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attention in rats

Md Sahab Uddin, Abdullah Al Mamun, Md Sarwar Hossain, Farjana Akter, Mohammed Ashraful Iqbal, Md Asaduzzaman
Neurodegenerative diseases are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in the progressive degeneration of nerve cells, which affect the cognitive activity. Currently, as a result of multiple studies linking Alzheimer's disease (AD) to oxidative damage, the uses of natural antioxidant to prevent, delay, or enhance the pathological changes underlying the progression of AD has received considerable attention. Therefore, this study was aimed at examining the effect of ethanolic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica (EEPE) ripe (EEPEr) and EEPE unripe (EEPEu) fruits on cognitive functions, brain antioxidant enzymes, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rat...
October 2016: Annals of Neurosciences
Xianjuan Kou, Xingran Liu, Xianbing Chen, Jie Li, Xiaoqi Yang, Jingjing Fan, Yi Yang, Ning Chen
The underlying molecular mechanisms for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not fully understood. Currently, growing evidences have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in aging and aging-related diseases. The up-regulation of miR-34a has been reported to be associated with aging-related diseases, and thus it should be a promising therapeutic target. Ampelopsin, also called dihydromyricetin (DHM), a natural flavonoid from Chinese herb Ampelopsis grossedentata, has been reported to possess multiple pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-cancer functions...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Anouar Ben Saad, Ilhem Rjeibi, Dalel Brahmi, Amani Smida, Sana Ncib, Nacim Zouari, Lazher Zourgui
Malva sylvestris has recently attracted special attention due to its potential activities in many chronic disorders. We aimed to assess the beneficial effects of Malva sylvestris extract against lithium carbonate induced renal damage in male Wistar rats. For this purpose, Malva sylvestris extract at a dose of 0.2g/kg was orally administrated, followed by 25mg/kg of lithium carbonate (intraperitoneal injection) for 30 days. Malva sylvestris extract was proved to contain large amounts of K(+), Na(+), Ca(++) and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids shown by the obtained HPLC-based analysis...
October 22, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Yung-Mei Chao, You-Lin Tain, Steve Leu, Kay L H Wu, Wei-Chia Lee, Julie Y H Chan
Excessive fructose intake is related to a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while little attention has been paid to the impact of maternal high-fructose (HF) intake on the development of metabolic syndrome and organ-specific transcriptome alterations in the offspring. We utilized RNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to analyze the transcriptome expression in four organs (kidney, brain, heart, and urinary bladder) from 1-day, 3-week, and 3-month-old male offspring exposed to maternal HF diet...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Misato Uraki, Atsushi Kawase, Masahiro Iwaki
1. The effects of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) on the stereoselective hepatic disposition and chiral inversion of "profens" have scarcely been investigated. Ibuprofen (IB) undergoes unidirectional chiral inversion from R-IB to S-IB and is metabolized to IB-glucuronide (IB-Glu). 2. We used an in situ perfused rat liver system to clarify the effects of inflammation on the metabolic activities and chiral inversion of IB without protein binding. 3. After dosing of R-IB, AA had minimal effect on the elimination of R-IB from the perfusate...
October 22, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Kotaro Horiguchi, Takashi Nakakura, Saishu Yoshida, Takehiro Tsukada, Naoko Kanno, Rumi Hasegawa, Shu Takigami, Shunji Ohsako, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
Contact-dependent (juxtacrine) signaling is important for local cell-to-cell interaction and has received attention in recent years regarding its role in pituitary function, differentiation, and development. This study investigated one of the juxtacrine-related molecules, thymocyte differentiation antigen 1 (THY1), in the anterior lobe of the rat pituitary gland. Western blot analysis revealed expression of the THY1 protein in the adult rat anterior lobe. We also found that the THY1 ligand, integrin-β2 (ITGB2), is also expressed in the pituitary gland...
October 17, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ming-Qiu Shan, Yan Qian, Sheng Yu, Shu-Chen Guo, Li Zhang, An-Wei Ding, Qi-Nan Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. (ST) herbs have been used as a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating colds for thousands of years. The volatile oil is considered as the main material basis responsible for the efficacy of ST and has attracted lots of attention on its anti-inflammatory effect recently. AIM OF STUDY: This paper investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the distilled volatile oils from Schizonepeta tenuifolia (STVO) that were collected at different harvesting times on carrageenin-induced pleurisy in rats...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Josseanne Maria Teixeira, Maria do Carmo De Carvalho Martins, Luanne Fortes Monte Soares, Ana Lina De Carvalho Cunha Sales, Daiane Cristina Ferreira Damasceno, Francisco Valmor Macedo Cunha, Regina Célia De Assis, José Carlos Santos Júnior, Nivea Maria Da Costa Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Food and dietetic components have received considerable attention as auxiliary feeding resources on controlling of chronic non-transmissible diseases, among them diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of supplementary diet with multimixture based on linseed, sesame, oats and sunflower seeds on the hepatic function and antioxidant activity of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male rats were distributed on groups of seven animals: diabetic control (DC), diabetics subject to multimixture diet (DM), diabetic with insulin (DI), and normal control (NC)...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Hye Jin Kim, Hae Min Yoon, Oran Kwon, Won Jun Lee
PURPOSE: Pueraria lobata/rehmannia glutinosa (PR) and exercise have been receiving a lot of attention from postmenopausal women, as a result of the side effects of estrogen replacement therapy. However, the effects of PR and exercise on fatty acid transporters (FATPs), which play essential role in fatty acid transport, have not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PR and aerobic exercise on FATP1, FABPpm and FAT/CD36 expression in ovariectomized rat skeletal muscles...
September 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Andresa H Betti, Camila B Antonio, Thais E T Pompeu, Thaise S Martins, Vivian Herzfeldt, Eveline D Stolz, Carlos A M Fraga, Eliezer Barreiro, François Noël, Stela M K Rates
Aiming to identify new antipsychotic lead-compounds, our group has been working on the design and synthesis of new N-phenylpiperazine derivatives. Here, we characterized LASSBio-1422 as a pharmacological prototype of this chemical series. Adult male Wistar rats and CF1 mice were used for in-vitro and in-vivo assays, respectively. LASSBio-1422 [1 and 5 mg/kg, postoperatively (p.o.)] inhibited apomorphine-induced climbing as well as ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion (1 and 5 mg/kg, p.o.), animal models predictive of efficacy on positive symptoms...
October 13, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Kimberly Cuevas, Amy Giles
Sensory preconditioning (SPC) is a form of latent learning in which preexposure to co-occurring neutral stimuli (S1 -S2 ) permits subsequent learning to be transferred from one stimulus (S1 ) to the other (S2 ). We examined whether human infants exhibit developmental transitions in the temporal parameters of SPC by manipulating the preexposure regimen. Infants received simultaneous or sequential preexposure to puppets S1 and S2 (Days 1-2); saw target actions modeled on S1 (Day 3); and were tested for deferred imitation with S2 (Day 4)...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Linde Boekhoudt, Elisa S Voets, Jacques P Flores-Dourojeanni, Mieneke Cm Luijendijk, Louk Jmj Vanderschuren, Roger Ah Adan
Attentional impairments and exaggerated impulsivity are key features of psychiatric disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, and addiction. These deficits in attentional performance and impulsive behaviours have been associated with aberrant dopamine (DA) signalling, but it remains unknown whether these deficits result from enhanced DA neuronal activity in the midbrain. Here, we took a novel approach by testing the impact of chemogenetically activating DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) on attention and impulsivity in the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in rats...
October 17, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Abigail Benn, Emma S J Robinson
RATIONALE: Atomoxetine is a noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor licensed for the treatment of adult and childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although atomoxetine has established efficacy, the mechanisms which mediate its effects are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the role of cortical versus sub-cortical noradrenaline by using focal dopamine beta hydroxylase-saporin-induced lesions, to the prefrontal cortex (n = 16) or nucleus accumbens shell (n = 18)...
October 15, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Shi-Lei Wen, Shi Feng, Shi-Hang Tang, Jin-Hang Gao, Lin-Hao Zhang, Huan Tong, Zhao-Ping Yan, Ding Zhi Fang
Among the researches on hepatic fibrosis, great attention was paid to both hepatocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM). However, little focus was drawn on reticular fibrous network, which is important for demarcation and support of hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the change pattern of reticular fibers in hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis and its underlying mechanism. In this study, thioacetamide (TAA) and bile duct ligation (BDL) were utilized to induce rat hepatic fibrosis respectively, and Human liver cirrhotic microassay was analyzed with IHC to confirm the results in animal experiment and to detect the metalloproteinases (MMPs) expressions...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Andrew Mccarthy, Sally Loomis, Brian Eastwood, Keith A Wafford, Raphaëlle Winsky-Sommerer, Gary Gilmour
While several methods have been used to restrict the sleep of experimental animals, it is often unclear whether these different forms of sleep restriction have comparable effects on sleep-wake architecture or functional capacity. The present study compared four models of sleep restriction, using enforced wakefulness by rotation of cylindrical home cages over 11 h in male Wistar rats. These included an electroencephalographic-driven 'Biofeedback' method and three non-invasive methods where rotation was triggered according to a 'Constant', 'Decreasing' or random protocol based upon the 'Weibull' distribution fit to an archival Biofeedback dataset...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Sleep Research
Guy Griebel, Philippe Pichat, Denis Boulay, Vanessa Naimoli, Lisa Potestio, Robert Featherstone, Sukhveen Sahni, Henry Defex, Christophe Desvignes, Franck Slowinski, Xavier Vigé, Olivier E Bergis, Rosy Sher, Raymond Kosley, Sathapana Kongsamut, Mark D Black, Geoffrey B Varty
Normalization of altered glutamate neurotransmission through activation of the mGluR2 has emerged as a new approach to treat schizophrenia. These studies describe a potent brain penetrant mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), SAR218645. The compound behaves as a selective PAM of mGluR2 in recombinant and native receptor expression systems, increasing the affinity of glutamate at mGluR2 as inferred by competition and GTPγ(35)S binding assays. SAR218645 augmented the mGluR2-mediated response to glutamate in a rat recombinant mGluR2 forced-coupled Ca(2+) mobilization assay...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rui Cai, Ben D Richardson, Donald M Caspary
: Human aging studies suggest that an increased use of top-down knowledge-based resources would compensate for degraded upstream acoustic information to accurately identify important temporally rich signals. Sinusoidal amplitude-modulated (SAM) stimuli have been used to mimic the fast-changing temporal features in speech and species-specific vocalizations. Single units were recorded from auditory thalamus [medial geniculate body (MGB)] of young awake, aged awake, young anesthetized, and aged anesthetized rats...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tennille K Marx, Róbert Glávits, John R Endres, Philip A Palmer, Amy E Clewell, Timothy S Murbach, Gábor Hirka, Ilona Pasics
Morus alba L. (white mulberry) leaves are one of the oldest recognized traditional Chinese medicines. More recently, M alba leaves and their constituents, particularly iminosugars (or azasugars), have garnered attention for their ability to maintain normal blood glucose concentrations, an effect identified in both animal studies and human clinical trials. Reducose (Phynova Group Limited) is a commercial water-soluble extract of M alba leaves standardized to 5% 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), an iminosugar with α-glucosidase inhibition properties...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Toxicology
Rabia Naz, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Masood Sadiq Butt, - Mahr-Un-Nisa
Functional and health endorsing benefits of various foods are often attributed to their phytochemistry. The bitter gourd holds potential in improving the health of the individuals owing to its incredible versatility in phytochemistry. However, the efficacy of different parts of bitter gourd needs attention of the researchers. In the current exploration, different parts of bitter gourd were evaluated for their cholesterol lowering potential in cholesterol fed Sprague dawley rats. For the purpose, four types of bitter gourd part i...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Xin-Xing Wang, Ying-Ying Zha, Bo Yang, Lin Chen, Ming Wang
Fullerenol, a water-soluble fullerene derivative, has attracted much attention due to its bioactive properties, including the antioxidative properties and free radical scavenging ability. Due to its superior nature, fullerenol represents a promising diagnostic, therapeutic, and protective agent. Therefore, elucidation of the possible side effects of fullerenol is important in determining its potential role. In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 5 μM fullerenol on synaptic plasticity in hippocampal brain slices of rats...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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