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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215538/over-90-of-cases-of-microscopic-colitis-can-be-diagnosed-by-performing-a-short-colonoscopy
#1
Gilles Macaigne, Pierre Lahmek, Christophe Locher, Jean François Boivin, Bruno Lesgourgues, Mathieu Yver, Laurent Costes, I Abd Alsamad, Joel Cucherousset, Claire Charpignon, Hélène Guyot, Bénédicte Lambaré, Jean-Michel Ghilain, Valérie Calès, Stéphanie de Montigny-Lenhardt, Guy Bellaïche, Alexandre Pariente, Stéphane Nahon
AIMS: To determinate the topographical distribution of key diagnostic histological features of lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC) and to establish what correlations may exist between the histological findings and the causes and severity of MC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with MC were included in a prospective multicentre French study from September 2010 to October 2012. MC was diagnosed by performing total colonoscopy with multiple biopsies of the rectum and colon collected in separate jars and analyzed separately for each site (descending and sigmoid colon, transverse colon, ascending colon)...
February 16, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166225/the-composition-of-t-cell-subtypes-in-duodenal-biopsies-are-altered-in-coeliac-disease-patients
#2
Janni V Steenholt, Christian Nielsen, Leen Baudewijn, Anne Staal, Karina S Rasmussen, Hardee J Sabir, Torben Barington, Steffen Husby, Henrik Toft-Hansen
One of the hallmarks of Celiac disease (CD) is intraepithelial lymphocytosis in the small intestine. Until now, investigations to characterize the T cell subpopulations within the epithelial layer have not discriminated between the heterodimeric co-receptor molecule, CD8αβ, and the possibly immunoregulatory CD8αα homodimer molecule. Besides TCRαβ+ CD4+ cells, no other phenotypes have been shown to be gluten-reactive. Using flow cytometry on lymphocytes from duodenal biopsies, we determined that the number of B cells (CD3- CD19+) and the number of CD3+ CD4- CD8- double-negative (DN) T cells were elevated 6-7 fold in children with CD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091848/a-novel-combination-treatment-to-stimulate-bone-healing-and-regeneration-under-hypoxic-conditions-photobiomodulation-and-melatonin
#3
Jang-Ho Son, Bong-Soo Park, In-Ryoung Kim, Iel-Yong Sung, Yeong-Cheol Cho, Jung-Soo Kim, Yong-Deok Kim
Melatonin has anabolic effects on the bone, even under hypoxia, and laser irradiation has been shown to improve osteoblastic differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether laser irradiation and melatonin would have synergistic effects on osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization under hypoxic conditions. MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to 1% oxygen tension for the hypoxia condition. The cells were divided into four groups: G1-osteoblast differentiation medium only (as the hypoxic condition), G2-treatment with 50 μM melatonin only, G3-laser irradiation (808 nm, 80 mW, GaAlAs diode) only, and G4-treatment with 50 μM melatonin and laser irradiation (808 nm, 80 mW, GaAlAs diode)...
January 13, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049849/cd4-t-cell-cytokines-synergize-to-induce-proliferation-of-malignant-and-nonmalignant-innate-intraepithelial-lymphocytes
#4
Yvonne M C Kooy-Winkelaar, Dagmar Bouwer, George M C Janssen, Allan Thompson, Martijn H Brugman, Frederike Schmitz, Arnoud H de Ru, Tom van Gils, Gerd Bouma, Jon J van Rood, Peter A van Veelen, M Luisa Mearin, Chris J Mulder, Frits Koning, Jeroen van Bergen
Refractory celiac disease type II (RCDII) is a severe complication of celiac disease (CD) characterized by the presence of an enlarged clonal population of innate intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) lacking classical B-, T-, and natural killer (NK)-cell lineage markers (Lin(-)IELs) in the duodenum. In ∼50% of patients with RCDII, these Lin(-)IELs develop into a lymphoma for which no effective treatment is available. Current evidence indicates that the survival and expansion of these malignant Lin(-)IELs is driven by epithelial cell-derived IL-15...
February 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049094/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-activation-modulates-cd8%C3%AE-%C3%AE-tcr%C3%AE-%C3%AE-iels-and-suppression-of-colitis-manifestations-in-mice
#5
Weigang Chen, Aimin Pu, Baifa Sheng, Zhicao Zhang, Liangzi Li, Zhongze Liu, Qimeng Wang, Xiang Li, Yuanhang Ma, Min Yu, Lihua Sun, Yuan Qiu, Hua Yang
BACKGROUND: This research is dedicated to investigating the effects and potential mechanism of action of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor on the intestinal mucosal immune system in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced by the administration of 3% DSS to wild-type C57BL/6J mice for 7days. 6-formylindolo(3, 2-b)carbazole (FICZ), an endogenous agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), was given intraperitoneally on a daily basis beginning 2days after the start of DSS administration...
March 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028297/histopathological-features-of-coeliac-disease-in-a-sample-of-sudanese-patients
#6
M A N Mokhtar, S O Mekki, H M Y Mudawi, S H Sulaiman, M A Tahir, M A Tigani, I A Omer, B M Yousif, I A Fragalla, Z Mohammed, M Dafaalla
INTRODUCTION: Coeliac disease can occur at any age but is more common in children. Its diagnosis requires correlation between clinical presentations, serological results, endoscopic findings and histopathological classification using the modified Marsh grading system. This study of coeliac disease with biopsies received in the department of histopathology at Soba University Hospital, and Fedail Hospital aimed to gain insight into the demographic profile, clinical presentations and histopathological classification of patients with coeliac disease...
December 2016: Malaysian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011265/involvement-of-ly6c-4-1bb-and-klrg1-in-the-activation-of-lamina-propria-lymphocytes-in-the-small-intestine-of-sanroque-mice
#7
Dina Montufar-Solis, Alexander Williams, Nadarajah Vigneswaran, John R Klein
Roquin is an E3 ligase that regulates mRNA stability. Mice with a mutation in the Rc3h1 gene and Roquin protein, referred to as Roquin(san/san) or sanroque mice, develop broad-spectrum chronic inflammatory conditions and autoimmune pathologies. Our laboratory recently reported that sanroque mice also develop extensive inflammation that is localized in the small intestine but is rare in the colon. Here, we demonstrate that small intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are present in the epithelium of sanroque mice but that cell recoverability is low using standard extraction techniques even though lamina propria lymphocytes (LPLs) can be recovered in normal numbers...
January 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877076/cardiomyogenic-differentiation-of-human-dental-follicle-derived-stem-cells-by-suberoylanilide-hydroxamic-acid-and-their-in-vivo-homing-property
#8
Iel-Yong Sung, Han-Na Son, Imran Ullah, Dinesh Bharti, Ju-Mi Park, Yeong-Cheol Cho, June-Ho Byun, Young-Hoon Kang, Su-Jin Sung, Jong-Woo Kim, Gyu-Jin Rho, Bong-Wook Park
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the in vitro cardiomyogenic differentiation potential of human dental follicle-derived stem cells (DFCs) under the influence of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a member of the histone deacetylase inhibitor family, and analyze the in vivo homing capacity of induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) when transplanted systemically. DFCs from extracted wisdom teeth showed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics such as plate adherent growing, expression of MSC markers (CD44, CD90, and CD105), and mesenchymal lineage-specific differentiation potential...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877072/cultured-human-periosteum-derived-cells-can-differentiate-into-osteoblasts-in-a-perioxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-mediated-fashion-via-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling
#9
Jin-Eun Chung, Jin-Ho Park, Jeong-Won Yun, Young-Hoon Kang, Bong-Wook Park, Sun-Chul Hwang, Yeong-Cheol Cho, Iel-Yong Sung, Dong Kyun Woo, June-Ho Byun
The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblastic fate depends on numerous signaling pathways, including activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling components. Commitment to osteogenesis is associated with activation of osteoblast-related signal transduction, whereas inactivation of this signal transduction favors adipogenesis. BMP signaling also has a critical role in the processes by which mesenchymal stem cells undergo commitment to the adipocyte lineage. In our previous study, we demonstrated that an agonist of the perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, stimulates osteoblastic differentiation of cultured human periosteum-derived cells...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864127/no-difference-between-latiglutenase-and-placebo-in-reducing%C3%A2-villous-atrophy-or-improving-symptoms-in-patients%C3%A2-with-symptomatic-celiac-disease
#10
Joseph A Murray, Ciarán P Kelly, Peter H R Green, Annette Marcantonio, Tsung-Teh Wu, Markku Mäki, Daniel C Adelman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gluten ingestion leads to symptoms and small intestinal mucosal injury in patients with celiac disease. The only option is the strict lifelong exclusion of dietary gluten, which is difficult to accomplish. Many patients following a gluten-free diet continue to have symptoms and have small intestinal mucosal injury. Nondietary therapies are needed. We performed a phase 2 study of the ability of latiglutenase, an orally administered mixture of 2 recombinant gluten-targeting proteases, to reduce mucosal morphometric measures in biopsy specimens from patients with celiac disease...
November 15, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820846/preclinical-immunomodulation-by-the-probiotic-bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-in-early-life
#11
Maria Del Mar Rigo-Adrover, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell, Francisco José Pérez-Cano
This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were obtained...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819346/novel-cd200-homologues-isec1-and-isec2-are-gastrointestinal-secretory-cell-specific-ligands-of-inhibitory-receptor-cd200r
#12
Toshiyuki Kojima, Kiichiro Tsuchiya, Shinji Ikemizu, Soichiro Yoshikawa, Yoshinori Yamanishi, Mamoru Watanabe, Hajime Karasuyama
CD200R is an inhibitory receptor expressed on myeloid cells and some lymphoid cells, and plays important roles in negatively regulating immune responses. CD200 is the only known ligand of CD200R and broadly distributed in a variety of cell types. Here we identified novel CD200 homologues, designated iSEC1 and iSEC2, that are expressed exclusively by secretory cell lineages in the gastrointestinal epithelium while authentic CD200 is expressed by none of epithelial cells including secretory cells. Both iSEC1 and iSEC2 could bind to CD200R but not other members of the CD200R family...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812617/analysis-of-speech-and-tongue-motion-in-normal-and-post-glossectomy-speaker-using-cine-mri
#13
Jinhee Ha, Iel-Yong Sung, Jang-Ho Son, Maureen Stone, Robert Ord, Yeong-Cheol Cho
Objective: Since the tongue is the oral structure responsible for mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing functions, patients who undergo glossectomy can be affected in various aspects of these functions. The vowel /i/ uses the tongue shape, whereas /u/ uses tongue and lip shapes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the morphological changes of the tongue and the adaptation of pronunciation using cine MRI for speech of patients who undergo glossectomy. Material and Methods: Twenty-three controls (11 males and 12 females) and 13 patients (eight males and five females) volunteered to participate in the experiment...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809400/structural-analysis-of-endothelial-projections-from-mesenteric-arteries
#14
Nadia Maarouf, Maria Sancho, Tobias Fürstenhaupt, Cam Ha Tran, Donald G Welsh
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial and smooth muscle cells must communicate with one another to regulate arterial diameter. A key structure driving heterocellular communication is the endothelial projection, a thin extension that crosses the internal elastic lamina (IEL) making contact with smooth muscle. This study sought to define the precise structural composition of endothelial projections in the mesenteric circulation. METHODS: Third and fourth order mesenteric arteries from hamster were prepared for electron microscopy...
November 3, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803799/approach-to-patients-with-refractory-coeliac-disease
#15
REVIEW
Ikram Nasr, Iman Nasr, Hannah Campling, Paul J Ciclitira
Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a recognised complication, albeit very rare, of coeliac disease (CD). This condition is described when individuals with CD continue to experience enteropathy and subsequent or ongoing malabsorption despite strict adherence to a diet devoid of gluten for at least 12 months and when all other causes mimicking this condition are excluded. Depending on the T-cell morphology and T-cell receptor (TCR) clonality at the β/γ loci, RCD can be subdivided into type 1 (normal intra-epithelial lymphocyte morphology, polyclonal TCR population) and type 2 (aberrant IELs with clonal TCR)...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704745/effects-of-yeast-products-on-the-intestinal-morphology-barrier-function-cytokine-expression-and-antioxidant-system-of-weaned-piglets
#16
Huan-Sheng Yang, Fei Wu, Li-Na Long, Tie-Jun Li, Xia Xiong, Peng Liao, Hong-Nan Liu, Yu-Long Yin
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a mixture of yeast culture, cell wall hydrolysates, and yeast extracts (collectively "yeast products," YP) on the performance, intestinal physiology, and health of weaned piglets. A total of 90 piglets weaned at 21 d of age were blocked by body weight, sex, and litter and randomly assigned to one of three treatments for a 14-d feeding experiment, including (1) a basal diet (control), (2) 1.2 g/kg of YP, and (3) 20 mg/kg of colistin sulfate (CSE). No statistically significant differences were observed in average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, or gain-to-feed ratio among CSE, YP, and control piglets...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672296/may-the-assessment-of-baseline-mucosal-molecular-pattern-predict-the-development-of-gluten-related-disorders-among-microscopic-enteritis
#17
Giuseppe Losurdo, Floriana Giorgio, Domenico Piscitelli, Lucia Montenegro, Claudia Covelli, Maria Grazia Fiore, Antonio Giangaspero, Andrea Iannone, Mariabeatrice Principi, Annacinzia Amoruso, Michele Barone, Alfredo Di Leo, Enzo Ierardi
AIM: To evaluate mucosal baseline mRNA expression of tissue transglutaminase 2 (tTG2), interferon gamma (IFNγ), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in patients with microscopic enteritis (ME). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 89 patients with ME of different etiology, which was defined within a 2-year mean period of follow-up. Baseline histological examination was performed on Hematoxylin-Eosin stained sections and CD3 lymphocyte immunohistochemistry was used for intraepithelial lymphocyte count (IELs)...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663425/intraepithelial-lymphocytes-subsets-in-different-forms-of-celiac-disease
#18
M Sánchez-Castañon, B G Castro, M Toca, C Santacruz, M Arias-Loste, P Iruzubieta, J Crespo, Marcos López-Hoyos
AIM: The enumeration of intraepithelial lymphocytes subsets (total, γδ, and CD3(-) IELs) by flow cytometry (FCM), named as IEL lymphogram, constitutes a useful tool for celiac disease (CD) diagnosis. The aim of this study was to quantify IELs by FCM and their diagnostic value to differentiate active, silent and potential CD. METHODS: Prospective study of 60 active and 20 silent CD patients, and 161 controls in which duodenal biopsy and IEL quantification by FCM was performed...
December 2016: Auto- Immunity Highlights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652377/human-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-augment-antigen-presentation-in-listeria-monocytogenes-infection
#19
Yuli Zhu, Huaishan Wang, Yi Xu, Yu Hu, Hui Chen, Lianxian Cui, Jianmin Zhang, Wei He
Circulating γδ T cells in healthy individuals rapidly respond to bacterial and viral pathogens. Many studies have demonstrated that γδ T cells are activated and expanded by Listeria monocytogenes (L.monocytogenes), a foodborne bacterial pathogen with high fatality rates. However, the roles of γδ T cells during L.monocytogenes infection are not clear. In the present study, we characterized the morphological characteristics of phagocytosis in γδ T cells after L.monocytogenes infection using transmission electron microscopy...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635640/lymphocytic-esophagitis-a-histologic-pattern-with-emerging-clinical-ramifications
#20
Mikhail Lisovsky, Maria Westerhoff, Xuchen Zhang
The clinical significance of lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE), which is characterized by the prominence of peripapillary intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) without significant granulocytosis, remains poorly understood. During the last few years, plausible clinical correlates and novel approaches for stratification of LyE have started to emerge. Association with Crohn's disease has been established in children, but is not observed in adults. In adults, the form of LyE showing CD4(+) -predominant IELs has been recently found to be associated with non-achalasia primary motility abnormalities...
September 16, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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