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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419443/loss-of-natural-killer-t-nkt-cells-promotes-pancreatic-cancer-in-lsl-kras-g12d-mice
#1
Naveena B Janakiram, Altaf Mohammed, Taylor Bryant, Rebekah Ritchie, Nicole Stratton, Lydgia Jackson, Stan Lightfoot, Doris M Benbrook, Adam Asch, Mark L Lang, Chinthalapally V Rao
Role of unique T cell population, Natural Killer T (NKT) cells which have similar functions like NK cells in PC is not yet evaluated. In order to address the regulatory roles of NKT cells on tumor progression through tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and their production of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) in (Kras)-driven pancreatic tumor (KPT) progression, we crossed CD1d(-/-) mice deficient in both iNKT and vNKT cells with the Kras(G12D) mice. Loss of NKT cells significantly increased pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia lesions [PanINs] and also increased 5-LOX and mPGES-1 expressions in M2 type macrophages and cancer stem like cells in pancreatic tumors...
April 18, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383777/the-pd-1-expressing-immune-phenotype-of-t-cell-exhaustion-is-prominent-in-the-immunoreactive-microenvironment-of-colorectal-carcinoma
#2
Friedrich Prall, Maja Hühns
AIMS: This study was designed to test PD-1 expression of T cells, the hallmark of T cell exhaustion, in different "immune-classes" of colorectal carcinoma microenvironments as delineated by unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: A tissue microarray was made with punches from the invasive margins of 40 microsatellite unstable and 34 microsatellite stable colorectal carcinomas. Immune cells were phenotyped by CD8, granzyme B, CD4, FoxP3, CD68, S-100, PD-1, and PD-L1 immunohistochemistry; tumour area per tissue spot was quantified by CK18 immunohistochemistry...
April 6, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374746/intracellular-hmgb1-as-a-novel-tumor-suppressor-of-pancreatic-cancer
#3
Rui Kang, Yangchun Xie, Qiuhong Zhang, Wen Hou, Qingping Jiang, Shan Zhu, Jinbao Liu, Dexing Zeng, Haichao Wang, David L Bartlett, Timothy R Billiar, Herbert J Zeh, Michael T Lotze, Daolin Tang
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) driven by oncogenic K-Ras remains among the most lethal human cancers despite recent advances in modern medicine. The pathogenesis of PDAC is partly attributable to intrinsic chromosome instability and extrinsic inflammation activation. However, the molecular link between these two events in pancreatic tumorigenesis has not yet been fully established. Here, we show that intracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) remarkably suppresses oncogenic K-Ras-driven pancreatic tumorigenesis by inhibiting chromosome instability-mediated pro-inflammatory nucleosome release...
April 4, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373482/t-cells-in-celiac-disease
#4
REVIEW
Bana Jabri, Ludvig M Sollid
Celiac disease is a human T cell-mediated autoimmune-like disorder caused by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. This review will discuss how CD4 T cell responses directed against an exogenous Ag can cause an autoreactive B cell response and participate in the licensing of intraepithelial lymphocytes to kill intestinal epithelial cells. Furthermore, this review will examine the mechanisms by which intraepithelial cytotoxic T cells mediate tissue destruction in celiac disease.
April 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365229/the-role-of-interleukin-10-in-human-papilloma-virus-infection-and-progression-to-cervical-carcinoma
#5
REVIEW
Fernanda Costa Brandão Berti, Ana Paula Lombardi Pereira, Guilherme Cesar Martelossi Cebinelli, Kleber Paiva Trugilo, Karen Brajão de Oliveira
Although Human Papillomavirus (HPV) exerts a vital influence on cervical carcinogenesis, other factors influence the development of a squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) that may or not progress to cervical cancer. Among several cytokines, Interleukin 10 (IL-10) stands out as an important anti-inflammatory factor, leading to immune system evasion through an immunosuppressive state. In the cervical microenvironment, during different stages of HPV infection, IL-10 production can be induced and maintained by different cell sources, including infected keratinocytes, some subsets of dendritic cells (DC), tumor associated macrophages (TAM), T regulatory cells (Treg) and tumor cells...
March 23, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339726/effect-of-feeding-soybean-meal-and-differently-processed-peas-on-the-gut-mucosal-immune-system-of-broilers
#6
I Röhe, T W Göbel, F Goodarzi Boroojeni, J Zentek
Peas are traditionally used as a protein source for poultry. However, peas contain antinutritional factors (ANF), which are associated with the initiation of local and systemic immune reactions. The current study examined the effect of feeding raw or differently processed peas in comparison with feeding a soybean meal (SBM) based control diet (C) on the gut mucosal immune system of broilers in a 35 day feeding trial. In six replicates, a total of 360 one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated to four different groups receiving C, or three treatment diets containing raw, fermented, and enzymatically pre-digested peas, each supplying 30% of required crude protein...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333360/gammadelta-t-cells-in-crohn-s-disease-a-new-player-in-the-disease-pathogenesis
#7
Catalan-Serra Ignacio, Arne Kristian Sandvik, Torunn Bruland, Juan Carlos Andreu-Ballester
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic relapsing systemic disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract. An altered immune response to commensal intestinal bacteria takes place in genetically predisposed individuals, resulting in chronic inflammation in the gut. Several alterations in the innate immunity mechanisms have been described in recent years. Thus, the study of the immunological aspects of CD, specifically the role of lymphocytes, is a key element for understanding the pathogenesis of the disease. Gammadelta T cells (γδ T cells) constitute only a small proportion of the lymphocytes that circulate in the blood and peripheral organs and they are present mainly in the epithelia, where they can constitute up to 40% of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in the intestinal mucosa...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325903/whole-genome-analysis-of-human-papillomavirus-types-16-18-and-58-isolated-from-cervical-precancer-and-cancer-samples-in-chinese-women
#8
Ying Liu, Yaqi Pan, Weijiao Gao, Yang Ke, Zheming Lu
Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18 and 58 are ranked the top three high-risk HPV types for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive carcinoma. We aimed to evaluate the diversity of HPV16, HPV18, and HPV58 genetic variants by HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing. 295, 73, and 148 variations were observed in 51 HPV16, 7 HPV18, and 11 HPV58 genomes, respectively. HPV16 isolates were predominantly of the A variant lineage, and sublineage A4 (Asian) was the most common...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323276/open-capsule-budesonide-for-refractory-celiac-disease
#9
Saurabh S Mukewar, Ayush Sharma, Alberto Rubio-Tapia, Tsung-Teh Wu, Bana Jabri, Joseph A Murray
OBJECTIVES: Refractory celiac disease (RCD) is a rare condition often associated with poor prognosis. Various immunosuppressive medications (IMs) have been used with modest success. We describe outcomes in patients treated with open-capsule budesonide (OB), including those for whom IM treatment failed. METHODS: We identified RCD patients treated with OB at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota from 2003 to 2015. Demographic, serologic, and clinical variables were analyzed...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315920/-unknown-title
#10
J S Schwartz, S Al-Mot, M F Endam, S Al-Romaih, J Madrenas, M Desrosiers
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a frequently implicated pathogen in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). S. aureus may promote commensalism by downregulating pro-inflammatory T cell host responses via an IL-10 mediated pathway. This finding, coupled with the observation that S. aureus and CD8+ T cell numbers are inversely correlated in CRS mucosa, suggests that S. aureus may evade immune destruction via IL-10 induction. To support this hypothesis, we evaluated i) whether IL-10 levels differ in CRS compared to controls (CTL) using microarray and immunohistochemistry and ii) whether IL-10 levels correlate with S...
March 19, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296922/the-potential-role-of-osteopontin-in-the-maintenance-of-commensal-bacteria-homeostasis-in-the-intestine
#11
Koyu Ito, Akira Nakajima, Yuji Fukushima, Keiichiro Suzuki, Keiko Sakamoto, Yoko Hamazaki, Kouetsu Ogasawara, Nagahiro Minato, Masakazu Hattori
Osteopontin (Opn), a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein, is implicated in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory disorders. Under physiologic conditions, its expression is restricted to certain tissues including bone and kidney tubule. However, cellular activation during disease development induces Opn expression in various immune cells. In this study, using Opn-EGFP knock-in (KI) mice we found that CD8α+ T cells in the intestinal tissues, including Peyer's patch, lamina propria and epithelium, express Opn under steady state conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296676/histopathologic-features-of-colitis-due-to-immunotherapy-with-anti-pd-1-antibodies
#12
Jonathan H Chen, Maryam K Pezhouh, Gregory Y Lauwers, Ricard Masia
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blocking agents are novel immunotherapeutics used for treatment of advanced-stage malignancies. They have shown promise in the treatment of several malignancies, with greater efficacy and better tolerability than cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blocking agents. However, as with anti-CTLA-4 agents, clinically significant colitis remains an important complication. Although there is growing awareness of the histopathologic features of anti-CTLA-4 therapy, there is little information on the pathologic features of anti-PD-1 colitis...
May 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287518/isolation-and-flow-cytometric-analysis-of-human-endocervical-gamma-delta-t-cells
#13
Natasa Strbo, Laura Romero, Maria Alcaide, Margaret Fischl
The female reproductive tract (FRT) mucosal immune system serves as the first line of defense. Better knowledge of the genital mucosa is therefore essential for understanding pathogenicity of different pathogens including HIV. Gamma delta (GD) T cells are the prototype of 'unconventional' T cells and represent a relatively small subset of T cells defined by their expression of heterodimeric T-cell receptors (TCRs) composed of gamma and delta chains. This sets them apart from the classical and much better known CD4(+) helper T cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells that are defined by alpha-beta TCRs...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263020/from-actinic-keratosis-to-squamous-cell-carcinoma-pathophysiology-revisited
#14
REVIEW
M T Fernandez Figueras
The precursor of most cutaneous invasive squamous cell carcinomas (iSCCs) is intraepithelial UV-induced damage, known as field cancerization, which can eventually transform into actinic keratosis (AK). Although AK is the most common precursor of iSCC, many AKs will either persist in the same stage or regress, while only a few will progress into iSCC. Nevertheless, because the progression of individual AKs cannot be predicted, it has been proposed that all AKs, regardless of the grade, should be carefully monitored and appropriately treated in clinical practice...
March 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249896/lipocalin-2-promotes-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-by-regulating-inflammation-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#15
Sobeyda Gomez-Chou, Agnieszka Swidnicka-Siergiejko, Niharika Badi, Myrriah Chavez-Tomar, Gregory B Lesinski, Tanios Bekaii-Saab, Matthew R Farren, Thomas A Mace, Carl Schmidt, Yan Liu, Defeng Deng, Rosa F Hwang, Liran Zhou, Todd T Moore, Deyali Chatterjee, Huamin Wang, Xiaohong Leng, Ralph B Arlinghaus, Craig D Logsdon, Zobeida Cruz-Monserrate
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) promotes malignant development in many cancer types. LCN2 is upregulated in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and in obese individuals, but whether it contributes to PDAC development is unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Lcn2 depletion on diet-induced obesity, inflammation and PDAC development. Mice with acinar cell-specific expression of KrasG12D were crossed with Lcn2-depleted animals and fed isocaloric diets with varying amounts of fat content. Pancreas were collected and analyzed for inflammation, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and PDAC...
March 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248716/intraepithelial-melanoma-in-the-stomach-after-treatment-with-immune-checkpoint-blockade-therapy
#16
Elina Shustef, Carlos A Torres-Cabala, Jonathan L Curry, Michael T Tetzlaff, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Doina Ivan, Victor G Prieto, Phyu P Aung
Melanoma is the most common tumor to metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract, commonly affecting the small intestine, colon, and anorectum. Primary mucosal melanoma can arise in any gastrointestinal site, most frequently affecting anorectal mucosa. Melanoma involving the gastric mucosa, specifically, is exceedingly rare and carries a poor prognosis with a median survival of 5 months. The presence of atypical melanocytes exclusively within gastric epithelium has not been previously described. We report a case of a 52-year-old man with widespread BRAFV600E mutant metastatic melanoma who was referred to our institution for immune checkpoint antibody-blockade therapy...
February 23, 2017: American Journal of Dermatopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241053/release-of-hiv-1-sequestered-in-the-vesicles-of-oral-and-genital-mucosal-epithelial-cells-by-epithelial-lymphocyte-interaction
#17
Aizezi Yasen, Rossana Herrera, Kristina Rosbe, Kathy Lien, Sharof M Tugizov
Oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia of fetuses/neonates/infants and the genital epithelia of adults play a critical role in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission of virus, respectively. To study the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission through mucosal epithelium, we established polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. Analysis of HIV-1 transmission through epithelial cells showed that approximately 0.05% of initially inoculated virions transmigrated via epithelium. More than 90% of internalized virions were sequestered in the endosomes of epithelial cells, including multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and vacuoles...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225489/immunoregulation-effects-of-different-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-toll-like-receptor-signaling-pathways-in-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#18
Lei Hui, Yi Dai, Zhi Guo, Jiahui Zhang, Fang Zheng, Xiangli Bian, Zhimin Wu, Qin Jiang, Miaomiao Guo, Ke Ma, Jinping Zhang
The aim of the study was to observe cytokine and T-cell-related toll-like-receptor (TLR) changes in intestinal samples of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis patients.Four necrotic bowels were collected from neonatal NEC patients with gestational ages of 28 to 29 weeks in our hospital, whereas 4 neonatal patients who underwent intestinal atresia surgery served as the controls. Intestinal flora was examined and IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 expressions in resected intestine samples, as well as in isolated gamma delta T (γδT) cells, were analyzed immunohistochemically and via quantitative RT-PCR...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166225/the-composition-of-t-cell-subtypes-in-duodenal-biopsies-are-altered-in-coeliac-disease-patients
#19
Janni V Steenholt, Christian Nielsen, Leen Baudewijn, Anne Staal, Karina S Rasmussen, Hardee J Sabir, Torben Barington, Steffen Husby, Henrik Toft-Hansen
One of the hallmarks of Celiac disease (CD) is intraepithelial lymphocytosis in the small intestine. Until now, investigations to characterize the T cell subpopulations within the epithelial layer have not discriminated between the heterodimeric co-receptor molecule, CD8αβ, and the possibly immunoregulatory CD8αα homodimer molecule. Besides TCRαβ+ CD4+ cells, no other phenotypes have been shown to be gluten-reactive. Using flow cytometry on lymphocytes from duodenal biopsies, we determined that the number of B cells (CD3- CD19+) and the number of CD3+ CD4- CD8- double-negative (DN) T cells were elevated 6-7 fold in children with CD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139862/the-pd-1-pd-l1-axis-may-be-aberrantly-activated-in-occupational-cholangiocarcinoma
#20
Yasunori Sato, Masahiko Kinoshita, Shigekazu Takemura, Shogo Tanaka, Genya Hamano, Shoji Nakamori, Masahiro Fujikawa, Yasuhiko Sugawara, Takatsugu Yamamoto, Akira Arimoto, Minako Yamamura, Motoko Sasaki, Kenichi Harada, Yasuni Nakanuma, Shoji Kubo
An outbreak of cholangiocarcinoma in a printing company was reported in Japan, and these cases were regarded as an occupational disease (occupational cholangiocarcinoma). This study examined the expression status of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in occupational cholangiocarcinoma. Immunostaining of PD-1, PD-L1, CD3, CD8, and CD163 was performed using tissue sections of occupational cholangiocarcinoma (n = 10), and the results were compared with those of control cases consisting of intrahepatic (n = 23) and extrahepatic (n = 45) cholangiocarcinoma...
March 2017: Pathology International
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