, likely due to segregation of transmembrane PrP(C) and GPI-anchored PrP(res) in distinct membrane environments...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845852/platelet-rich-plasma-a-source-of-autologous-growth-factors-and-biomimetic-scaffold-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#17
Mikel Sánchez, Eduardo Anitua, Diego Delgado, Peio Sanchez, Roberto Prado, Gorka Orive, Sabino Padilla
In mammals, axons of injured peripheral nerves (PNI) can and do regenerate, but often the functional recovery is incomplete or suboptimal. In recent years, in vivo tissue engineering approaches through molecular intervention and scaffolding are offering promising outcomes. Evidence is accumulating in both preclinical and clinical settings indicating that Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and fibrin scaffolds obtained from this technology hold an important adjuvant therapeutic potential. Areas covered: This review addresses current molecular and cellular data in intrinsic nerve repair processes and describes different strategies to harness and enhance these processes by using biochemical and biomechanical cues...
February 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825366/l-bse-experimentally-transmitted-to-sheep-presents-as-a-unique-disease-phenotype
#18
Marion M Simmons, Melanie J Chaplin, Timm Konold, Cristina Casalone, Katy E Beck, Leigh Thorne, Sharon Everitt, Tobias Floyd, Derek Clifford, John Spiropoulos
Apart from prion protein genotype, the factors determining the host range and susceptiblity for specific transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents remain unclear. It is known that bovine atypical L-BSE can transmit to a range of species including primates and humanised transgenic mice. It is important, therefore, that there is as broad an understanding as possible of how such isolates might present in food animal species and how robust they are on inter- and intra-species transmission to inform surveillance sytems and risk assessments...
November 8, 2016: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825020/are-participants-reports-of-their-own-reaction-times-reliable-re-examining-introspective-limitations-in-active-and-passive-dual-task-paradigms
#19
Donna Bryce, Daniel Bratzke
There is a known introspective limitation in the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm - people underestimate the dual-task costs on their second reaction time. The prevailing explanation for this is that conscious awareness of the second stimulus is delayed in time until the first task has been centrally processed. Here, we examined this effect in more detail, by comparing reaction time estimates after processing a PRP task, and after passively experiencing 'replays' of PRP trials. Even when participants had no dual-task processing demands, they did not accurately report the reaction time intervals using a visual analogue scale (the original reporting method of most introspective PRP experiments), but they did when placing markers that represent each event on a timeline...
January 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815972/toll-like-receptor-9-expression-and-activation-in-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-on-dual-anti-platelet-therapy
#20
Kathryn E Hally, Anne C La Flamme, Peter D Larsen, Scott A Harding
INTRODUCTION: The Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) pathway can activate platelets but its role in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is unknown. This study examined TLR9 expression and platelet activation in response to ODN2006, a TLR9 agonist, in healthy subjects and in ACS subjects treated with dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: TLR9 expression was examined in both resting and thrombin receptor activator peptide (TRAP)-activated platelets (1 and 10μM) from healthy and ACS subjects by flow cytometry...
December 2016: Thrombosis Research
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