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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533785/qtl-mapping-for-yield-and-resistance-against-mediterranean-corn-borer-in-maize
#1
José C Jiménez-Galindo, Bernardo Ordás, Ana Butrón, Luis F Samayoa, Rosa A Malvar
Introduction: The Mediterranean corn borer (MCB), Sesamia nonagrioides, is a major pest of maize, Zea mays, in Mediterranean countries, inflicting significant kernel yield losses. For that reason, it necessary to know the genetic mechanisms that regulate the agronomic and resistance traits. A quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping study for yield, resistance against MCB attack, and other relevant agronomic traits was performed using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross A637 × A509 that is expected to segregate for yield, and ear, and stalk resistance to MCB...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533439/gene-introgression-in-weeds-depends-on-initial-gene-location-in-the-crop-brassica-napus-raphanus-raphanistrum-model
#2
Katarzyna Adamczyk-Chauvat, Sabrina Delaunay, Anne Vannier, Caroline François, Gwenaëlle Thomas, Frédérique Eber, Maryse Lodé, Marie Gilet, Virginie Huteau, Jérôme Morice, Sylvie Nègre, Cyril Falentin, Olivier Coriton, Henri Darmency, Bachar Alrustom, Eric Jenczewski, Mathieu Rousseau-Gueutin, Anne-Marie Chèvre
The effect of gene location within a crop genome on its transfer to a weed genome remains an open question for gene flow assessment. To elucidate this question, we analyzed advanced generations of intergeneric hybrids, derived from an initial pollination of known oilseed rape varieties (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n=38) by a local population of wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n=18). After five generations of recurrent pollination, 307 G5 plants with a chromosome number similar to wild radish were genotyped using 105 B...
May 22, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532390/comparative-genomics-of-eucalyptus-and-corymbia-reveals-low-rates-of-genome-structural-rearrangement
#3
J B Butler, R E Vaillancourt, B M Potts, D J Lee, G J King, A Baten, M Shepherd, J S Freeman
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest genome structure is largely conserved between Eucalyptus species. However, it is unknown if this conservation extends to more divergent eucalypt taxa. We performed comparative genomics between the eucalypt genera Eucalyptus and Corymbia. Our results will facilitate transfer of genomic information between these important taxa and provide further insights into the rate of structural change in tree genomes. RESULTS: We constructed three high density linkage maps for two Corymbia species (Corymbia citriodora subsp...
May 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531348/plant-derived-transcription-factors-for-orthologous-regulation-of-gene-expression-in-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#4
Gita Naseri, Salma Balazadeh, Fabian Machens, Iman Kamranfar, Katrin Messerschmidt, Bernd Mueller-Roeber
Control of gene expression by transcription factors (TFs) is central in many synthetic biology projects where tailored expression of one or multiple genes is often needed. As TFs from evolutionary distant organisms are unlikely to affect gene expression in a host of choice, they represent excellent candidates for establishing orthogonal control systems. To establish orthogonal regulators for use in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), we chose TFs from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We established a library of 106 different combinations of chromosomally integrated TFs, activation domains (yeast GAL4 AD, herpes simplex virus VP64, and plant EDLL) and synthetic promoters harbouring cognate cis-regulatory motifs driving a yEGFP reporter...
May 22, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523965/safety-evaluation-of-an-oat-grain-alkaloid-gramine-by-genotoxicity-assays
#5
Manash Pratim Pathak, Rudragoud S Policegoudra, Danswrang Goyary, Aparoop Das, Santa Mandal, Srijita Chakraborti, Nilutpal Sharma Bora, Johirul Islam, Pompy Patowary, P Srinivas Raju, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
Gramine is a natural indole alkaloid that has been isolated from different raw plants occurring mainly in Avena sativa, etc. The study was aimed to investigate the possible in vitro antioxidant, in vitro mutagenic, in vitro antimutagenic, and in vivo genotoxic activity of gramine using ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay, Metal chelating, Ames bacterial reverse mutation test, and the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay as well as chromosomal aberration. Four concentrations of gramine viz. 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg/mL were evaluated for its antioxidant activity in FRAP Assay and Metal Chelating Test...
May 19, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523639/association-mapping-of-yield-and-yield-related-traits-under-reproductive-stage-drought-stress-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#6
B P Mallikarjuna Swamy, Noraziyah Abd Aziz Shamsudin, Site Noorzuraini Abd Rahman, Ramil Mauleon, Wickneswari Ratnam, Ma Teressa Sta Cruz, Arvind Kumar
BACKGROUND: The identification and introgression of major-effect QTLs for grain yield under drought are some of the best and well-proven approaches for improving the drought tolerance of rice varieties. In the present study, we characterized Malaysian rice germplasm for yield and yield-related traits and identified significant trait marker associations by structured association mapping. RESULTS: The drought screening was successful in screening germplasm with a yield reduction of up to 60% and heritability for grain yield under drought was up to 78%...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523008/genetic-interaction-between-arabidopsis-qpm3-1-locus-and-bacterial-effector-gene-hopw1-1-underlies-natural-variation-in-quantitative-disease-resistance-to-pseudomonas-infection
#7
Qi Luo, Wei-Wei Liu, Ke-Di Pan, You-Liang Peng, Jun Fan
Wide quantitative variation in plant disease resistance across Arabidopsis wild populations has been documented and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. To investigate the genetic and molecular basis of this variation, Arabidopsis recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Aa-0 × Col-0 and Gie-0 × Col-0 crosses were constructed and used for inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pathovars maculicola ES4326 (ES4326) and tomato DC3000 (DC3000). Bacterial growth assays revealed continuous distribution across the large differences between the most and the least susceptible lines in the RILs...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522548/a-multi-purpose-toolkit-to-enable-advanced-genome-engineering-in-plants
#8
Tomas Cermak, Shaun J Curtin, Javier Gil-Humanes, Radim Čegan, Thomas J Y Kono, Eva Konečná, Joseph J Belanto, Colby G Starker, Jade W Mathre, Rebecca L Greenstein, Daniel F Voytas
We report a comprehensive toolkit that enables targeted, specific modification of monocot and dicot genomes using a variety of genome engineering approaches. Our reagents, based on TALENs and the CRISPR/Cas9 system, are systematized for fast, modular cloning and accommodate diverse regulatory sequences to drive reagent expression. Vectors are optimized to create either single or multiple gene knockouts and large chromosomal deletions. Moreover, integration of geminivirus-based vectors enables precise gene editing through homologous recombination...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517039/genetics-of-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-in-winter-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#9
Heike Lehnert, Albrecht Serfling, Matthias Enders, Wolfgang Friedt, Frank Ordon
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major staple food and therefore of prime importance for feeding the Earth's growing population. Mycorrhiza is known to improve plant growth, but although extensive knowledge concerning the interaction between mycorrhizal fungi and plants is available, genotypic differences concerning the ability of wheat to form mycorrhizal symbiosis and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in mycorrhization are largely unknown. Therefore, a diverse set of 94 bread wheat genotypes was evaluated with regard to root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi...
May 18, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515730/analysis-of-mads-box-gene-family-reveals-conservation-in-floral-organ-abcde-model-of-moso-bamboo-phyllostachys-edulis
#10
Zhanchao Cheng, Wei Ge, Long Li, Dan Hou, Yanjun Ma, Jun Liu, Qingsong Bai, Xueping Li, Shaohua Mu, Jian Gao
Mini chromosome maintenance 1, agamous, deficiens, and serum response factor (MADS)-box genes are transcription factors which play fundamental roles in flower development and regulation of floral organ identity. However, till date, identification and functions of MADS-box genes remain largely unclear in Phyllostachys edulis. In view of this, we performed a whole-genome survey and identified 34 MADS-box genes in P. edulis, and based on phylogeny, they were classified as MIKC(C), MIKC(∗), Mα, and Mβ. The detailed analysis about gene structure and motifs, phylogenetic classification, comparison of gene divergence and duplication are provided...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512086/two-loci-contribute-epistastically-to-heterospecific-pollen-rejection-a-postmating-isolating-barrier-between-species
#11
Jennafer A P Hamlin, Natasha A Sherman, Leonie C Moyle
Recognition and rejection of heterospecific male gametes occurs in a broad range of taxa, although the complexity of mechanisms underlying these components of postmating cryptic female choice is poorly understood. In plants, the arena for postmating interactions is the female reproductive tract (pistil), within which heterospecific pollen tube growth can be arrested via active molecular recognition and rejection. Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is one such postmating barrier in which pollen arrest occurs in only one direction of an interspecific cross...
May 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511681/chromosome-engineering-of-escherichia-coli-for-constitutive-production-of-salvianic-acid-a
#12
Liang Zhou, Qi Ding, Guo-Zhen Jiang, Zhen-Ning Liu, Hai-Yan Wang, Guang-Rong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Salvianic acid A (SAA), a valuable natural product from herbal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, exhibits excellent antioxidant activities on food industries and efficacious therapeutic potential on cardiovascular diseases. Recently, production of SAA in engineered Escherichia coli was established via the artificial biosynthetic pathway of SAA on the multiple plasmids in our previous work. However, the plasmid-mediated system required to supplement expensive inducers and antibiotics during the fermentation process, restricting scale-up production of SAA...
May 16, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510185/morphological-physiological-cytological-and-phytochemical-studies-in-diploid-and-colchicine-induced-tetraploid-plants-of-fagopyrum-tataricum-l-gaertn
#13
Lin-Jiao Wang, Mao-Yin Sheng, Pei-Cai Wen, Jia-Ying Du
BACKGROUND: Tartary buckwheat are very popular as an important functional food material and its cultivation is very widespread in our whole world, but there obviously lack works in the researches of genetic breeding for agricultural and medicinal utilization. The aim of this study is to obtain good germplasm resources for agricultural and medicinal use of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) by inducing the tetraploid plants. RESULTS: Four cultivars of F. tataricum, that is, Qianwei 2#, Jinku 2#, Chuanqiao 1#, and Liuqiao 1# were selected to experiment...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509419/live-cell-crispr-imaging-in-plants-reveals-dynamic-telomere-movements
#14
Steven Dreissig, Simon Schiml, Patrick Schindele, Oda Weiss, Twan Rutten, Veit Schubert, Evgeny Gladilin, Michael Florian Mette, Holger Puchta, Andreas Houben
Elucidating the spatio-temporal organization of the genome inside the nucleus is imperative to understand the regulation of genes and non-coding sequences during development and environmental changes. Emerging techniques of chromatin imaging promise to bridge the long-standing gap between sequencing studies which reveal genomic information and imaging studies that provide spatial and temporal information of defined genomic regions. Here, we demonstrate such an imaging technique based on two orthologues of the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system...
May 16, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507559/the-dnaj-gene-family-in-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l-comprehensive-identification-characterization-and-expression-profiles
#15
FangFei Fan, Xian Yang, Yuan Cheng, Yunyan Kang, Xirong Chai
The DnaJ proteins which function as molecular chaperone played critical roles in plant growth and development and response to heat stress (HS) and also called heat shock protein 40 based on molecular weight. However, little was reported on this gene family in pepper. Recently, the release of the whole pepper genome provided an opportunity for identifying putative DnaJ homologous. In this study, a total of 76 putative pepper DnaJ genes (CaDnaJ01 to CaDnaJ76) were identified using bioinformatics methods and classified into five groups by the presence of the complete three domains (J-domain, zinc finger domain, and C-terminal domain)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507139/long-read-sequencing-uncovers-the-adaptive-topography-of-a-carnivorous-plant-genome
#16
Tianying Lan, Tanya Renner, Enrique Ibarra-Laclette, Kimberly M Farr, Tien-Hao Chang, Sergio Alan Cervantes-Pérez, Chunfang Zheng, David Sankoff, Haibao Tang, Rikky W Purbojati, Alexander Putra, Daniela I Drautz-Moses, Stephan C Schuster, Luis Herrera-Estrella, Victor A Albert
Utricularia gibba, the humped bladderwort, is a carnivorous plant that retains a tiny nuclear genome despite at least two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) since common ancestry with grapevine and other species. We used a third-generation genome assembly with several complete chromosomes to reconstruct the two most recent lineage-specific ancestral genomes that led to the modern U. gibba genome structure. Patterns of subgenome dominance in the most recent WGD, both architectural and transcriptional, are suggestive of allopolyploidization, which may have generated genomic novelty and led to instantaneous speciation...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505203/cytological-and-morphological-analysis-of-hybrids-between-brassicoraphanus-and-brassica-napus-for-introgression-of-clubroot-resistant-trait-into-brassica-napus-l
#17
Zongxiang Zhan, Chinedu Charles Nwafor, Zhaoke Hou, Jianfang Gong, Bin Zhu, Yingfen Jiang, Yongming Zhou, Jiangsheng Wu, Zhongyun Piao, Yue Tong, Chao Liu, Chunyu Zhang
Interspecific hybridization is a powerful tool for improvement of crop species, it has the potential to broaden the genetic base and create new plant forms for breeding programs. Synthetic allopolyploid is a widely-used model for the study of genetic recombination and fixed heterosis in Brassica. In Brassica napus breeding, identification and introgression of new sources of clubroot resistance trait from wild or related species into it by hybridization is a long-term crop management strategy for clubroot disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503152/identification-classification-and-expression-analysis-of-gras-gene-family-in-malus-domestica
#18
Sheng Fan, Dong Zhang, Cai Gao, Ming Zhao, Haiqin Wu, Youmei Li, Yawen Shen, Mingyu Han
GRAS genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant growth and development. However, little is known about the GRAS gene family in apple. In this study, 127 GRAS genes were identified in the apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) genome and named MdGRAS1 to MdGRAS127 according to their chromosomal locations. The chemical characteristics, gene structures and evolutionary relationships of the MdGRAS genes were investigated. The 127 MdGRAS genes could be grouped into eight subfamilies based on their structural features and phylogenetic relationships...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500411/a-hairy-leaf-gene-blanket-leaf-of-wild-oryza-nivara-increases-photosynthetic-water-use-efficiency-in-rice
#19
Norimitsu Hamaoka, Hideshi Yasui, Yoshiyuki Yamagata, Yoko Inoue, Naruto Furuya, Takuya Araki, Osamu Ueno, Atsushi Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: High water use efficiency is essential to water-saving cropping. Morphological traits that affect photosynthetic water use efficiency are not well known. We examined whether leaf hairiness improves photosynthetic water use efficiency in rice. RESULTS: A chromosome segment introgression line (IL-hairy) of wild Oryza nivara (Acc. IRGC105715) with the genetic background of Oryza sativa cultivar 'IR24' had high leaf pubescence (hair). The leaf hairs developed along small vascular bundles...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500332/sexual-homomorphism-in-dioecious-trees-extensive-tests-fail-to-detect-sexual-dimorphism-in-populus-%C3%A2
#20
Athena D McKown, Jaroslav Klápště, Robert D Guy, Raju Y Soolanayakanahally, Jonathan La Mantia, Ilga Porth, Oleksandr Skyba, Faride Unda, Carl J Douglas, Yousry A El-Kassaby, Richard C Hamelin, Shawn D Mansfield, Quentin C B Cronk
The evolution of sexual dimorphism and expansion of sex chromosomes are both driven through sexual conflict, arising from differing fitness optima between males and females. Here, we pair work in poplar (Populus) describing one of the smallest sex-determining regions known thus far in complex eukaryotes (~100 kbp) with comprehensive tests for sexual dimorphism using >1300 individuals from two Populus species and assessing 96 non-reproductive functional traits. Against expectation, we found sexual homomorphism (no non-reproductive trait differences between the sexes), suggesting that gender is functionally neutral with respect to non-reproductive features that affect plant survival and fitness...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
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