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Plant gene

Christian Rellstab, Stefan Zoller, Lorenz Walthert, Isabelle Lesur, Andrea R Pluess, René Graf, Catherine Bodénès, Christoph Sperisen, Antoine Kremer, Felix Gugerli
Testing how populations are locally adapted and predicting their response to their future environment is of key importance in view of climate change. Landscape genomics is a powerful approach to investigate genes and environmental factors involved in local adaptation. In a pooled amplicon sequencing approach of 94 genes in 71 populations, we tested if >3'500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the three most common oak species in Switzerland (Quercus petraea, Q. pubescens, Q. robur) show an association with abiotic factors related to local topography, historical climate, and soil characteristics...
October 19, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Ji-Hua Yu, Yang-Yang Li, Mian Xiang, Jian-Quan Zhu, Xin-He Huang, Wan-Jun Wang, Rui Tan, Jia-Yu Zhou, Hai Liao
OBJECTIVES: To clone and characterize a novel bi-functional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (LASI) from the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong, a traditional Chinese medicine. RESULTS: The LASI showed strong homology with members of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor family. Its putative amino acid sequence has a 40 % identity with that of the α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from rice. LASI gene without signal peptide was expressed in E. coli Rosetta. After purification, the recombinant LASI protein was inhibitory against not only α-amylase from porcine pancreas, Helicoverpa armigera, Spodoptera litura and Plutella xylostella, but also subtilisin A, but not against trypsin or chymotrypsin...
October 17, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz, Pablo T Fernández-Moreno, Carmen V Ozuna, Antonia M Rojano-Delgado, Hugo E Cruz-Hipolito, José A Domínguez-Valenzuela, Francisco Barro, Rafael De Prado
In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qiongshan Wang, Nian Liu, Xiyan Yang, Lili Tu, Xianlong Zhang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous non-coding RNAs modulating the expression of target genes involved in plant development and stress tolerance, by degrading mRNA or repressing translation. In this study, small RNA and mRNA degradome sequencing were used to identify low- and high-temperature stress-responsive miRNAs and their targets in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton seedlings were treated under different temperature conditions (4, 12, 25, 35, and 42 °C) and then the effects were investigated...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaotao Ding, Yuping Jiang, Lizhong He, Qiang Zhou, Jizhu Yu, Dafeng Hui, Danfeng Huang
To investigate the physiological responses of plants to high root-zone temperature (HT, 35 °C) stress mitigated by exogenous glutathione (GSH), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were exposed to HT with or without GSH treatment for 4 days and following with 4 days of recovery. Plant physiological variables, growth, and gene expression related to antioxidant enzymes and Calvin cycle were quantified. The results showed that HT significantly decreased GSH content, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and related gene expression, shoot height, stem diameter, as well as dry weight...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Guoyun Zhang, Aiguo Duan, Jianguo Zhang, Caiyun He
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are >200nt longer transcripts, potentially play important roles in almost all biological processes in plants and mammals. However, the functions and profiles of lncRNAs in fruit is less understood. Therefore, it is urgent and necessary to identify and analyze the functions of lncRNAs in sea buckthorns. Using RNA-sequencing, we synthetically identified lncRNAs in mature fruit from the red and yellow sea buckthorn. We obtained 567,778,938 clean reads from six samples and identified 3428 lncRNAs in mature fruit, including 2498 intergenic lncRNAs, 593 anti-sense lncRNAs, and 337 intronic lncRNAs...
October 14, 2016: Gene
Juan Chen, Chao Wang, Zhi-Jun Shen, Gui-Feng Gao, Hai-Lei Zheng
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants, particularly in mangrove wetlands. However, little is known about the long-term effect of mangrove plants on PBDE removal from contaminated sediments. A 12-month microcosm experiment was conducted to understand the effect of two mangrove species, namely Avicennia marina (Am) and Aegiceras corniculatum (Ac), on PBDE removal from the sediments spiked with 2000ngg(-1) dry weight of BDE-47, and to explore the microbial mechanism responsible for the planting-induced effects on BDE-47 removal...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Alma Fernanda Sanchez-Maldonado, Mueen Aslam, Cara Service, Claudia Narváez-Bravo, Brent P Avery, Roger Johnson, Tineke H Jones
This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP)...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jiang Zhu, Wen-Shu Wang, Dan Ma, Lin-Yu Zhang, Feng Ren, Ting-Ting Yuan
Protein kinase CK2, which consists of two α and two β subunits, plays an essential role in plant development and is implicated in plant responses to abiotic stresses, including salt and heat. However, the function of CK2 in response to heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) has not yet been established. In this study, the transgenic line CKB4ox, which overexpresses CKB4 encoding the CK2β subunit and has elevated CK2 activity, was used to investigate the potential role of CK2 in response to Cd stress in Arabidopsis thaliana...
October 8, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Yin Song, Bart P H J Thomma
Verticillium wilt, caused by soil-borne fungi of the genus Verticillium, is an economically important disease that affects a wide range of host plants. Unfortunately, host resistance against Verticillium wilts is not available for many plant species, and the disease is notoriously difficult to combat. Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is an RNA interference (RNAi) based process in which small RNAs are produced by the host plant to target parasite transcripts. HIGS has emerged as a promising strategy for improving plant resistance against pathogens by silencing genes that are essential for these pathogens...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Weifang Wu, Qin Deng, Pibiao Shi, Jinghua Yang, Zhongyuan Hu, Mingfang Zhang
Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is a globally important crop belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae. The grafting technique is commonly used to improve its tolerance to stress, as well as to enhance its nutrient uptake and utilization. It is believed that miRNA is most likely involved in its nutrient-starvation response as a graft-transportable signal. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction is the preferred method for miRNA functional analysis, in which reliable reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy...
2016: PloS One
Julio A Massange-Sánchez, Paola A Palmeros-Suárez, Eduardo Espitia-Rangel, Isaac Rodríguez-Arévalo, Lino Sánchez-Segura, Norma A Martínez-Gallardo, Fulgencio Alatorre-Cobos, Axel Tiessen, John P Délano-Frier
Two grain amaranth transcription factor (TF) genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants. The first, coding for a group VII ethylene response factor TF (i.e., AhERF-VII) conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (WS) in transgenic Arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. A significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to WS was associated with this trait. WS tolerance was also associated with an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and the accumulation of putative stress-related secondary metabolites...
2016: PloS One
Hari Bhupathi Krishnan, Alaa Alaswad, Nathan Wayne Oehrle, Jason Gillman
Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is utilized by the plants for its growth and development. Fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in root nodule symbiosis. In this study, we have investigated the role of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase- isoform C (SACPD-C), a soybean enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid into oleic acid, which is expressed in developing seeds and in nitrogen fixing nodules...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Bruno Guillotin, Mohammad Etemadi, Corinne Audran, Mondher Bouzayen, Guillaume Bécard, Jean-Philippe Combier
Root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is a complex and finely tuned process. Previous studies have shown that, among other plant hormones, auxin plays a role in this process but the specific involvement of Aux/IAAs, the key regulators of auxin responses, is still unknown. In this study, we addressed the role of the tomato Sl-IAA27 during AM symbiosis by using Sl-IAA27-RNAi and pSL-IAA27::GUS stable tomato lines. The data show that Sl-IAA27 expression is up-regulated by the AM fungus and that silencing of Sl-IAA27 has a negative impact on AM colonization...
October 17, 2016: New Phytologist
Steven J Burgess, Ignasi Granero-Moya, Mathieu J Grangé-Guermente, Chris Boursnell, Matthew J Terry, Julian M Hibberd
C4 photosynthesis acts as a carbon concentrating mechanism that leads to large increases in photosynthetic efficiency. The C4 pathway is found in more than 60 plant lineages(1) but the molecular enablers of this evolution are poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how non-photosynthetic proteins in the ancestral C3 system have repeatedly become strongly expressed and integrated into photosynthesis gene regulatory networks in C4 leaves. Here, we provide clear evidence that in C3 leaves, genes encoding key enzymes of the C4 pathway are already co-regulated with photosynthesis genes and are controlled by both light and chloroplast-to-nucleus signalling...
October 17, 2016: Nature Plants
Harald Marx, Catherine E Minogue, Dhileepkumar Jayaraman, Alicia L Richards, Nicholas W Kwiecien, Alireza F Sihapirani, Shanmugam Rajasekar, Junko Maeda, Kevin Garcia, Angel R Del Valle-Echevarria, Jeremy D Volkening, Michael S Westphall, Sushmita Roy, Michael R Sussman, Jean-Michel Ané, Joshua J Coon
Legumes are essential components of agricultural systems because they enrich the soil in nitrogen and require little environmentally deleterious fertilizers. A complex symbiotic association between legumes and nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia culminates in the development of root nodules, where rhizobia fix atmospheric nitrogen and transfer it to their plant host. Here we describe a quantitative proteomic atlas of the model legume Medicago truncatula and its rhizobial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti, which includes more than 23,000 proteins, 20,000 phosphorylation sites, and 700 lysine acetylation sites...
October 17, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
Saravanan Devendran, Ahmed M Abdel-Hamid, Anton F Evans, Michael Iakiviak, In Hyuk Kwon, Roderick I Mackie, Isaac Cann
Digestion of plant cell wall polysaccharides is important in energy capture in the gastrointestinal tract of many herbivorous and omnivorous mammals, including humans and ruminants. The members of the genus Ruminococcus are found in both the ruminant and human gastrointestinal tract, where they show versatility in degrading both hemicellulose and cellulose. The available genome sequence of Ruminococcus albus 8, a common inhabitant of the cow rumen, alludes to a bacterium well-endowed with genes that target degradation of various plant cell wall components...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lin-Lin Yuan, Ming Zhang, Xing Yan, Yan-Wei Bian, Shou-Min Zhen, Yue-Ming Yan
Drought stress is a major abiotic stress affecting plant growth and development. In this study, we performed the first dynamic phosphoproteome analysis of Brachypodium distachyon L. seedling leaves under drought stress for different times. A total of 4924 phosphopeptides, contained 6362 phosphosites belonging to 2748 phosphoproteins. Rigorous standards were imposed to screen 484 phosphorylation sites, representing 442 unique phosphoproteins. Comparative analyses revealed significant changes in phosphorylation levels at 0, 6, and 24 h under drought stress...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jay B Hollick
Paramutation describes a process that results in heritable epigenetic changes of gene regulation and trans-homologue interactions. Recent discoveries in model organisms have highlighted roles for the respective nuclear systems that regulate transposons via small RNA molecules both for paramutation and for defining transgenerational inheritance. Differences between plants and animals may influence specific transmission behaviours but the involvement of small RNA-based mechanisms identifies a unifying eukaryotic theme...
October 17, 2016: Nature Reviews. Genetics
Bastian Minkenberg, Kabin Xie, Yinong Yang
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system depends on a guide RNA (gRNA) to specify its target. By efficiently co-expressing multiple gRNAs that target different genomic sites, the polycistronic tRNA-gRNA gene (PTG) strategy enables multiplex gene editing in the family of closely related rice mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) genes. In this study, we identified MPK1 and MPK6 (Arabidopsis AtMPK6 and AtMPK4 orthologues, respectively) as essential genes for rice development by finding the preservation of MPK functional alleles and normal phenotypes in CRISPR-edited mutants...
October 16, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
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