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Cmv breast milk

Amit Kumar, Manoj Kumar Tripathy, Sébastien Pasquereau, Fatima Al Moussawi, Wasim Abbas, Laurie Coquard, Kashif Aziz Khan, Laetitia Russo, Marie-Paule Algros, Séverine Valmary-Degano, Olivier Adotevi, Stéphanie Morot-Bizot, Georges Herbein
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) establishes a persistent life-long infection and increasing evidence indicates HCMV infection can modulate signaling pathways associated with oncogenesis. Breast milk is an important route of HCMV transmission in humans and we hypothesized that mammary epithelial cells could be one of the main cellular targets of HCMV infection. METHODS: The infectivity of primary human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs) was assessed following infection with the HCMV-DB strain, a clinical isolate with a marked macrophage-tropism...
March 28, 2018: EBioMedicine
Soya S Sam, Jessica Ingersoll, Lori D Racsa, Angela M Caliendo, Patrick N Racsa, Doris Igwe, Deborah Abdul-Ali, Cassandra Josephson, Colleen S Kraft
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of intrauterine and perinatal viral infection. The most common route of CMV transmission in newborns is through breastmilk and this can lead to infant morbidity and mortality. Breast milk that has been frozen for an extended period may need to be tested for CMV DNA to determine the source of infection. It has been a challenge for clinical laboratories to ensure the stability of CMV DNA in frozen breast milk for accurate viral load measurement...
May 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Shannon A Ross, Marian G Michaels, Amina Ahmed, April L Palmer, Pablo J Sánchez, David I Bernstein, Kristina Feja, Audra Stewart, Suresh B Boppana, Karen B Fowler
Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of saliva is highly sensitive for newborn congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) screening. This study uses nationally published CMV seroprevalence and breastfeeding rates to estimate the contribution of CMV DNA in breast milk to false-positive saliva PCR results. The false-positive rates adjusted for breastfeeding ranged from 0.03% in white Hispanic persons to 0.14% in white non-Hispanic persons. Saliva CMV PCR for newborn screening is highly sensitive, and the low false-positive rates in this study suggest that saliva PCR results are unlikely to be significantly influenced by breastfeeding or other perinatal exposures...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
David C Moylan, Sunil K Pati, Shannon A Ross, Karen B Fowler, Suresh B Boppana, Steffanie Sabbaj
The role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-specific T-cell responses in breast milk of HCMV-seropositive mothers is not well defined. In these studies, we demonstrate that the frequency of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-pp65-specific T-cell responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and breast milk cells (BMCs) is increased for CD8+ T cells in both sample sources when compared with CD4+ T cells. The frequency of pp55-specific CD8 T cells producing interferon γ (IFN-γ) alone or dual IFN-γ/granzyme rB producers is increased in breast milk compared with PBMCs...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
M Ziemann, T Thiele
Transmission of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) via transfusion (TT-CMV) may still occur and remains a challenge in the treatment of immunocompromised CMV-seronegative patients, e.g. after stem cell transplantation, and for low birthweight infants. Measures to reduce the risk of TT-CMV have been evaluated in clinical studies, including leucocyte depletion of cellular blood products and/or the selection of CMV-IgG-negative donations. Studies in large blood donor cohorts indicate that donations from newly CMV-IgG-positive donors should bear the highest risk for transmitting CMV infections because they contain the highest levels of CMV-DNA, and early CMV antibodies cannot neutralise CMV...
June 23, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
Klaus Hamprecht, Rangmar Goelz
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is reactivated in the lactating breast in up to 96% of CMV seropositive mothers. There is a relevant entity of postnatally acquired symptomatic CMV infection and disease of preterm infants through raw breast milk (BM). Actual data support negative influence on long-term cognitive development. Concerning prevention, only heat inactivation eliminates virus infectivity, and short-term heat inactivation is most preservative; this can be applied effectively under routine conditions. Short-term heat inactivation for 5 minutes at 62°C maintains the benefits of feeding BM without the disadvantages of CMV transmission...
March 2017: Clinics in Perinatology
Christine Silwedel, Eric Frieauff, Wolfgang Thomas, Johannes G Liese, Christian P Speer
Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory condition with impairment of cytotoxic T-cells and natural killer cells. Causes in infants are mostly hereditary immune defects as well as various infectious triggering factors, amongst these cytomegalovirus (CMV). Vertical CMV transmission may occur in utero, during birth, and by breast feeding. Usually, a CMV infection transmitted via breast milk is symptomatic only in very immature preterm infants. We report on a late preterm infant born after 35 + 5 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 1840 g, being admitted to our intensive care unit at the age of 9 weeks with acute enteritis and severe dehydration...
June 2017: Infection
Alessandro Porta, Adriana Avanzini, Marta Bellini, Rosa Maria Crossignani, Stefano Fiocchi, Stefano Martinelli, Luciana Parola
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of congenital viral infection, affecting 0.2 to 2.3% of all live births in developed countries. Very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight newborns are at higher risk of symptomatic CMV infection, most commonly secondary and acquired through breast milk. Gastrointestinal involvement is rare in acquired CMV infections, but it could be an important manifestation of postnatal infection in preterm infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. Early onset of CMV gastrointestinal signs/symptoms is very rare...
November 28, 2016: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Jennifer A Slyker, Barbra Richardson, Michael H Chung, Claire Atkinson, Kristjana H Ásbjörnsdóttir, Dara A Lehman, Michael Boeckh, Vincent Emery, James Kiarie, Grace John-Stewart
To evaluate the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on CMV transmission and breast milk level in the context of maternal HIV. Specimens from a randomized trial conducted in Nairobi, Kenya between 2003-2005 were used to compare CMV transmission and breast milk levels between mother-infant pairs randomized to HAART versus short-course antenatal zidovudine plus single-dose nevirapine (ZDV/sdNVP) for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). Fifty-one antiretroviral-naïve women ≤32 weeks gestation, and CD4 between 200-500 cells/mm3 were randomized at 34 weeks to begin either antenatal ZDV/sdNVP, or HAART through 6 months postpartum...
April 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
MohammadBagher Hosseini, Heydar Ali Esmaili, Shahram Abdoli Oskouei, Morteza Gojazadeh, Ziba MokariYamchi, Vahideh Layegh, Leyla Emami, Amin MokariYamchi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the freeze-thawing method in reducing viral load of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in breast milk of mothers of preterm infants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 169 nursing mothers of preterm infants were evaluated serologically for CMV infection. We found 29 (17.15%) nursing mothers who had serologic evidence of CMV infections consistent with recent infection (N = 2, IgG + IgM +) or prior infection (N = 27 IgG + IgM-)...
December 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Li-Hong Ran, Lei Bao
Breast milk is considered ideal food for premature infants, but it can also be the main source of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in premature infants. CMV infection may cause serious clinical symptoms, such as sepsis-like syndrome, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, jaundice, hepatitis, and pneumonitis. This article reviews the research advances in symptoms, treatment strategies, prognosis and the prevention of breast milk-acquired CMV infection in premature infants.
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Maria Franca Pirillo, Giuseppe Liotta, Mauro Andreotti, Haswel Jere, Jean-Baptiste Sagno, Paola Scarcella, Sandro Mancinelli, Ersilia Buonomo, Roberta Amici, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Stefano Vella, Leonardo Palombi, Marina Giuliano
Antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce rates of congenital CMV infection. Little information is available on the possible impact of antiretroviral therapy on postnatal breastfeeding-associated CMV infection acquisition. A cohort of 89 HIV-infected mothers and their children was studied. Women received antiretroviral therapy from week 25 of gestation until 6 months postpartum or indefinitely if meeting the criteria for treatment. All women were evaluated for CMV IgG presence and CMV DNA in breast milk...
February 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Charles W Sauer, Krishelle L Marc-Aurele
BACKGROUND Because there are clear benefits to breast milk over formula for infants, the goal of the World Health Organization is to increase breastfeeding rates. As more women are breastfeeding and providing breast milk to newborns in hospitals, there is increased risk for administration error. CASE REPORT A hospitalized preterm infant was breastfed by the wrong mother when the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nurse failed to properly identify the mother. An infectious disease workup done on the donor mother was negative, but the recipient infant was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV)...
August 12, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Gang Liu, Qiuli Zhang, Wei Wang
Preterm infants (<32 weeks), who are unable to breastfeed, are fed with expressed maternal milk via a nasogastric tube. Mothers of these infants often experience difficulties in establishing and maintaining lactation. The majority of women excrete cytomegalovirus (CMV) in their breast milk. CMV transmitted through maternal milk could cause symptomatic infection in preterm infants presenting as a sepsis like syndrome, pneumonitis, hepatopathy or enterocolitis. Routine freezing of maternal milk decreases the CMV load in breast milk and is used in some neonatal centers to reduce CMV transmission to preterm infants...
February 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
Lopes Anne-Aurélie, Belhabri Souad, Karaoui Leila
Background Nonpasteurized, nonfrozen, fresh breast milk from mothers with positive cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology was initially contraindicated to very low-birth-weight infants because of the risk of milk-acquired CMV infection. Recently, the severity of this infection was increasingly discussed and the international guidelines now differ. Since 2012, the American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended nutrition through raw breast milk for all preterm infants. Case We report the case of an infant born prematurely at 27 weeks and 4 days and fed with raw breastmilk from day 12 of life (D12)...
April 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
Moshe Ben-Shoshan, Dror Mandel, Ronit Lubetzky, Shaul Dollberg, Francis B Mimouni
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected human milk (HM) can lead to significant CMV morbidity and mortality in preterm very-low-birth weight infants. The eradication of CMV in HM while preserving its properties poses a major clinical challenge. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare two methods used to neutralize the virus in HM, one recognized as partially effective (freezing) and another not tested to date (microwave exposure). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We sampled HM from 31 CMV-seropositive mothers whose infants were hospitalized at the Lis Maternity Hospital...
May 2016: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Mei-Juan Zhang, Tian-Ming Yuan, Li-Zhen Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors for hearing impairment induced by cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in children. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-eight children diagnosed with CMV infection were enrolled as subjects. Based on the results of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) test, patients were classified into normal hearing group (n=117; BAEP≤35) and abnormal hearing group (n=41; BAEP>35). A retrospective analysis was performed on the general information, routine blood indices, liver function, copy number of CMV-DNA in urine and breast milk...
March 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Naoji Yamagishi, Yasumi Furui, Syota Koshinami, Koichi Ichijo, Yoshito Shimizu, Yuji Hoshi, Yuko Gotanda, Keiko Miyakawa, Shigeharu Uchida, Kenji Tadokoro, Tadashi Nagai, Masahiro Satake
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in very-low-birthweight infants can lead to serious clinical consequences. When CMV-related symptoms occur after transfusion, CMV transmission is often attributed to the transfusion products rather than to breast milk. However, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish between transfusion-transmitted and breast milk-transmitted CMV infections. PATIENT AND METHODS: A patient was born at 27 gestational weeks with a weight of 689 g...
March 9, 2016: Transfusion
Carla Balcells, Francesc Botet, Sònia Gayete, M Ángeles Marcos, Izaskun Dorronsoro, Concepción de Alba, Josep Figueras-Aloy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology of congenital and acquired cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in preterm infants and to analyze the efficacy of breast milk freezing in decreasing the vertical transmission rate of CMV. STUDY DESIGN: During 2013 and 2014, preterm newborns who weighed ≤1500 g and were admitted to 22 Spanish neonatal units were included and screened for CMV infection according to the Spanish Neonatology Society recommendations. Each hospital treated the breast milk according to its own protocols...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, Claire Atkinson, Ruth Nduati, Kristjana Ásbjörnsdóttir, Michael Boeckh, Julie Overbaugh, Vincent Emery, Jennifer A Slyker
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants. We assessed the effect of and relative contribution of breastfeeding to CMV acquisition among infants delivered by HIV-infected mothers. METHODS: Between 1993 and 1998 pregnant, HIV-infected women in Nairobi, Kenya, were randomly assigned to breastfeed or formula-feed their infants in an HIV transmission study. Women were allocated equally between treatment arms, and the study was not blinded...
March 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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