keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

attention in rats

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647227/in-vivo-cellular-reactions-to-different-biomaterials-physiological-and-pathological-aspects-and-their-consequences
#1
REVIEW
Sarah Al-Maawi, Anna Orlowska, Robert Sader, C James Kirkpatrick, Shahram Ghanaati
Biomaterials are widely used in guided bone regeneration (GBR) and guided tissue regeneration (GTR). After application, there is an interaction between the host immune system and the implanted biomaterial, leading to a biomaterial-specific cellular reaction. The present review focuses on cellular reactions to numerous biomaterials in vivo with consideration of different implantation models and microenvironments in different species, such as subcutaneous implantation in mice and rats, a muscle model in goats and a femur model in rabbits...
June 21, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646451/regulation-of-sustained-attention-false-alarm-responding-and-implementation-of-conditional-rules-by-prefrontal-gabaa-transmission-comparison-with-nmda-transmission
#2
Meagan L Auger, Juliet Meccia, Stan B Floresco
RATIONALE: Both prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABAA and NMDA transmission regulate attentional processes, yet how they may differentially regulate signal detection or other aspects of attention is unclear. OBJECTIVES: We examined PFC GABAA and NMDA receptor regulation of attention using a sustained attention task (SAT) permitting identification of distinct forms of impairments. As this task requires implementation of conditional rules, we also investigated how reducing PFC GABA transmission affected performance of visual and auditory conditional discriminations...
June 24, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643397/experimental-study-on-the-postmortem-redistribution-of-the-substituted-phenethylamine-25b-nbome
#3
Kaori Shintani-Ishida, Kanju Saka, Mami Nakamura, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Hiroshi Ikegaya
2-(4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine (25B-NBOMe) is a substituted phenethylamine, which has become highly prevalent worldwide since 2014. Recently, in an autopsy case involving fatal 25B-NBOMe intoxication, we found the postmortem increase of 25B-NBOMe concentration in the cardiac blood approximately 2 days after death. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of 25B-NBOMe and reproduce the postmortem redistribution using a rat model. Sprague-Dawley rats were killed 30 min after intraperitoneal injection of 25B-NBOMe (0...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638872/hemorheology-index-changes-in-a-rat-acute-blood-stasis-model-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Jun-Xiu Zhang, Yu Feng, Yin Zhang, Yi Liu, Shao-Dan Li, Ming-Hui Yang
BACKGROUND: Blood stasis has received increasing attention in research related to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and integrative Chinese and Western medicine. More than 90% of research studies use hemorheology indexes to evaluate the establishment of animal blood stasis models rather than pathological methods, as hemorheology index evaluations of blood stasis were short of the consolidated standard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of hemorheology indexes in rat models of acute blood stasis (ABS) based on studies in which the ABS model had been confirmed by pathological methods...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638807/translational-rodent-models-for-research-on-parasitic-protozoa-a-review-of-confounders-and-possibilities
#5
REVIEW
Totta Ehret, Francesca Torelli, Christian Klotz, Amy B Pedersen, Frank Seeber
Rodents, in particular Mus musculus, have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638434/an-evaluation-of-the-protective-role-of-vitamin-c-in-reactive-oxygen-species-induced-hepatotoxicity-due-to-hexavalent-chromium-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#6
Xiali Zhong, Ming Zeng, Huanfeng Bian, Caigao Zhong, Fang Xiao
BACKGROUD: Drinking water contamination with hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] has become one of the most serious public health problems, thus the investigation of Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity has attracted much attention in recent years. METHODS: In the present study, by determining the indices of hepatotoxicity induced by Cr (VI), the source of accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the protective effect of the antioxidant Vitamin C (Vit C), we explored the mechanisms involved in Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo...
2017: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634446/are-distal-and-proximal-visual-cues-equally-important-during-spatial-learning-in-mice-a-pilot-study-of-overshadowing-in-the-spatial-domain
#7
Marie Hébert, Jan Bulla, Denis Vivien, Véronique Agin
Animals use distal and proximal visual cues to accurately navigate in their environment, with the possibility of the occurrence of associative mechanisms such as cue competition as previously reported in honey-bees, rats, birds and humans. In this pilot study, we investigated one of the most common forms of cue competition, namely the overshadowing effect, between visual landmarks during spatial learning in mice. To this end, C57BL/6J × Sv129 mice were given a two-trial place recognition task in a T-maze, based on a novelty free-choice exploration paradigm previously developed to study spatial memory in rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634415/force-induced-increased-osteogenesis-enables-accelerated-orthodontic-tooth-movement-in-ovariectomized-rats
#8
Qinggang Dai, Siru Zhou, Peng Zhang, Xuhui Ma, Nayong Ha, Xiao Yang, Zhifeng Yu, Bing Fang, Lingyong Jiang
As the number of elderly orthodontic patients increases, the impact of postmenopausal osteoporosis on orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) has attracted a great deal of attention because OTM relies on alveolar bone remodeling. The question of whether OTM causes subsequent alveolar bone loss and is harmful to alveolar bone health under osteoporotic conditions remains to be answered. The present study aimed to clarify the influences of OTM on alveolar bone in osteoporotic rats. OTM was accelerated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats as a result of increased bone resorption in the pressure area...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634266/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-a-saga-in-three-episodes
#9
REVIEW
Marian Joëls, E Ronald de Kloet
In 1968, Bruce McEwen discovered that (3)H-corticosterone administered to adrenalectomised rats is retained in neurons of hippocampus rather than those of hypothalamus. This discovery signalled the expansion of endocrinology into the science of higher brain regions. With this in mind, our contribution highlights the saga of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in three episodes. First, the precloning era dominated by the conundrum of two types of corticosterone-binding receptors in the brain, which led to the identification of the high-affinity corticosterone receptor as the 'promiscuous' MR cloned in 1987 by Jeff Arriza and Ron Evans in addition to the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633952/chronic-methylphenidate-regulates-genes-and-proteins-mediating-neuroplasticity-in-the-juvenile-rat-brain
#10
Emmanuel Quansah, Tiziana Sgamma, Estabraq Jaddoa, Tyra S C Zetterström
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the front-line psychostimulant medication prescribed for alleviating the symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic MPH (2.0mg/kg, twice daily for 15 days) exposure to young rats (20-25days old at start of treatment) on the expression of genes and proteins associated with neuroplasticity, such as activity regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc), insulin receptor substrate protein 53 (IRSp53), cell division control protein 42 (Cdc42), and actin-related protein 2 (Arp2)...
June 17, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630638/cichorium-intybus-l-promotes-intestinal-uric-acid-excretion-by-modulating-abcg2-in-experimental-hyperuricemia
#11
Yu Wang, Zhijian Lin, Bing Zhang, Anzheng Nie, Meng Bian
BACKGROUND: Excessive production and/or reduced excretion of uric acid could lead to hyperuricemia, which could be a major cause of disability. Hyperuricemia has received increasing attention in the last few decades due to its global prevalence. Cichorium intybus L., commonly known as chicory, is a perennial herb of the asteraceae family. It was previously shown to exert potent hypouricemic effects linked with decreasing uric acid formation in the liver by down-regulating the activity of xanthine oxidase, and increasing uric acid excretion by up-regulating the renal OAT3 mRNA expression...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629594/the-discovery-of-benzoxazine-sulfonamide-inhibitors-of-nav1-7-tools-that-bridge-efficacy-and-target-engagement
#12
Daniel S La, Emily A Peterson, Christiane Bode, Alessandro A Boezio, Howard Bregman, Margaret Y Chu-Moyer, James Coats, Erin F DiMauro, Thomas A Dineen, Bingfan Du, Hua Gao, Russell Graceffa, Hakan Gunaydin, Angel Guzman-Perez, Robert Fremeau, Xin Huang, Christopher Ilch, Thomas J Kornecook, Charles Kreiman, Joseph Ligutti, Min-Hwa Jasmine Lin, Jeff S McDermott, Isaac Marx, David J Matson, Stefan I McDonough, Bryan D Moyer, Hanh Nho Nguyen, Kristin Taborn, Violeta Yu, Matthew M Weiss
The voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 has received much attention from the scientific community due to compelling human genetic data linking gain- and loss-of-function mutations to pain phenotypes. Despite this genetic validation of NaV1.7 as a target for pain, high quality pharmacological tools facilitate further understanding of target biology, establishment of target coverage requirements and subsequent progression into the clinic. Within the sulfonamide class of inhibitors, reduced potency on rat NaV1...
June 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627392/the-great-barrier-belief-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-considerations-for-juvenile-toxicity-studies
#13
REVIEW
Georg Schmitt, Neil Parrott, Eric Prinssen, Paul Barrow
Juvenile animal studies can be warranted to support the development of pediatric medicines. Drugs acting on the CNS or those which penetrate into the brain merit particular attention. The blood-brain barrier is functionally mature at birth, but undergoes functional postnatal modulation to provide a suitable microenvironment for the developing brain. In the past, dosing in rat juvenile studies has often commenced at 4 or 7days of age. However, rodents are very neurologically immature at birth compared with humans...
June 13, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624425/antiobesity-antioxidant-and-hepatoprotective-effects-of-diallyl-trisulphide-dats-alone-or-in-combination-with-orlistat-on-hfd-induced-obese-rats
#14
Sivakumar Annamalai, Lavanya Mohanam, Veena Raja, Alwin Dev, Venkataraman Prabhu
The increasing rate of obesity in the past years has become a worldwide concern and it causes many diseases. Even though, Orlistat, a synthetic anti-obesity drug approved by FDA, it causes severe side effects. DATS, a natural product from garlic have gained attention in many biological activities. The aim of the study is to determine the impact of Dially trisulpide (DATS) and its combination with Orlistat therapy on obese animals. 30 male Wistar rats (150-180g) were assigned into 5 groups (n=6). Group 1 rats received normal diet and Group 2 fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks...
June 15, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622617/determination-and-pharmacokinetics-of-engeletin-in-rat-plasma-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-with-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#15
Weijian Ye, Ruijie Chen, Wei Sun, Chengke Huang, Xixi Lin, Yaoyao Dong, Congcong Wen, Xianqin Wang
Engeletin, a bioactive flavonoid, has attracted much attention recently by virtue of its multiple biological (anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory) activities. Despite signifying many therapeutic applications researches indicating quantification or pharmacokinetics of engeletin in biological matrix are still lacking. Here, a simple, sensitive, accurate and reliable ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) approach for the quantification of engeletin in rat plasma was developed and fully validated for the first time...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622391/neuronal-substrates-underlying-stress-resilience-and-susceptibility-in-rats
#16
Fabia Febbraro, Katrine Svenningsen, Thao Phuong Tran, Ove Wiborg
BACKGROUND: Stress and stressful life events have repeatedly been shown as causally related to depression. The Chronic Mild Stress rat model is a valid model of stress-induced depression. Like humans, rats display great heterogeneity in their response to stress and adversity. Hence some individuals are stress-sensitive and prone to develop depression-like behaviour in response to modest stressors, while others are stress-resilient and remain essentially symptom free. OBJECTIVES: Compared to the large body of research, which describes stress-induced maladaptive neurobiological changes, relatively little attention has been devoted to understand resiliency to stress...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615947/treatment-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-the-clinical-utility-of-etelcalcetide
#17
REVIEW
Mario Cozzolino, Andrea Galassi, Ferruccio Conte, Michela Mangano, Luca Di Lullo, Antonio Bellasi
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a very frequent, severe, and worsening complication of chronic kidney disease, is characterized by high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathyroid gland hyperplasia, and disturbances in mineral metabolism. Clinically, SHPT shows renal osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, cardiovascular damage, and fatal outcome. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the main physiological regulator of PTH secretion; its activation by calcium rapidly inhibits PTH. Another important player in regulating mineral metabolism is vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is under the influence of vitamin D and influences the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, PTH gene expression, and bone calcium mobilization...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615331/comparison-of-the-vta-and-lc-response-to-methylphenidate-a-concomitant-behavioral-and-neuronal-study-of-adolescent-male-rats
#18
Tahseen Jalal Karim, Cruz Reyes-Vazquez, Nachum Dafny
Methylphenidate (MPD), also known as Ritalin, is a psychostimulant used to treat attention hyperactivity disorder. However, it is increasingly being misused by normal adolescents for recreation and academic advantage. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of MPD in normal subjects. MPD inhibits the reuptake of catecholamines, mainly found in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and locus coeruleus (LC). The VTA and LC normally mediate attention, motivation, and drug reward behaviors...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611664/2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline-the-oxazoline-of-pea-modulates-carrageenan-induced-acute-inflammation
#19
Stefania Petrosino, Michela Campolo, Daniela Impellizzeri, Irene Paterniti, Marco Allarà, Enrico Gugliandolo, Ramona D'Amico, Rosalba Siracusa, Marika Cordaro, Emanuela Esposito, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) involve a family of lipid molecules existent in animal and plant, with N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) that arouses great attention owing to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and neuroprotective activities. Because PEA is produced on demand and exerts pleiotropic effects, the modulation of specific amidases for NAEs (and in particular NAE-hydrolyzing acid amidase NAAA, which is more selective for PEA) could be a condition to preserve its levels. Here we investigate the effect of 2-Pentadecyl-2-oxazoline (PEA-OXA) the oxazoline of PEA, on human recombinant NAAA in vitro and in an established model of Carrageenan (CAR)-induced rat paw inflammation...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608491/toxicity-and-protective-effect-of-phenolic-enriched-ethylacetate-fraction-of-ocimum-gratissimum-linn-leaf-against-acute-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#20
Abayomi M Ajayi, Solomon Umukoro, Benneth Ben-Azu, Bulus Adzu, Olusegun G Ademowo
Preclinical Research Ocimum gratissimum L. leaves have attracted considerable attention from researchers because of their medicinal value that include anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities. In the present study, the toxicity and the protective effect of phenolic extract of O. gratissimum leaf (EAFOg) against acute inflammation and oxidative stress in rats was assessed. EAFOg, enriched in phenols had no cytotoxic effect against CHO-k1 cells, and no lethality against brine shrimp eggs or mice at a dose of 2000 mg/kg...
June 2017: Drug Development Research
keyword
keyword
120114
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"