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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452714/genetic-diversity-and-structure-of-rhizobium-leguminosarum-populations-associated-with-clover-plants-are-influenced-by-local-environmental-variables
#1
Andrei Stefan, Jannick Van Cauwenberghe, Craita M Rosu, Catalina Stedel, Nikolaos E Labrou, Emmanouil Flemetakis, Rodica C Efrose
The identification and conservation of indigenous rhizobia associated with legume plants and their application as biofertilizers is becoming an agricultural worldwide priority. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia in Romania. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population composition of Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiovar trifolii isolates from 12 clover plants populations located across two regions in Romania were analyzed. Red clover isolates were phenotypically evaluated and genotyped by sequencing 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, three chromosomal genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and two plasmid genes (nifH and nodA)...
February 3, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449853/targeted-haplotype-comparisons-between-south-african-wheat-cultivars-appear-predictive-of-pre-harvest-sprouting-tolerance
#2
Scott L Sydenham, Annelie Barnard
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) has been a serious production constraint for over two decades, especially in the summer rainfall wheat production regions of South Africa. It is a complex genetic trait controlled by multiple genes, which are significantly influenced by environmental conditions. This complicates the accurate prediction of a cultivar's stability in terms of PHS tolerance. A number of reports have documented the presence of major QTL on chromosomes 3A and 4A of modern bread wheat cultivars, which confer PHS tolerance...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449594/rapid-identification-of-a-stripe-rust-resistant-gene-in-a-space-induced-wheat-mutant-using-specific-locus-amplified-fragment-slaf-sequencing
#3
Jun-Liang Yin, Zheng-Wu Fang, Cai Sun, Peng Zhang, Xing Zhang, Chen Lu, Shu-Ping Wang, Dong-Fang Ma, Yong-Xing Zhu
Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat. Resistant cultivars are the preferred strategy to control the disease. Space-induced wheat mutant R39 has adult-plant resistance (APR) to Pst. Genetic analysis indicated that a single recessive gene, designated YrR39, was responsible for the APR of R39 to Pst. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) combined with a SLAF sequencing (SLAF-seq) strategy was used to fine-map YrR39 to a 17.39 Mb segment on chromosome 4B...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447453/in-silico-genome-wide-identification-and-characterization-of-glutathione-s-transferase-gene-family-in-vigna-radiata-l-wilczek
#4
Swati Vaish, Praveen Awasthi, Siddharth Tiwari, Shailesh Kumar Tiwari, Divya Gupta, Mahesh Kumar Basantani
Plant glutathione S-transferases are integral to normal plant metabolism, and biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. GST gene family has been characterized in diverse plant species using molecular biology and bioinformatics approaches. In the current study, in silico analysis identified 44 GSTs in Vigna radiata. Of the total 44 GSTs identified, chromosomal locations of 31 GSTs were confirmed. The pI value of GST proteins ranged from 5.10 to 9.40. The predicted molecular weights ranged from 13.12 to 50 kDa. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that all GSTs were predominantly localized in the cytoplasm...
February 15, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447011/the-genotoxic-and-antigenotoxic-potential-of-the-methanolic-root-extract-of-glycyrrhiza-glabra-l-on-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#5
Ayşe Yavuz Kocaman, Müge Güzelkokar
Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice) is one of the most important medicinal plants, which is widely used throughout the world both in traditional and contemporary medical industries. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential genotoxic activity of G. glabra methanolic root extract, and its possible antigenotoxic properties against mitomycin C (MMC)-induced DNA damage in in vitro chromosome aberrations (CAs) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs)...
February 15, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444111/genome-wide-identification-and-role-of-mkk-and-mpk-gene-families-in-clubroot-resistance-of-brassica-rapa
#6
Yinglan Piao, Kaining Jin, Ying He, Jiaxiu Liu, Shuang Liu, Xiaonan Li, Zhongyun Piao
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MPK) cascades play key roles in responses to various biotic stresses, as well as in plant growth and development. However, the responses of MPK and MPK kinase (MKK) in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) to Plasmodiophora brassicae, a causal agent of clubroot disease in Brassica crops, are still not clear. In the present study, a total of 11 B. rapa MKK (BraMKK) and 30 BraMPK genes were identified and unevenly distributed in 6 and 10 chromosomes, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444071/the-phd-finger-protein-spp1-has-distinct-functions-in-the-set1-and-the-meiotic-dsb-formation-complexes
#7
Céline Adam, Raphaël Guérois, Anna Citarella, Laura Verardi, Florine Adolphe, Claire Béneut, Vérane Sommermeyer, Claire Ramus, Jérôme Govin, Yohann Couté, Valérie Borde
Histone H3K4 methylation is a feature of meiotic recombination hotspots shared by many organisms including plants and mammals. Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed double-strand break (DSB) formation that in budding yeast takes place in gene promoters and is promoted by histone H3K4 di/trimethylation. This histone modification is recognized by Spp1, a PHD-finger containing protein that belongs to the conserved histone H3K4 methyltransferase Set1 complex. During meiosis, Spp1 binds H3K4me3 and interacts with a DSB protein, Mer2, to promote DSB formation close to gene promoters...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439256/chromosome-nomenclature-and-cytological-characterization-of-sacred-lotus
#8
Zhuang Meng, Xiaoxu Hu, Zhiliang Zhang, Zhanjie Li, Qingfang Lin, Mei Yang, Pingfang Yang, Ray Ming, Qingyi Yu, Kai Wang
Sacred lotus is a basal eudicot plant that has been cultivated in Asia for over 7,000 years for its agricultural, ornamental, religious, and medicinal importance. A notable characteristic of lotus is the seed longevity. Extensive endeavors have been devoted to dissect its genome assembly, including the variety China Antique, which germinated from a 1,300-year-old seed. Here, cytogenetic markers representing the 10 largest megascaffolds, which constitute approximately 70% of the lotus genome assembly, were developed...
February 14, 2018: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434322/genome-wide-investigation-of-pentatricopeptide-repeat-gene-family-in-poplar-and-their-expression-analysis-in-response-to-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses
#9
Haitao Xing, Xiaokang Fu, Chen Yang, Xiaofeng Tang, Li Guo, Chaofeng Li, Changzheng Xu, Keming Luo
Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, which are characterized by tandem 30-40 amino acid sequence motifs, constitute of a large gene family in plants. Some PPR proteins have been identified to play important roles in organellar RNA metabolism and organ development in Arabidopsis and rice. However, functions of PPR genes in woody species remain largely unknown. Here, we identified and characterized a total of 626 PPR genes containing PPR motifs in the Populus trichocarpa genome. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the poplar PPR gene family was performed, including chromosomal location, phylogenetic relationships and gene duplication...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432414/eat1-transcription-factor-a-non-cell-autonomous-regulator-of-pollen-production-activates-meiotic-small-rna-biogenesis-in-rice-anther-tapetum
#10
Seijiro Ono, Hua Liu, Katsutoshi Tsuda, Eigo Fukai, Keisuke Tanaka, Takuji Sasaki, Ken-Ichi Nonomura
The 24-nucleotides (nt) phased secondary small interfering RNA (phasiRNA) is a unique class of plant small RNAs abundantly expressed in monocot anthers at early meiosis. Previously, 44 intergenic regions were identified as the loci for longer precursor RNAs of 24-nt phasiRNAs (24-PHASs) in the rice genome. However, the regulatory mechanism that determines spatiotemporal expression of these RNAs has remained elusive. ETERNAL TAPETUM1 (EAT1) is a basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor indispensable for induction of programmed cell death (PCD) in postmeiotic anther tapetum, the somatic nursery for pollen production...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430357/cross-genera-transferability-of-rice-and-finger-millet-genomic-ssrs-to-barnyard-millet-echinochloa-spp
#11
B Kalyana Babu, Salej Sood, Dinesh Kumar, Anjeli Joshi, A Pattanayak, Lakshmi Kant, H D Upadhyaya
Barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.) is an important crop from nutritional point of view, nevertheless, the genetic information is very scarce. In the present investigation, rice and finger millet genomic SSRs were used for assessing cross transferability, identification of polymorphic markers, syntenic regions, genetic diversity and population structure analysis of barnyard millet genotypes. We observed 100% cross transferability for finger millet SSRs, of which 91% were polymorphic, while 71% of rice markers were cross transferable with 48% polymorphic out of them...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426907/identification-of-basic-helix-loop-helix-transcription-factors-reveals-candidate-genes-involved-in-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-from-the-strawberry-white-flesh-mutant
#12
Fengli Zhao, Gang Li, Panpan Hu, Xia Zhao, Liangjie Li, Wei Wei, Jiayue Feng, Houcheng Zhou
As the second largest transcription factor family in plant, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family, characterized by the conserved bHLH domain, plays a central regulatory role in many biological process. However, the bHLH transcription factor family of strawberry has not been systematically identified, especially for the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Here, we identified a total of 113 bHLH transcription factors and described their chromosomal distribution and bioinformatics for the diploid woodland strawberry Fragaria vesca...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425824/salt-and-drought-stress-and-aba-responses-related-to-bzip-genes-from-v-radiata-and-v-angularis
#13
Lanfen Wang, Jifeng Zhu, Xiaoming Li, Shumin Wang, Jing Wu
Mung bean and adzuki bean are warm-season legumes widely cultivated in China. However, bean production in major producing regions is limited by biotic and abiotic stress, such as drought and salt stress. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes play key roles in responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, only several bZIP genes involved in drought and salt stress in legumes, especially Vigna radiata and Vigna angularis, have been identified. In this study, we identified 54 and 50 bZIP proteins from whole-genome sequences of V...
February 6, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422035/lineage-specific-duplications-of-nbs-lrr-genes-occurring-before-the-divergence-of-six-fragaria-species
#14
Yan Zhong, Xiaohui Zhang, Zong-Ming Cheng
BACKGROUND: Plant disease resistance (R) genes are evolving rapidly and play a critical role in the innate immune system of plants. The nucleotide binding sites-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes are one of the largest classes in plant R genes. Previous studies have focused on the NBS-LRR genes from one or several species of different genera, and the sequenced genomes of the genus Fragaria offer the opportunity to study the evolutionary processes of these R genes among the closely related species...
February 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421507/changes-in-isovitexin-o-glycosylation-during-the-development-of-young-barley-plants
#15
Dominic Brauch, Andrea Porzel, Erika Schumann, Klaus Pillen, Hans-Peter Mock
Phenylpropanoids are a class of plant natural products that have many biological functions, including stress defence. In barley, phenylpropanoids have been described as having protective properties against excess UV-B radiation and have been linked to resistance to pathogens. Although the phenylpropanoid composition of barley has recently been addressed in more detail, the biosynthesis and regulation of this pathway have not been fully established. Barley introgression lines, such as the S42IL-population offer a set of genetically diverse plants that enable the correlation of metabolic data to distinct genetic regions on the barley genome and, subsequently, identification of relevant genes...
January 24, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420581/towards-the-identification-of-a-gene-for-prostrate-tillers-in-barley-hordeum-vulgare-l
#16
Yi Zhou, Gaofeng Zhou, Sue Broughton, Sharon Westcott, Xiaoqi Zhang, Yanhao Xu, Le Xu, Chengdao Li, Wenying Zhang
Tiller angle, an important agronomic trait, contributes to crop production and plays a vital role in breeding for plant architecture. A barley line V-V-HD, which has prostrate tillers during vegetative growth and erect tillers after booting, is considered the ideal type for repressing weed growth and increasing leaf area during early growth. Genetic analysis identified that the prostrate trait in V-V-HD is controlled by a single gene. A double haploid population with 208 lines from V-V-HD × Buloke was used to map the prostrate growth gene...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420572/frequencies-of-chromosomal-inversions-in-drosophila-melanogaster-in-fukushima-after-the-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#17
Masanobu Itoh, Ryutaro Kajihara, Yasuko Kato, Toshiyuki Takano-Shimizu, Yutaka Inoue
In order to investigate genetic impact of a large amount of radionuclides released by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, we surveyed 2,304 haploid genomes of Drosophila melanogaster collected in three localities in Fukushima in 2012 and 2013 for chromosomal inversions. No unique inversion was found in 298 genomes in 2012 and only two in 2,006 genomes in 2013. The observed frequencies were even lower than the long-term average frequency of unique inversions in Japan. The common cosmopolitan inversions were also examined in Fukushima, Kyoto, and Iriomote (Okinawa) in 2012...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408883/draft-genome-sequence-of-the-new-jersey-aster-yellows-strain-of-candidatus-phytoplasma-asteris
#18
Michael E Sparks, Kristi D Bottner-Parker, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal, Ing-Ming Lee
The NJAY (New Jersey aster yellows) strain of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' is a significant plant pathogen responsible for causing severe lettuce yellows in the U.S. state of New Jersey. A draft genome sequence was prepared for this organism. A total of 177,847 reads were assembled into 75 contigs > 518 bp with a total base value of 652,092 and an overall [G+C] content of 27.1%. A total of 733 protein coding genes were identified. This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GenBank under the accession MAPF00000000...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398945/a-novel-compensating-wheat-thinopyrum-elongatum-robertsonian-translocation-line-with-a-positive-effect-on-flour-quality
#19
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Chisato Nabeuchi, Misaki Kurogaki, Monika Garg, Mika Saito, Goro Ishikawa, Toshiki Nakamura, Hisashi Tsujimoto
Wheat flours are used to produce bread, pasta, breakfast cereals, and biscuits; the various properties of these end-products are attributed to the gluten content, produced as seed storage proteins in the wheat endosperm. Thus, genes encoding gluten protein are major targets of wheat breeders aiming to improve the various properties of wheat flour. Here, we describe a novel compensating wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum Robertsonian translocation (T1AS.1EL) line involving the short arm of wheat chromosome 1A (1AS) and the long arm of Th...
December 2017: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397498/genetic-mapping-of-a-novel-recessive-allele-for-non-glaucousness-in-wild-diploid-wheat-aegilops-tauschii-implications-for-the-evolution-of-common-wheat
#20
Ryo Nishijima, Chisa Tanaka, Kentaro Yoshida, Shigeo Takumi
Cuticular wax on the aerial surface of plants has a protective function against many environmental stresses. The bluish-whitish appearance of wheat leaves and stems is called glaucousness. Most modern cultivars of polyploid wheat species exhibit the glaucous phenotype, while in a wild wheat progenitor, Ae. tauschii, both glaucous and non-glaucous accessions exist. Iw2, a wax inhibitor locus on the short arm of chromosome 2D, is the main contributor to this phenotypic variation in Ae. tauschii, and the glaucous/non-glaucous phenotype of Ae...
February 3, 2018: Genetica
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