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Plant gene

Mitsuko Kishi-Kaboshi, Shigemi Seo, Akira Takahashi, Hirohiko Hirochika
Phenylpropanoids including diverse compounds, such as monolignols and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAAs), are essential for land plants to protect them against abiotic stresses, and create physical and chemical barriers to pathogen infection. However, the production control of these compounds against to pathogens has been poorly understood. Previously we showed that a MAMP (microbe-associated molecular pattern) -responsive MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascade (MKK4-MPK3/MPK6) comprehensively induced the expression of cinnamate/monolignol synthesis genes in rice cells...
March 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Véronique Hugouvieux, Catarina S Silva, Agnès Jourdain, Arnaud Stigliani, Quentin Charras, Vanessa Conn, Simon J Conn, Cristel C Carles, François Parcy, Chloe Zubieta
The MADS transcription factors (TF) constitute an ancient family of TF found in all eukaryotes that bind DNA as obligate dimers. Plants have dramatically expanded the functional diversity of the MADS family during evolution by adding protein-protein interaction domains to the core DNA-binding domain, allowing the formation of heterotetrameric complexes. Tetramerization of plant MADS TFs is believed to play a central role in the evolution of higher plants by acting as one of the main determinants of flower formation and floral organ specification...
March 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Héctor Cervera, Silvia Ambrós, Guillermo P Bernet, Guillermo Rodrigo, Santiago F Elena
Determining the fitness of viral genotypes has become a standard practice in virology as it is essential to evaluate their evolutionary potential. Darwinian fitness, defined as the advantage of a given genotype with respect to a reference, is a complex property that captures, in a single figure, differences in performance at every stage of viral infection. To what extent does viral fitness result from specific molecular interactions with host factors and regulatory networks during infection? Can we identify host genes in functional classes whose expression depends on viral fitness? Here, we compared the transcriptomes of tobacco plants infected with seven genotypes of tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) that differ in fitness...
March 19, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Motomu Endo, Masayasu Yoshida, Youhei Sasaki, Katsuya Negishi, Kobo Horikawa, Yasufumi Daimon, Ken-Ichi Kurotani, Michitaka Notaguchi, Mitsutomo Abe, Takashi Araki
In many plants, timing of flowering is regulated by day length. In Arabidopsis, florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, is synthesized in leaf phloem companion cells in response to long days and is transported to the shoot apical meristem (SAM) through the phloem. The temporal aspects of florigen transportation have been studied in various plants by physiological experiments. Nevertheless, little is known how FT protein transportation is regulated in Arabidopsis. In this study, we performed heat-shock based transient FT induction in a single leaf blade and detected the FT protein in shoot apex by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE)...
March 19, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Xiao Fang Zhu, Xu Sheng Zhao, Qi Wu, Ren Fang Shen
Background: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-studied phytohormone demonstrated to be involved in sub-sets of stress responses in plants, such as iron (Fe) deficiency and phosphorus (P) deficiency in Arabidopsis. However, whether ABA is involved in P deficiency in rice has not been frequently studied. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism underlying ABA-aggravated P deficiency in rice (Oryza sativa). Results: P deficiency decreased ABA accumulation rapidly (within 1 h) in the roots...
March 17, 2018: Annals of Botany
Josphat K Saina, Zhi-Zhong Li, Andrew W Gichira, Yi-Ying Liao
Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (Simaroubaceae) is a deciduous tree widely distributed throughout temperate regions in China, hence suitable for genetic diversity and evolutionary studies. Previous studies in A. altissima have mainly focused on its biological activities, genetic diversity and genetic structure. However, until now there is no published report regarding genome of this plant species or Simaroubaceae family. Therefore, in this paper, we first characterized A. altissima complete chloroplast genome sequence...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Francois Dussart, Ryan Douglas, Elisabet Sjökvist, Peter N Hoebe, Steven H Spoel, Graham R D McGrann
Ramularia collo-cygni (Rcc) causes Ramularia leaf spot (RLS) disease of barley. The fungus develops asymptomatically within its host until late in the growing season when necrotic lesions become visible on upper leaves. Fungal secondary metabolites (SMs) have been proposed as important factors in RLS lesion formation, but the biosynthetic pathways involved remain largely unknown. Mining the Rcc genome revealed the presence of ten polyketide synthases (PKSs), ten non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and three hybrid PKS-NRPS (HPSs) identified within clusters of genes with predicted functions associated with secondary metabolism...
March 21, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Anket Sharma, Vandana Gautam, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Leonard Wijaya, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Parvaiz Ahmad
Lead (Pb) is considered one the most hazardous pollutant, and its accumulation in soil and plants is of prime concern. To understand the role of plant hormones in combating heavy metal stress, the present study was planned to assess the interactive effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) (10-7  M) and salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) in regulating growth, pigment contents, antioxidative defense response, and gene expression in Brassica juncea L. seedlings exposed to different concentrations of Pb metal (0.25, 0.50, and 0...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Og-Geum Woo, Soon-Hee Kim, Seok Keun Cho, Sang-Hoon Kim, Han Nim Lee, Taijoon Chung, Seong Wook Yang, Jae-Hoon Lee
BPH1 acts as a substrate receptor of CRL3 complex and negatively regulates ABA-mediated cellular responses. The study on its function provides information that helps further understand the relationship between ABA signaling and UPS. Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in a variety of cellular processes, including seed dormancy, inhibition of seedling growth, and drought resistance in plants. Cullin3-RING E3 ligase (CRL3) complex is a type of multi-subunit E3 ligase, and BTB/POZ protein, a component of CRL3 complex, functions as a receptor to determine a specific substrate...
March 21, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Sailendra Singh, Pallavi Pandey, Sumit Ghosh, Suchitra Banerjee
Andrographolide (AD) is the time-honoured pharmacologically active constituent of the traditionally renowned medicinal plant-Andrographis paniculata. Advancements in the target-oriented drug discovery process have further unravelled the immense therapeutic credibility of another unique molecule-neoandrographolide (NAD). The escalated market demand of these anti-cancer diterpenes is increasingly facing unrelenting hurdles of demand and supply disparity, attributable to their limited yield. Callus and adventitious root cultures were generated to explore their biosynthetic potentials which first time revealed NAD production along with AD...
March 20, 2018: Protoplasma
Vallence Nsabiyera, Harbans S Bariana, Naeela Qureshi, Debbie Wong, Matthew J Hayden, Urmil K Bansal
A new adult plant stripe rust resistance gene, Yr80, was identified in a common wheat landrace Aus27284. Linked markers were developed and validated for their utility in marker-assisted selection. Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is among the most important constraints to global wheat production. The identification and characterisation of new sources of host plant resistance enrich the gene pool and underpin deployment of resistance gene pyramids in new cultivars. Aus27284 exhibited resistance at the adult plant stage against predominant Pst pathotypes and was crossed with a susceptible genotype Avocet S...
March 20, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Chun Q Zhu, Jun H Zhang, Li M Sun, Lian F Zhu, Buhailiqem Abliz, Wen J Hu, Chu Zhong, Zhi G Bai, Hussain Sajid, Xiao C Cao, Qian Y Jin
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) plays a vital role in Al3+ stress resistance in plants, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In the present study, pretreatment with 2 μM of the H2 S donor NaHS significantly alleviated the inhibition of root elongation caused by Al toxicity in rice roots, which was accompanied by a decrease in Al contents in root tips under 50 μM Al3+ treatment. NaHS pretreatment decreased the negative charge in cell walls by reducing the activity of pectin methylesterase and decreasing the pectin and hemicellulose contents in rice roots...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Feiyi Huang, Tongkun Liu, Xilin Hou
MADS-box genes form a large gene family in plants and are involved in multiple biological processes, such as flowering. However, the regulation mechanism of MADS-box genes in flowering remains unresolved, especially under short-term cold conditions. In the present study, we isolated BcMAF1 , a Pak-choi ( Brassica rapa ssp. Chinensis ) MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING ( MAF ), as a floral repressor and functionally characterized BcMAF1 in Arabidopsis and Pak-choi. Subcellular localization and sequence analysis indicated that BcMAF1 was a nuclear protein and contained a conserved MADS-box domain...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xuan-Rui Zhang, You-Ping Xu, Xin-Zhong Cai
Mechanisms underlying plant non-host resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola ( Xoc ), the pathogen causing rice leaf streak disease, are largely unknown. Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs) are calcium-permeable channels that are involved in various biological processes including plant resistance. In this study, functions of two tomato CNGC genes SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 in non-host resistance to Xoc were analyzed. Silencing of SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 in tomato significantly enhanced Xoc -induced hypersensitive response (HR) and non-host resistance, demonstrating that both SlCNGC1 and SlCNGC14 negatively regulate non-host resistance related HR and non-host resistance to Xoc in tomato...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Arjan van Zeijl, Titis A K Wardhani, Maryam Seifi Kalhor, Luuk Rutten, Fengjiao Bu, Marijke Hartog, Sidney Linders, Elena E Fedorova, Ton Bisseling, Wouter Kohlen, Rene Geurts
Parasponia represents five fast-growing tropical tree species in the Cannabaceae and is the only plant lineage besides legumes that can establish nitrogen-fixing nodules with rhizobium. Comparative analyses between legumes and Parasponia allows identification of conserved genetic networks controlling this symbiosis. However, such studies are hampered due to the absence of powerful reverse genetic tools for Parasponia . Here, we present a fast and efficient protocol for Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation and CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis of Parasponia andersonii ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Isidore A Diouf, Laurent Derivot, Frédérique Bitton, Laura Pascual, Mathilde Causse
Quality is a key trait in plant breeding, especially for fruit and vegetables. Quality involves several polygenic components, often influenced by environmental conditions with variable levels of genotype × environment interaction that must be considered in breeding strategies aiming to improve quality. In order to assess the impact of water deficit and salinity on tomato fruit quality, we evaluated a multi-parent advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) tomato population in contrasted environmental conditions over 2 years, one year in control vs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Guiying Tang, Pingli Xu, Wenhua Ma, Fang Wang, Zhanji Liu, Shubo Wan, Lei Shan
Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the major oil crops and is the fifth largest source of plant oils in the world. Numerous genes participate in regulating the biosynthesis and accumulation of the storage lipids in seeds or other reservoir organs, among which several transcription factors, such as LEAFY COTYLEDON1 ( AtLEC1 ), LEC2 , and WRINKLED1 ( WRI1 ), involved in embryo development also control the lipid reservoir in seeds. In this study, the AtLEC1 gene was transferred into the peanut genome and expressed in a seed-specific manner driven by the NapinA full-length promoter or its truncated 230-bp promoter...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Christoph Jans, Eleonora Sarno, Lucie Collineau, Leo Meile, Katharina D C Stärk, Roger Stephan
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is an increasing health concern. The spread of AMR bacteria (AMRB) between animals and humans via the food chain and the exchange of AMR genes requires holistic approaches for risk mitigation. The AMRB exposure of humans via food is currently only poorly understood leaving an important gap for intervention design. Method: This study aimed to assess AMRB prevalence in retail food and subsequent exposure of Swiss consumers in a systematic literature review of data published between 1996 and 2016 covering the Swiss agriculture sector and relevant imported food...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Wensheng Qin
To understand the common gene expression patterns employed by P. placenta during lignocellulose degradation, we have retrieved genome wide transcriptome datasets from NCBI GEO database and analyzed using customized analysis pipeline. We have retrieved the top differentially expressed genes and compared the common significant genes among two different growth conditions. Genes encoding for cellulolytic (GH1, GH3, GH5, GH12, GH16, GH45) and hemicellulolytic (GH10, GH27, GH31, GH35, GH47, GH51, GH55, GH78, GH95) glycoside hydrolase classes were commonly up regulated among all the datasets...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
David Harrich, Hongping Jin
The HIV-1 tat gene encodes a small 86-104 amino acid protein depending on the HIV-1 strain. Tat is essential for HIV-1 replication through interactions with numerous cellular transcription factors. The interaction between Tat and P-TEFb, which is a cellular protein complex composed of cyclin T1 and CDK9, delivers P-TEFb to the newly transcribed viral mRNAs where phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II by CDK9 leads to highly efficient mRNA transcription. It has long been recognized that Tat is a potential anti-HIV-1 target and possibly a viral Achilles' heel...
March 20, 2018: Biochemical Journal
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