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Huan-Sheng Yang, Fei Wu, Li-Na Long, Tie-Jun Li, Xia Xiong, Peng Liao, Hong-Nan Liu, Yu-Long Yin
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a mixture of yeast culture, cell wall hydrolysates, and yeast extracts (collectively "yeast products," YP) on the performance, intestinal physiology, and health of weaned piglets. A total of 90 piglets weaned at 21 d of age were blocked by body weight, sex, and litter and randomly assigned to one of three treatments for a 14-d feeding experiment, including (1) a basal diet (control), (2) 1.2 g/kg of YP, and (3) 20 mg/kg of colistin sulfate (CSE). No statistically significant differences were observed in average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, or gain-to-feed ratio among CSE, YP, and control piglets...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Giuseppe Losurdo, Floriana Giorgio, Domenico Piscitelli, Lucia Montenegro, Claudia Covelli, Maria Grazia Fiore, Antonio Giangaspero, Andrea Iannone, Mariabeatrice Principi, Annacinzia Amoruso, Michele Barone, Alfredo Di Leo, Enzo Ierardi
AIM: To evaluate mucosal baseline mRNA expression of tissue transglutaminase 2 (tTG2), interferon gamma (IFNγ), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in patients with microscopic enteritis (ME). METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 89 patients with ME of different etiology, which was defined within a 2-year mean period of follow-up. Baseline histological examination was performed on Hematoxylin-Eosin stained sections and CD3 lymphocyte immunohistochemistry was used for intraepithelial lymphocyte count (IELs)...
September 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
M Sánchez-Castañon, B G Castro, M Toca, C Santacruz, M Arias-Loste, P Iruzubieta, J Crespo, Marcos López-Hoyos
AIM: The enumeration of intraepithelial lymphocytes subsets (total, γδ, and CD3(-) IELs) by flow cytometry (FCM), named as IEL lymphogram, constitutes a useful tool for celiac disease (CD) diagnosis. The aim of this study was to quantify IELs by FCM and their diagnostic value to differentiate active, silent and potential CD. METHODS: Prospective study of 60 active and 20 silent CD patients, and 161 controls in which duodenal biopsy and IEL quantification by FCM was performed...
December 2016: Auto- Immunity Highlights
Yuli Zhu, Huaishan Wang, Yi Xu, Yu Hu, Hui Chen, Lianxian Cui, Jianmin Zhang, Wei He
Circulating γδ T cells in healthy individuals rapidly respond to bacterial and viral pathogens. Many studies have demonstrated that γδ T cells are activated and expanded by Listeria monocytogenes (L.monocytogenes), a foodborne bacterial pathogen with high fatality rates. However, the roles of γδ T cells during L.monocytogenes infection are not clear. In the present study, we characterized the morphological characteristics of phagocytosis in γδ T cells after L.monocytogenes infection using transmission electron microscopy...
September 19, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Mikhail Lisovsky, Maria Westerhoff, Xuchen Zhang
The clinical significance of lymphocytic esophagitis (LyE), which is characterized by the prominence of peripapillary intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) without significant granulocytosis, remains poorly understood. During the last few years, plausible clinical correlates and novel approaches for stratification of LyE have started to emerge. Association with Crohn's disease has been established in children, but is not observed in adults. In adults, the form of LyE showing CD4(+) -predominant IELs has been recently found to be associated with non-achalasia primary motility abnormalities...
September 16, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Julien Ettersperger, Nicolas Montcuquet, Georgia Malamut, Nicolas Guegan, Silvia Lopez-Lastra, Ségolène Gayraud, Christian Reimann, Elodie Vidal, Nicolas Cagnard, Patrick Villarese, Isabelle Andre-Schmutz, Rita Gomes Domingues, Cristina Godinho-Silva, Henrique Veiga-Fernandes, Ludovic Lhermitte, Vahid Asnafi, Elizabeth Macintyre, Christophe Cellier, Kheira Beldjord, James P Di Santo, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Bertrand Meresse
The nature of gut intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) lacking antigen receptors remains controversial. Herein we showed that, in humans and in mice, innate intestinal IELs expressing intracellular CD3 (iCD3(+)) differentiate along an Id2 transcription factor (TF)-independent pathway in response to TF NOTCH1, interleukin-15 (IL-15), and Granzyme B signals. In NOTCH1-activated human hematopoietic precursors, IL-15 induced Granzyme B, which cleaved NOTCH1 into a peptide lacking transcriptional activity. As a result, NOTCH1 target genes indispensable for T cell differentiation were silenced and precursors were reprogrammed into innate cells with T cell marks including intracellular CD3 and T cell rearrangements...
September 20, 2016: Immunity
Aline Van Acker, Els Louagie, Jessica Filtjens, Sylvie Taveirne, Els Van Ammel, Tessa Kerre, Dirk Elewaut, Tom Taghon, Bart Vandekerckhove, Jean Plum, Georges Leclercq
Ly49E is a member of the Ly49 family of NK receptors and is distinct from other members of this family on the basis of its structural properties, expression pattern and ligand recognition. Importantly, Ly49E receptor expression is high on small intestinal and colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Intestinal IELs are regulators of the mucosal immune system and contribute to front-line defense at the mucosal barrier, including anti-tumor immune response. Whereas most Ly49 receptors have MHC class-I ligands, we showed that Ly49E is instead triggered by urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)...
September 1, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Yuan Qiu, Aimin Pu, Hong Zheng, Minqiang Liu, Weigang Chen, Wensheng Wang, Weidong Xiao, Hua Yang
TLR2 signaling is related to colitis and involved in regulation of innate immunity in the intestinal tract, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate how TLR2 affects differentiation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and regulates the susceptibility of colitis. IELs were isolated from the small intestine and colon of mice, respectively. The IEL phenotype, activation, and apoptosis were examined using flow cytometry and RT-PCR. IL-15 expression and IEL location were detected through immunohistochemistry...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Cristina Lebrero-Fernández, Anna Bas-Forsberg
Murine Butyrophilin-like (Btnl) 1 and Btnl6 are primarily restricted to intestinal epithelium where they regulate the function of intraepithelial T lymphocytes. We recently demonstrated that Btnl1 and Btnl6 can form an intra-family heterocomplex and that the Btnl1-Btnl6 complex selectively expands Vγ7Vδ4 TCR IELs. To define the regulation of Btnl expression in the small intestine during ontogeny we examined the presence of Btnl1 and Btnl6 in the small bowel of newborn to 4-week-old mice. Although RNA expression of Btnl1 and Btnl6 was detected in the small intestine at day 0, Btnl1 and Btnl6 protein expression was substantially delayed and was not detectable in the intestinal epithelium until the mice reached 2-3 weeks of age...
2016: Scientific Reports
T K Cooper, J W Griffith, Z C Chroneos, J M Izer, L B Willing, X Peng
Spontaneous age-related lesions of laboratory rabbits are not well documented in the contemporary scientific literature. A retrospective study of diagnostic necropsies of 36 rabbits >2 years of age found a number of common lung lesions. Fibromuscular intimal hyperplasia affected medium and to a lesser extent large pulmonary arteries and was present to a variable extent in all 36 rabbits >2 years of age. The lesions were characterized by fragmentation and/or reduplication of the internal elastic lamina (IEL), proliferation of smoothelin+/alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)+/vimentin- smooth muscle cells and fewer smoothelin-/α-SMA+/vimentin+ myofibroblasts, and intimal deposition of collagen without thrombosis, embolism, or evidence of pulmonary hypertension...
August 9, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Tilman T Rau, Raja Atreya, Daniela Aust, Gustavo Baretton, Matthias Eck, Katharina Erlenbach-Wünsch, Arndt Hartmann, Alessandro Lugli, Robert Stöhr, Michael Vieth, Anna M Wirsing, Inti Zlobec, Tiemo Katzenberger
Studies on traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) and sessile serrated adenoma with dysplasia (SSA-D) are rare due to the low frequency of these lesions, which are well defined by the latest WHO classification. However, introducing new morphological criteria such as intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) might facilitate colorectal polyp diagnoses. Additionally, the phenotype-genotype correlation needs to be updated as the terminology has repeatedly changed. This study analysed 516 polyps, consisting of 118 classical adenomas (CAD), 116 hyperplastic polyps (HPP), 179 SSAs, 41 SSA-Ds, and 62 TSAs...
April 2016: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
Jiehao Xu, Jing Zhao, Yiqun Li, Yiyi Zou, Binjie Lu, Yuyin Chen, Youzhi Ma, Haisheng Xu
Pelodiscus sinensis is the most common turtle species that has been raised in East and Southeast Asia. However, there are still limited studies about the immune defense mechanisms in its small intestine until now. In the present research, histological analysis and transcriptome analysis was performed on the small intestine of P. sinensis after intragastric challenge with LPS to explore its mechanisms of immune responses to pathogens. The result showed the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and goblet cells (GCs) in its intestine increased significantly at 48 h post-challenge with LPS by intragastrical route, indicating clearly the intestinal immune response was induced...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Christopher A Foote, Jorge A Castorena-Gonzalez, Francisco I Ramirez-Perez, Guanghong Jia, Michael A Hill, Constantino C Reyes-Aldasoro, James R Sowers, Luis A Martinez-Lemus
Consumption of excess fat and carbohydrate (Western diet, WD) is associated with alterations in the structural characteristics of blood vessels. This vascular remodeling contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease, particularly as it affects conduit and resistance arteries. Vascular remodeling is often associated with changes in the elastin-rich internal elastic lamina (IEL) and the activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. In addition, obesity and type II diabetes have been associated with increased serum neuraminidase, an enzyme known to increase TGF-β cellular output...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Hideki Ishibashi, Satoshi Nimura, Yoshiyuki Kayashima, Yasushi Takamatsu, Kunihiko Aoyagi, Naohiko Harada, Masanori Kadowaki, Takihiko Kamio, Shotaro Sakisaka, Morishige Takeshita
BACKGROUND: In East Asia, monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma (MEITL), previously known as type II enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL), occurs more frequently than type I EATL, and coeliac disease is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present four cases of MEITL in Japanese patients, including the endoscopic and pathological findings of their duodenal and colorectal lesions. Tumor specimens obtained from duodenal, intestinal, and colorectal biopsies in all four patients showed a diffuse intramucosal infiltration of small to/or medium-sized lymphoma cells and numerous atypical intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs)...
2016: Diagnostic Pathology
Moira Paroni, Andrea Magarotto, Silvia Tartari, Giulia Nizzoli, Paola Larghi, Giulia Ercoli, Umberto Gianelli, Massimiliano Pagani, Luca Elli, Sergio Abrignani, Dario Conte, Jens Geginat, Flavio Caprioli
OBJECTIVES: To provide a functional and phenotypic characterization of immune cells infiltrating small intestinal mucosa during non-IPEX autoimmune enteropathy (AIE), as to gain insights on the pathogenesis of this clinical condition. METHODS: Duodenal biopsies from a patient with AIE at baseline and following drug-induced remission were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry, and results were compared with those obtained from patients with active celiac disease, ileal Crohn's disease and healthy controls...
2016: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Michael A Hill, Zahra Nourian, I-Lin Ho, Philip S Clifford, Luis Martinez-Lemus, Gerald A Meininger
The distribution of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) within the walls of resistance vessels is complex both in variety of proteins and structural arrangement. In particular, elastin exists as discrete fibers varying in orientation across the adventitia and media as well as often resembling a sheet-like structure in the case of the internal elastic lamina (IEL). Adding to the complexity is the tissue heterogeneity that exists in these structural arrangements. For example, small intracranial cerebral arteries lack adventitial elastin while similar sized arteries from skeletal muscle and intestinal mesentery exhibit a complex adventitial network of elastin fibers...
June 30, 2016: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Tim Dalessandri, Greg Crawford, Mark Hayes, Rocio Castro Seoane, Jessica Strid
The skin is under constant renewal and exposure to environmental challenges. How homeostasis is maintained alongside protective mechanisms against damage is unclear. Among the basal epithelial cells (ECs) is a population of resident intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) that provide host-protective immune surveillance. Here we show that IELs cross-communicate with ECs via the production of IL-13. Skin ECs are activated by IEL-derived IL-13, enabling a canonical EC stress response. In the absence of IL-13, or canonical IEL, the skin has decreased ability to repair its barrier and increased susceptibility to cutaneous carcinogenesis...
2016: Nature Communications
Asuka Tada, Hortensia Zelaya, Patricia Clua, Susana Salva, Susana Alvarez, Haruki Kitazawa, Julio Villena
OBJECTIVE: Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) play critical roles in disrupting epithelial homeostasis after Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 activation with genomic rotavirus dsRNA or the synthetic dsRNA analog poly(I:C). The capacity of immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr1505) or Lactobacillus plantarum CRL1506 (Lp1506) to beneficially modulate IELs response after TLR3 activation was investigated in vivo using a mice model. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration of poly(I:C) induced inflammatory-mediated intestinal tissue damage through the increase of inflammatory cells (CD3(+)NK1...
October 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Tomohisa Sujino, Mariya London, David P Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Tomiko Rendon, Thorsten Buch, Hernandez M Silva, Juan J Lafaille, Bernardo S Reis, Daniel Mucida
Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells in peripheral tissues (pT(regs)) are instrumental in limiting inflammatory responses to nonself antigens. Within the intestine, pT(regs) are located primarily in the lamina propria, whereas intraepithelial CD4(+) T cells (CD4(IELs)), which also exhibit anti-inflammatory properties and depend on similar environmental cues, reside in the epithelium. Using intravital microscopy, we show distinct cell dynamics of intestinal T(regs) and CD4(IELs) Upon migration to the epithelium, T(regs) lose Foxp3 and convert to CD4(IELs) in a microbiota-dependent manner, an effect attributed to the loss of the transcription factor ThPOK...
June 24, 2016: Science
Renjun Li, Yanfen Ma, Lijuan Zhai, Yisong Lu, Xiaoqing Chi, Jiusheng Wu, Songhua Hu
Vaccination is an important approach to the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). This study evaluated the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) on the immune response to FMD vaccine and the gut mucosal immunity in mice. In experiment 1, mice were orally administered GSLS or not treated as a control. The animals were then immunized twice with FMD vaccine. Blood was sampled weekly within five weeks after the boost immunization for measurement of serum IgG and the isotypes. In experiment 2, mice were orally administrated GSLS or not treated as a control...
August 2016: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
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