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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350938/cyclotron-orbits-of-composite-fermions-in-the-fractional-quantum-hall-regime
#1
Insun Jo, Hao Deng, Yang Liu, L N Pfeiffer, K W West, K W Baldwin, M Shayegan
We study a bilayer GaAs hole system that hosts two distinct many-body phases at low temperatures and high perpendicular magnetic fields. The higher-density (top) layer develops a Fermi sea of composite fermions (CFs) in its half-filled lowest Landau level, while the lower-density (bottom) layer forms a Wigner crystal (WC) as its filling becomes very small. Owing to the interlayer interaction, the CFs in the top layer feel the periodic Coulomb potential of the WC in the bottom layer. We measure the magnetoresistance of the top layer while changing the bottom-layer density...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348374/-neurologic-abnormalities-in-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-review
#2
Anthony L Komaroff, Ryosuke Takahashi, Takashi Yamamura, Masanori Sawamura
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is an illness characterized by fatigue lasting for at least six months, post-exertional malaise, unrefreshing sleep, cognitive impairment and orthostatic intolerance. ME/CFS has been a controversial illness because it is defined exclusively by subjective complaints. However, recent studies of neuroimaging as well as analysis of blood markers, energy metabolism and mitochondrial function have revealed many objective biological abnormalities. Specifically, it is suspected that the symptoms of ME/CFS may be triggered by immune activation - either inside or outside the brain - through release of inflammatory cytokines...
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348373/-immunopathogenesis-of-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-me-cfs
#3
Takashi Yamamura, Hirohiko Ono, Wakiro Sato
A recent study on the pathogenesis of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) has revealed an elevation of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the sera and cerebrospinal fluids of the patients and presence of autoantibodies in subgroups of ME/CFS patients. Furthermore, investigator-initiated clinical trials have proved the efficacy of anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab), that eliminate B cells, in the treatment of ME/CFS. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that immune abnormalities, such as enhanced autoimmune responses, may play an essential role in the neuroinflammatory pathogenesis of ME/CFS...
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348372/-new-diagnostic-biomarkers-for-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#4
Emi Yamano, Yosky Kataoka
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a persistent and unexplained pathological state characterized by exertional and severely debilitating fatigue, with/without symptoms of infection or neuropsychiatric symptoms, and with a minimum duration of 6 consecutive months. The pathogenesis of CFS is not fully understood. There are no firmly established diagnostic biomarkers or treatment, due to incomplete understanding of the etiology of CFS and diagnostic uncertainty. We performed comprehensive metabolomic analyses of blood samples obtained from patients with CFS and healthy controls to establish an objective diagnosis of CFS...
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348371/-neuroinflammation-in-the-brain-of-patients-with-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#5
Yasuhito Nakatomi, Hirohiko Kuratsune, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by chronic, profound, disabling, and unexplained fatigue; cognitive impairment; and chronic widespread pain. By using positron emission tomography, our study demonstrated neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with ME/CFS. Neuroinflammation was found to be widespread in the brain areas of the patients with ME/CFS and was associated with the severity of their neuropsychological symptoms. The ongoing research would lead to the establishment of objective diagnostic criteria and development of an appropriate therapy...
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348370/-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#6
Hirohiko Kuratsune
We present here the Japanese clinical diagnostic criteria for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) that were proposed in 2016 by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare study group. The clinical diagnosis criteria of ME/CFS were created to be used by healthcare agencies in charge of primary care practice. We also explain the current prognosis in ME/CFS and medical treatments used in major medical institutions in Japan.
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348369/-history-of-researches-on-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#7
Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Hirohiko Kuratsune
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease characterized by chronic, profound, disabling, and unexplained fatigue. The first patient with ME/CFS in Japan was identified and described in 1990 by Prof. Teruo Kitani and Dr. Hirohiko Kuratsune of the Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University. Since then, a variety of studies have been performed to determine the objective biomarkers of the disease. Although it is hypothesized that brain inflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of ME/CFS, there is to date no direct evidence of neuroinflammation in patients with ME/CFS...
January 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344877/a-bioluminescent-test-system-reveals-valuable-antioxidant-properties-of-lactobacillus-strains-from-human-microbiota
#8
Maria Marsova, Serikbay Abilev, Elena Poluektova, Valeriy Danilenko
Oxidative stress cause serious damages in human organism resulting in multiple diseases. Antioxidant therapy includes diet, the use of chemical agents or commensal bacteria such as lactobacilli. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant (AO) activity of cell-free culture supernatants of lactobacilli, isolated from different parts of the human body. A test system based on Escherichia coli MG1655 strains carrying plasmids encoding luminescent biosensors pSoxS-lux and pKatG-lux inducible by superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, was used to analyze cell-free culture supernatants of lactobacilli...
January 17, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339198/cd90-cardiac-fibroblasts-reduce-fibrosis-of-acute-myocardial-injury-in-rats
#9
Yuqiao Chang, Cixia Li, Yangyang Jia, Peng Chen, Yonglong Guo, Airong Li, Zhikun Guo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the differentiation tendency of CD90+ cardiac fibroblast (CFs) into cardiomyogenic cells in vitro and repair functions in acute myocardial infarction rats. METHODS: CD90+ subpopulation was sorted from rat CFs by flow cytometry. 10 μmoL/L of 5-Azacytosine (5-aza) was used to induce differentiation of CFs into cardiomyogenic cells. An acute myocardial infarction model was prepared by ligation of the rat left anterior descending coronary artery...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331568/overall-survival-and-oncological-outcomes-after-partial-nephrectomy-and-radical-nephrectomy-for-ct2a-renal-tumors-a-collaborative-international-study-from-the-french-kidney-cancer-research-network-uroccr
#10
B Reix, J-C Bernhard, J-J Patard, P Bigot, A Villers, E Suer, N S Vuong, G Verhoest, Q Alimi, J-B Beauval, T Benoit, F-X Nouhaud, C Lenormand, N Hamidi, J Cai, M Eto, S Larre, A El Bakhri, G Ploussard, A Hung, N Koutlidis, A Schneider, J Carrouget, S Droupy, S Marchal, A Doerfler, S Seddik, T Matsugasumi, X Orsoni, A Descazeaud, C Pfister, K Bensalah, M Soulie, I Gill, V Flamand
BACKGROUND: Partial nephrectomy (PN) is recommended as first-line treatment for cT1 stage kidney tumors because of a better renal function and probably a better overall survival than radical nephrectomy (RN). For larger tumors, PN has a controversial position due to lack of evidence showing good cancer control. The aim of this study was to compare the results of PN and RN in cT2a stage on overall survival and oncological results. METHOD: A retrospective international multicenter study was conducted in the frame of the French kidney cancer research network (UroCCR)...
January 10, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328522/cassava-flour-slurry-as-a-low-cost-alternative-to-commercially-available-gel-for-obstetrical-ultrasound-a-blinded-non-inferiority-trial-comparison-of-image-quality
#11
Aleha Aziz, Pe'er Dar, Francine Hughes, Clemencia Solorzano, Mundenga Mutendi Muller, Christian Salmon, Margaret Salmon, Nerys Benfield
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of ultrasound images obtained with cassava flour slurry (CFS) compared to conventional gel in order to determine objectively whether CFS could be a true low-cost alternative. DESIGN: Blinded non-inferiority trial. SETTING: Obstetrical ultrasound unit in an academic medical center. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Women with a singleton pregnancy, undergoing anatomy ultrasounds. METHODS: Thirty pregnant women had standard biometry measures obtained with CFS and conventional gel...
January 12, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324589/percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-with-and-without-jejunal-extension-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#12
Martha M Kirstein, Sonja Körner, Andrea Schneider, Michael P Manns, Susanne Petri, Torsten Voigtländer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal degenerative disease of the motor nervous system, which is associated with severe loss of weight. Enteral nutrition through percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy with jejunal extension (PEG-J) is generally recommended upon disease progression. There is no standard endoscopic method that should preferentially be performed. The aim of this study was to compare the number of adverse events, complication-free survival (CFS), and overall survival (OS) in patients who received PEG or PEG-J...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323734/inhibitory-effect-of-circulating-fibrocytes-on-injury-repair-in-acute-lung-injury-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-mice-model
#13
Wenlin Tai, Jinyu Li, Boyang Zheng, Hanxin Wu, Jiawei Ding, Ling Gao, Zhaoxin Dong
The study was aimed to explore the functions of circulating fibrocytes (CFs) on injury repair in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) mice model and its clinical value as a biomarker for ALI/ARDS. ALI/ARDS mice model was established by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood of ALI/ARDS model and flow cytometry was used to measure CFs defined as cells positive for CD45 and collagen-1. Histological changes of lung tissues were evaluated by H&E staining and Masson's trichrome staining...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323417/loss-of-ethanol-inhibition-of-nmdar-mediated-currents-and-plasticity-of-cerebellar-synapses-in-mice-expressing-the-glun1-f639a-subunit
#14
Paula A Zamudio-Bulcock, Gregg E Homanics, John J Woodward
BACKGROUND: Glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are well known for their sensitivity to ethanol inhibition. However, the specific manner in which ethanol inhibits channel activity and how such inhibition affects neurotransmission, and ultimately behavior, remain unclear. Replacement of phenylalanine 639 with alanine (F639A) in the GluN1 subunit reduces ethanol inhibition of recombinant NMDA receptors. Mice expressing this subunit show reduced ethanol-induced anxiolysis, blunted locomotor stimulation following low dose ethanol administration and faster recovery of motor function after moderate doses of ethanol suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction may contribute to some of these behaviors...
January 11, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319497/comparison-of-the-treatment-efficacy-between-tigecycline-plus-high-dose-cefoperazone-sulbactam-and-tigecycline-monotherapy-against-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#15
Youfa Qin, Jie Zhang, Lei Wu, Dailong Zhang, Lunjiao Fu, Xiaoyan Xue
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effect of high-dose cefoperazone-sulbactam combined with tigecycline against ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 42 patients with VAP due to XDR-AB infection were randomized into two groups: the TIG group (received tigecycline injection) and the TIG+CFS group (received tigecycline and cefoperazone-sulbactam (1 : 1) injection)...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318645/endometriosis-increased-the-risk-of-bladder-pain-syndrome-interstitial-cystitis-a-population-based-study
#16
Chia-Chang Wu, Shiu-Dong Chung, Herng-Ching Lin
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have suggested an association between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) and endometriosis. However, no nation-wide population study has yet reported an association between them. In this study, we examined the risk of BPS/IC among subjects with endometriosis during a 3-year follow-up in Taiwan using a population-based dataset. STUDY DESIGN: This study comprised 9191 subjects with endometriosis, and 27 573 subjects randomly selected as controls...
January 10, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317153/should-patients-with-complex-febrile-seizure-be-admitted-for-further-management
#17
Heather Olson, Tiffany Rudloe, Tobias Loddenkemper, Marvin B Harper, Amir A Kimia
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Children with first complex febrile seizure (CFS) are often admitted for observation. The goals of this study were 1) to assess the risk of seizure recurrence during admission, 2) to determine whether early EEG affects acute management. DESIGN/METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a cohort of children 6-60months of age admitted from a Pediatric Emergency Department for first CFS over a 15year period. We excluded children admitted for supportive care of their febrile illness...
December 28, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311748/integrated-analysis-of-gene-expression-differences-in-twins-discordant-for-disease-and-binary-phenotypes
#18
Sivateja Tangirala, Chirag J Patel
While both genes and environment contribute to phenotype, deciphering environmental contributions to phenotype is a challenge. Furthermore, elucidating how different phenotypes may share similar environmental etiologies also is challenging. One way to identify environmental influences is through a discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin study design. Here, we assessed differential gene expression in MZ discordant twin pairs (affected vs. non-affected) for seven phenotypes, including chronic fatigue syndrome, obesity, ulcerative colitis, major depressive disorder, intermittent allergic rhinitis, physical activity, and intelligence quotient, comparing the spectrum of genes differentially expressed across seven phenotypes individually...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309915/slow-and-steady-not-fast-and-furious-slow-temporal-modulation-strengthens-continuous-flash-suppression
#19
Shui'er Han, Randolph Blake, David Alais
Continuous flash suppression (CFS) involves the presentation of a rapidly changing Mondrian sequence to one eye and a static target in the other eye. Targets presented in this manner remain suppressed for several seconds at a time, and this has seen the prevalent use of CFS in studies of unconscious visual processes. However, the mechanisms behind CFS remain unclear, complicating its use and the comprehension of results obtained with the paradigm. For example, some studies report observations indicative of faster, visual masking processes whereas others suggest slower, rivalry processes...
January 5, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306759/il-4-and-serum-amyloid-p-inversely-regulate-fibrocyte-differentiation-by-targeting-store-operated-ca2-channels
#20
Jin-Nan Zhong, Lan Lan, Yi-Fei Chen, Ge Huang, Guang-Zhen He, Jiong Yang, Ya-Dong Gao
BACKGROUND: Circulating fibrocytes (CFs) have been shown to participate in subepithelial fibrosis of asthma with chronic airflow limitation by acting as an important source of fibroblasts deposited beneath airway epithelia. Serum amyloid P (SAP) is an innate inhibitor of fibrocytes differentiation. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is the major Ca2+ influx of non-excitable cells. In this study, the role of SOCE in the regulation of fibrocytes differentiation and the effects of Th2 cytokine IL-4 and SAP on SOCE of fibrocytes were investigated...
July 12, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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