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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906313/the-distribution-of-intratumoral-macrophages-correlates-with-molecular-phenotypes-and-impacts-prognosis-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#1
Younghoon Kim, Xianyu Wen, Jeong Mo Bae, Jung Ho Kim, Nam-Yun Cho, Gyeong Hoon Kang
The role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains elusive. In this study, we aimed to examine the correlation between TAMs, clinicopathological features, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and prognosis in CRC via image analysis. Immunohistochemical staining for CD68 and CD163 was performed with pan-macrophage and M2-macrophage markers, respectively. Each marker was separately analyzed for intraepithelial and stromal area densities. All four macrophage densities showed a significant correlation with one another (p = 0...
June 15, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888733/type-ii-enteropathy-associated-t-cell-lymphoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#2
L Zhao, Y Yang, Y Zhang
Type II enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (Type II EATL) is a rare peripheral T-cell lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report a case of Type II EATL, in which the patient with repeated diarrhea was diagnosed as ulcerative colitis and amebic infection at the beginning, but her symptom had no improvement after therapy. The diagnosis of Type II EATL was confirmed by the repeated biopsies and immunohistochemistry. This case suggests that Type II EATL is difficult to diagnose due to lack of specific symptoms and endoscopic features...
June 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29868024/commensal-bacteria-dependent-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-in-the-intestinal-epithelium-produce-antimicrobial-peptides
#3
Banru Chen, Xiang Ni, Rui Sun, Benhua Zeng, Hong Wei, Zhigang Tian, Haiming Wei
The epithelium of the intestine functions as the primary "frontline" physical barrier for protection from enteric microbiota. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) distributed along the intestinal epithelium are predominantly CD8+ T cells, among which CD8αβ+ IELs are a large population. In this investigation, the proportion and absolute number of CD8αβ+ IELs decreased significantly in antibiotic-treated and germ-free mice. Moreover, the number of CD8αβ+ IELs was correlated closely with the load of commensal microbes, and induced by specific members of commensal bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860820/-interaction-between-abnormal-expression-of-fragile-histidine-triad-and-methyl-cpg-binding-protein-2-on-cervical-cancerization
#4
Q Yang, Y Li, L Wang, Z C Song, M J Feng, L Ding, J T Wang
Objective: To explore the relationship between abnormal expression of fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) as well as their interaction on cervical cancerization. Methods: A total of 73 patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 113 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN Ⅰ, n =45; CINⅡ/Ⅲ, n =68) and 60 women with normal cervix (NC) were included in the study. Real time PCR and Western blot were performed to detect the expression levels of mRNA and protein about FHIT and MeCP2, respectively...
May 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848692/mitofusin-2-expression-is-implicated-in-cervical-cancer-pathogenesis
#5
Sung Yong Ahn, Chengri Li, Xianglan Zhang, Young-Min Hyun
BACKGROUND/AIM: It remains unclear whether mitofusin-2 (MFN2) functions as a tumour suppressor or oncogene in cancer progression. In this study we, therefore, aimed to investigate the effect of MFN2 on the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MFN2 expression was detected in seven healthy cervical, 64 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 120 cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, biological function of MFN2 in cervical cancer was investigated in vitro...
June 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800478/vascular-endothelial-growth-factors-c-and-d-and-lymphangiogenesis-at-the-early-stage-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-progression
#6
Y Kumagai, T Tachikawa, M Higashi, J Sobajima, A Takahashi, K Amano, M Fukuchi, K Ishibashi, E Mochiki, K Yakabi, J Tamaru, H Ishida
We conducted a detailed study of lymphangiogenesis and subsequent lymph node metastasis in early-stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) using immunostaining for D2-40 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and D. The study materials included 13 samples of normal squamous epithelium, 6 samples of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), and 60 samples of superficial ESCC (M1 and M2 cancer 24; M3 or deeper cancer 36). We assessed lymphatic vessel density (LVD) using D2-40 and immunoreactivity for VEGF-C and D in relation to histological type, lymphatic invasion, and lymph node metastasis...
May 23, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797752/lymphocytic-esophagitis-an-update-on-histologic-diagnosis-endoscopic-findings-and-natural-history
#7
REVIEW
Deepa T Patil, Suntrea Hammer, Rupert Langer, Rhonda K Yantiss
Lymphocytic esophagitis is a histologic pattern of injury characterized by increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (>20/high-power field) with rare, or absent granulocytes. Lymphocytes tend to be more numerous in the peripapillary epithelium, and are often associated with evidence of mucosal injury, edema, and scattered dyskeratotic cells. More than a decade following its original description, lymphocytic esophagitis remains an enigmatic entity with variable clinical presentations, associated disorders, etiologies, treatment, and natural history...
May 24, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787419/a-locus-at-7p14-3-predisposes-to-refractory-celiac-disease-progression-from-celiac-disease
#8
Barbara Hrdlickova, Chris J Mulder, Georgia Malamut, Bertrand Meresse, Mathieu Platteel, Yoichiro Kamatani, Isis Ricaño-Ponce, Roy L J van Wanrooij, Maria M Zorro, Marc Jan Bonder, Javier Gutierrez-Achury, Christophe Cellier, Alexandra Zhernakova, Petula Nijeboer, Pilar Galan, Sebo Withoff, Mark Lathrop, Gerd Bouma, Ramnik J Xavier, Bana Jabri, Nadine C Bensussan, Cisca Wijmenga, Vinod Kumar
BACKGROUND: Approximately 5% of patients with celiac disease (CeD) do not respond to a gluten-free diet and progress to refractory celiac disease (RCD), a severe progression that is characterized by infiltration of intraepithelial T lymphocytes. Patients with RCD type II (RCDII) show clonal expansions of intraepithelial T lymphocytes that result in a poor prognosis and a high mortality rate through development of aggressive enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. It is not known whether genetic variations play a role in severe progression of CeD to RCDII...
May 21, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782465/gamma-delta-t-lymphocytes-in-the-diagnostic-approach-of-coeliac-disease
#9
Petula Nijeboer, Tom van Gils, Martine Reijm, Rogier Ooijevaar, Birgit I Lissenberg-Witte, Hetty J Bontkes, Chris J J Mulder, Gerd Bouma
GOALS: To validate cut-off values of CD3 T-cell receptor gamma-delta chain (TCRγδ) intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) in the (differential) diagnosis of celiac disease (CD). BACKGROUND: CD is characterized by an increase in gamma-delta IEL (CD3TCRγδ IEL). STUDY: Percentages were determined by flow cytometric analysis of IELs from small bowel biopsies in 213 CD and 13 potential CD (PCD) patients and in total 112 controls. A cut-off value for percentages of CD3TCRγδ IEL to differentiate active CD and controls was obtained from a receiver operating characteristic curve and implemented in controls and PCD patients...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757356/developing-a-diagnostic-understanding-of-gerd-phenotypes-through-the-analysis-of-levels-of-mucosal-injury-immune-activation-and-psychological-comorbidity
#10
C Zhong, K Liu, K Wang, H Liu, H Su, J Wu, L Duan
Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) can present with typical or atypical symptoms. The aim of this study is to explore the underlying physiological and psychological mechanisms that lead to different symptomatic manifestations of GERD. A total of 238 patients diagnosed with GERD underwent gastroscopy, 24 h multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring, and psychological assessment with questionnaires. Patient symptoms were used to classify GERD into phenotypes of typical reflux syndrome (TRS, n = 87), reflux chest pain syndrome (RCS, n = 98), and extraesophageal syndromes (EES, n = 53)...
May 10, 2018: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757351/m10-a-novel-derivative-of-myricetin-prevents-ulcerative-colitis-and-colorectal-tumor-through-attenuating-robust-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress
#11
Feng Wang, Zhi-Yu Song, Xian-Jun Qu, Feng Li, Liang Zhang, Wen-Bao Li, Shu-Xiang Cui
Chronic gut inflammation disposes to an increased risk of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Chemoprevention is an attractive complementary strategy. We aimed to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of M10, a novel derivative of Myricetin, in the murine azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model. Oral administration of M10 at 50-100 mg/kg once a day for consecutive 12 weeks significantly prevented ulcerative colitis and colorectal tumor. Pathological analysis of intestines showed that M10 reduced the degree of chronic inflammation and prevented the progression of colorectal tumorigenesis...
May 11, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736914/sinus-like-dilatations-of-the-mammary-milk-ducts-ki67-expression-and-cd3-positive-t-lymphocyte-infiltration-in-the-mammary-gland-of-wild-european-rabbits-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#12
Katherine Hughes, Christine J Watson
Sinus-like dilatations of the mammary duct are recognisable in the mammary gland of pregnant and lactating wild European rabbits. These dilatations exhibit a bilaminar epithelial lining, with luminal epithelial cells expressing basal and lateral E-cadherin. Occasional binucleated mammary epithelial cells are present in the luminal layer. Underlying the luminal epithelial cells is a basal layer of cytokeratin 14-positive cells, supported by a thin layer of fibrous tissue. Multi-segmental epithelial proliferation, as indicated by Ki67 expression, is apparent in the luminal epithelial cells, suggesting a capacity for division during pregnancy and lactation...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736316/hpv16-viral-load-and-physical-state-measurement-as-a-potential-immediate-triage-strategy-for-hr-hpv-infected-women-a-study-in-644-women-with-single-hpv16-infections
#13
Anna Manawapat-Klopfer, Lisa Wang, Juliane Haedicke-Jarboui, Frank Stubenrauch, Christian Munk, Louise T Thomsen, Peter Martus, Susanne K Kjaer, Thomas Iftner
High genome copy number (viral load) of human papillomavirus (HPV) is being discussed as a risk factor for high-grade cervical lesions. However, conflicting data about the integration status or viral load of the virus as risk factors for prevalent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) are found in the literature. To investigate whether viral load and/or integration status are indicative for prevalent ASCUS/LSIL or HSIL, we determined the HPV16 viral load and the physical state of the genome in 644 women with single HPV16 infections stratified by their cytology results from a large Danish population-based cohort consisting of 40,399 women...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730722/relb-intrinsically-regulates-the-development-and-function-of-medullary-thymic-epithelial-cells
#14
Caiwei Jin, Mingzhao Zhu
Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) act as one of the major stromal components in the thymus for selection and maturation of both conventional T cells and non-conventional T cells. Extensive efforts have been spent to understand how mTEC development and function are regulated. Although RelB has been well accepted to be a critical transcriptional factor for mTEC development, the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unclear. In this study, by generating thymic epithelial cell specific RelB deficient mice, we found that epithelial intrinsic RelB is required for mTEC homeostatic proliferation...
May 1, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726044/%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-receptors-with-a-central-cdr3-cysteine-are-enriched-in-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-and-their-thymic-precursors
#15
Rushika C Wirasinha, Mandeep Singh, Stuart K Archer, Anna Chan, Paul F Harrison, Christopher C Goodnow, Stephen R Daley
The thymus plays a crucial role in immune tolerance by exposing developing T cells (thymocytes) to a myriad of self-antigens. Strong T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement induces tolerance in self-reactive thymocytes by stimulating apoptosis or selection into specialized T-cell lineages, including intestinal TCRαβ+ CD8αα+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL). TCR-intrinsic amino acid motifs that can be used to predict whether a TCR will be strongly self-reactive remain elusive. Here, a novel TCR sequence alignment approach revealed that T-cell lineages in C57BL/6 mice had divergent usage of cysteine within two positions of the amino acid at the apex of the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the TCRα or TCRβ chain...
May 3, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717233/diverse-developmental-pathways-of-intestinal-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#16
REVIEW
Benjamin D McDonald, Bana Jabri, Albert Bendelac
The intestinal epithelial barrier is patrolled by resident intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that are involved in host defence against pathogens, wound repair and homeostatic interactions with the epithelium, microbiota and nutrients. Intestinal IELs are one of the largest populations of lymphocytes in the body and comprise several distinct subsets, the identity and lineage relationships of which have long remained elusive. Here, we review advances in unravelling the complexity of intestinal IEL populations, which comprise conventional αβ T cell receptor (TCRαβ)+ subsets, unconventional TCRαβ+ and TCRγδ+ subsets, group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s) and ILC1-like cells...
May 1, 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703761/clonal-t-cell-receptor-gene-rearrangements-in-coeliac-disease-implications-for-diagnosing-refractory-coeliac-disease
#17
Shafinaz Hussein, Tatyana Gindin, Stephen M Lagana, Carolina Arguelles-Grande, Suneeta Krishnareddy, Bachir Alobeid, Suzanne K Lewis, Mahesh M Mansukhani, Peter H R Green, Govind Bhagat
AIMS: Refractory coeliac disease type II (RCDII), a rare complication of coeliac disease (CD) associated with high morbidity, requires identification of a clonal population of phenotypically aberrant intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) for diagnosis. However, data regarding the frequency and significance of clonal T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements (TCR-GRs) in small bowel (SB) biopsies of patients without RCDII are limited. METHODS: We analysed results of TCR-GR analyses performed on SB biopsies at our institution over a 3-year period, which were obtained from eight active CD, 172 CD on gluten-free diet (GFD), 33 RCDI, and three RCDII patients and 14 patients without CD...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684363/immunolabeling-of-cleared-human-pancreata-provides-insights-into-three-dimensional-pancreatic-anatomy-and-pathology
#18
Michaël Noë, Neda Rezaee, Kaushal Asrani, Michael Skaro, Vincent P Groot, Pei-Hsun Wu, Matthew T Olson, Seung-Mo Hong, Sung Joo Kim, Matthew J Weiss, Christopher L Wolfgang, Martin A Makary, Jin He, John L Cameron, Denis Wirtz, Nicholas J Roberts, G Johan A Offerhaus, Lodewijk A A Brosens, Laura D Wood, Ralph H Hruban
Visualizing pathologies in three dimensions can provide unique insights into the biology of human diseases. A rapid and easy-to-implement dibenzyl ether-based technique was used to clear thick sections of surgically resected human pancreatic parenchyma. Protocols were applicable to both fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. The penetration of antibodies into dense pancreatic parenchyma was optimized using both gradually increasing antibody concentrations and centrifugal flow. Immunolabeling with antibodies against cytokeratin 19 was visualized using both light sheet and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
April 22, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674648/human-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#19
REVIEW
Toufic Mayassi, Bana Jabri
The location of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) between epithelial cells, their effector memory, cytolytic and inflammatory phenotype positions them to kill infected epithelial cells and protect the intestine against pathogens. Human TCRαβ+ CD8αβ+ IEL have the dual capacity to recognize modified self via natural killer (NK) receptors (autoreactivity) as well as foreign antigen via the T cell receptor (TCR), which is accomplished in mouse by two cell subsets, the naturally occurring TCRαβ+ CD8αα+ and adaptively induced TCRαβ+ CD8αβ+ IEL subsets, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670628/g-protein-coupled-receptor-18-contributes-to-establishment-of-the-cd8-effector-t-cell-compartment
#20
Hayakazu Sumida, Jason G Cyster
The requirements for effector and memory CD8 T cell development are incompletely understood. Recent work has revealed a role for G-protein coupled receptor 18 (GPR18) in establishment of the intestinal CD8αα intraepithelial lymphocyte compartment. Here, we report that GPR18 is also functionally expressed in conventional CD8αβ T cells. When the receptor is lacking, mice develop fewer CD8+ KLRG1+ Granzyme B+ effector-memory cells. Bone marrow chimera studies show that the GPR18 requirement is CD8 T cell intrinsic...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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