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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534121/organic-anion-transporters-oat1-and-oat3-are-crucial-biopterin-transporters-involved-in-bodily-distribution-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-and-exclusion-of-its-excess
#1
Akiko Ohashi, Kaori Mamada, Tomonori Harada, Masako Naito, Tomihisa Takahashi, Shin Aizawa, Hiroyuki Hasegawa
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a common coenzyme of phenylalanine-, tyrosine-, and tryptophan hydroxylases, alkylglycerol monooxygenase, and NO synthases (NOS). Synthetic BH4 is used medicinally for BH4-responsive phenylketonuria and inherited BH4 deficiency. BH4 supplementation has also drawn attention as a therapy for various NOS-related cardio-vascular diseases, but its use has met with limited success in decreasing BH2, the oxidized form of BH4. An increase in the BH2/BH4 ratio leads to NOS dysfunction. Previous studies revealed that BH4 supplementation caused a rapid urinary loss of BH4 accompanied by an increase in the blood BH2/BH4 ratio and an involvement of probenecid-sensitive but unknown transporters was strongly suggested in these processes...
May 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528846/the-multi-level-impact-of-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-on-central-auditory-processing
#2
Eddie Wong, Bin Yang, Lida Du, Wai Hong Ho, Condon Lau, Ya Ke, Ying Shing Chan, Wing Ho Yung, Ed X Wu
During hypoxia, the tissues do not obtain adequate oxygen. Chronic hypoxia can lead to many health problems. A relatively common cause of chronic hypoxia is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder that affects 3 to 7% of the population. During sleep, the patient's breathing starts and stops. This can lead to hypertension, attention deficits, and hearing disorders. In this study, we apply an established chronic intermittent hypoxemia (CIH) model of sleep apnea to study its impact on auditory processing...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507031/memory-consolidation-within-the-central-amygdala-is-not-necessary-for-modulation-of-cerebellar-learning
#3
Adam B Steinmetz, Ka H Ng, John H Freeman
Amygdala lesions impair, but do not prevent, acquisition of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning suggesting that the amygdala modulates cerebellar learning. Two-factor theories of eyeblink conditioning posit that a fast-developing memory within the amygdala facilitates slower-developing memory within the cerebellum. The current study tested this hypothesis by impairing memory consolidation within the amygdala with inhibition of protein synthesis, transcription, and NMDA receptors in rats. Rats given infusions of anisomycin or DRB into the central amygdala (CeA) immediately after each eyeblink conditioning session were severely impaired in contextual and cued fear conditioning, but were completely unimpaired in eyeblink conditioning...
June 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506353/-effect-of-baicalin-on-atpase-and-ldh-and-its-regulatory-effect-on-the-ac-camp-pka-signaling-pathway-in-rats-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#4
Rong-Yi Zhou, Jiao-Jiao Wang, Yue You, Ji-Chao Sun, Yu-Chen Song, Hai-Xia Yuan, Xin-Min Han
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of baicalin on synaptosomal adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and its regulatory effect on the adenylate cyclase (AC)/cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: A total of 40 SHR rats were randomly divided into five groups: ADHD model, methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment (0.07 mg/mL), and low-dose (3...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501734/social-factors-affect-motor-and-anxiety-behaviors-in-the-animal-model-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorders-a-housing-style-factor
#5
Meng-Li Tsai, Anna Kozłowska, Yu-Sheng Li, Wen-Ling Shen, Andrew Chih Wei Huang
The present study examines whether housing style (e.g., single housing, same-strain-grouped housing, and different-strain-grouped housing) and rat strain (e.g., spontaneous hypertension rats [SHR] and Wistar-Kyoto rats [WKY]) mediate motor function and anxiety behavior in the open field task. From week 4 through week 10 following birth, the rats were measured 30min for locomotor activity and anxiety once per week in the open field task. The SHR rats exhibited hyperactivity in total distance traveled and movement time to form the animal model of ADHD...
May 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501709/calcium-ion-coordinated-dexamethasone-supramolecular-hydrogel-as-therapeutic-alternative-for-control-of-non-infectious-uveitis
#6
Wei Wu, Zhaoliang Zhang, Taotao Xiong, Wenguang Zhao, Rou Jiang, Hao Chen, Xingyi Li
Supramolecular hydrogel formed by the self-assembly of therapeutic agents have received considerable attention due to its high drug payload, carrier-free features. Herein, we constructed a dexamethasone sodium phosphate (Dex) supramolecular hydrogel in combination of Dex and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and further demonstrated its therapeutic efficacy in the control of ocular inflammation. The developed supramolecular hydrogel was thoroughly characterized by rheology, TEM, FTIR and XRD. Calcium ions and Dex concentration had markedly influence on the sol-gel transition behavior of hydrogel and the proposed Dex supramolecular hydrogel displayed thixotropic property...
May 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499867/glycine-nitronyl-nitroxide-conjugate-protects-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-against-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-via-multiple-mechanisms-and-ameliorates-hind-limb-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#7
Xiang Gao, Yue Bi, Kui Chi, Yang Liu, Tao Yuan, Xueyan Li, Wei Bi
Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. The administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents has been applied to prevent I/R-injury for several decades. Of the numerous compounds administrated therapeutically in anti-oxidative stress, nitronyl nitroxide has gained increasing attention due to its continuous ability to scavenge active oxygen radicals. However, its effect is not ideal in clinical therapy. In previous study, we linked the anti-inflammatory amino acid glycine to nitronyl nitroxide and developed a novel glycine-nitronyl nitroxide (GNN) conjugate, which showed a synergetic protection against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497655/nicotine-self-administration-reverses-cognitive-deficits-in-a-rat-model-for-schizophrenia
#8
Uta Waterhouse, Katharine A Brennan, Bart A Ellenbroek
High comorbidity between schizophrenia and tobacco addiction has been well established. Explanatory theories include nicotine as a cognitive enhancer ameliorating symptoms of schizophrenia and underlying shared substrates increasing susceptibility to addiction in these individuals. To test these non-mutually exclusive theories, the maternal immune activation (MIA) model was utilized. To this end, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with a bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (0.5 mg/kg), on gestation days 10 and 11...
May 12, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487067/selective-and-interactive-effects-of-d2-receptor-antagonism-and-positive-allosteric-mglur4-modulation-on-waiting-impulsivity
#9
Sarah N Isherwood, Trevor W Robbins, Janet R Nicholson, Jeffrey W Dalley, Anton Pekcec
BACKGROUND: Metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4) and dopamine D2 receptors are specifically expressed within the indirect pathway neurons of the striato-pallidal-subthalamic pathway. This unique expression profile suggests that mGluR4 and D2 receptors may play a cooperative role in the regulation and inhibitory control of behaviour. We investigated this possibility by testing the effects of a functionally-characterised positive allosteric mGluR4 modulator, 4-((E)-styryl)-pyrimidin-2-ylamine (Cpd11), both alone and in combination with the D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride, on two distinct forms of impulsivity...
May 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483348/buffalo-casein-derived-peptide-can-alleviates-h2o2-induced-cellular-damage-and-necrosis-in-fibroblast-cells
#10
Savita Devi, Naveen Kumar, Suman Kapila, Sanusi Bello Mada, Srinu Reddi, Rishika Vij, Rajeev Kapila
Oxidative stress is one of a critical pathogenic factor in the progression of aging and chronic diseases such as cancer, myocardial inflammation and diabetes. In the present scenario, peptides with short half life and more biological specificities are gaining much attention as prodrugs. Thus, the present investigation carried out to screen potential antioxidative peptide, VLPVPQK to cope with the cellular oxidative damage. Our results showed that treatment of rat fibroblast cells with 0.2mM H2O2 for 6h significantly declined different oxidative stress biomarkers such as SOD, CAT, GSH, and promoted LDH activity...
May 5, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483253/the-effects-of-postnatal-phthalate-exposure-on-the-development-of-auditory-temporal-processing-in-rats
#11
Bong Jik Kim, Jungyoon Kim, Vanhnansy Keoboutdy, Ho-Jang Kwon, Seung-Ha Oh, Jae Yun Jung, Il Yong Park, Ki Chung Paik
OBJECTIVE: The central auditory pathway is known to continue its development during the postnatal critical periods and is shaped by experience and sensory inputs. Phthalate, a known neurotoxic material, has been reported to be associated with attention deficits in children, impacting many infant neurobehaviors. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effects of neonatal phthalate exposure on the development of auditory temporal processing. METHODS: Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into two groups: The phthalate group (n = 6), and the control group (n = 6)...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482909/characteristics-of-primary-rat-microglia-isolated-from-mixed-cultures-using-two-different-methods
#12
Li Lin, Rakhi Desai, Xiaoying Wang, Eng H Lo, Changhong Xing
BACKGROUND: Microglial cultures comprise a critically important model system for investigating inflammatory mechanisms in almost all CNS disorders. Mild trypsinization and shaking are the two most commonly used methods to isolate primary microglia from mixed glial cultures. In this study, we characterized and compared microglia obtained using these two methods. METHODS: Primary rat microglia cultures were prepared from cerebral cortices of 1-2-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477384/cognitive-deficits-caused-by-prefrontal-cortical-and-hippocampal-neural-disinhibition
#13
REVIEW
Tobias Bast, Marie Pezze, Stephanie McGarrity
We review recent evidence concerning the significance of inhibitory GABA transmission and of neural disinhibition, i.e. deficient GABA transmission, within prefrontal cortex and hippocampus for clinically relevant cognitive functions. Both regions support important cognitive functions, including attention and memory, and their dysfunction has been implicated in cognitive deficits characterizing neuropsychiatric disorders. GABAergic inhibition shapes cortico-hippocampal neural activity and, recently, prefrontal and hippocampal neural disinhibition has emerged as a pathophysiological feature of major neuropsychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia and age-related cognitive decline...
May 6, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470497/biosynthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-using-myristica-fragrans-seed-nutmeg-extract-and-its-antibacterial-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-mdr-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-isolates
#14
Senthilkumar Balakrishnan, Ilakkia Sivaji, Selvam Kandasamy, Senbagam Duraisamy, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar, Guruswami Gurusubramanian
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due its effective mode of action, eco-friendly preparation methodology, and less cytotoxicity. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from aqueous seed extract of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) were characterized. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of bioactive components acts as effective in reducing and capping agents for converting AgNO3 to AgNPs. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the biologically reduced reaction mixture showed the surface plasmon peak at 420 nm, which is the characteristic peak of AgNPs...
May 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469479/audiovisual-distraction-increases-prefrontal-cortical-neuronal-activity-and-impairs-attentional-performance-in-the-rat
#15
Douglas G Ririe, M Danilo Boada, Benjamin S Schmidt, Salem J Martin, Susy A Kim, Thomas J Martin
Involvement of attentional processes is generally evidenced by disruption of behavior in the presence of distracting stimuli. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) seems to play a role in fine-tuning activity during attentional tasks. A novel titration variant of the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-choice serial reaction time titration variant [5CTV]) that adjusts task difficulty based on subject performance was used to evaluate the effects of audiovisual distraction (DSTR) on performance and mPFC single spike activity and local field potential (LFP)...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462006/regenerative-capacity-of-augmented-bone-in-rat-calvarial-guided-bone-augmentation-model
#16
Tatsuya Kubota, Akira Hasuike, Yasumasa Ozawa, Takanobu Yamamoto, Katsuyoshi Tsunori, Yutaka Yamada, Shuichi Sato
PURPOSE: Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is the most widely used technique to regenerate and augment bones. Even though augmented bones (ABs) have been examined histologically in many studies, few studies have been conducted to examine the biological potential of these bones and the healing dynamics following their use. Moreover, whether the bone obtained from the GBR procedure possesses the same functions as the existing autogenous bone is uncertain. In particular, little attention has been paid to the regenerative ability of GBR bone...
April 2017: Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458039/glucocorticoids-glucocorticoid-receptors-effect-on-dopaminergic-neurotransmitters-in-adhd-rats
#17
Yanhui Chen, Xiaolan Zheng, Linqi Xie, Liang Huang, Zhongling Ke, Jie Zheng, Hongzhu Lu, Jun Hu
Dexamethaone (DEX, glucocorticoid receptor agonist) and RU486 (glucocorticoid receptor inhibitor) may affect the behavior of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rats, by changing the level of dopamine and noradrenaline and dopamine transporter in different regions of their brain. In this study, we have investigated the effect and the underlying mechanism of Glucocorticoids/Glucocorticoid receptors on dopaminergic neurotransmitters in ADHD Rats. Thirty male Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and 30 male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were respectively divided into 3 groups randomly as follows: a GR agonist group (DEX), a GR inhibitor group (RU486) and a control group (CON)...
April 27, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456773/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-concentration-in-serum-during-disturbed-lymph-flow-from-a-liver-in-rats
#18
B Beck
In the last decades an increasing attention has been devoted to the role of lymphatic system in pathomechanism. The disturbed lymph flow from a liver contributes to liver fibrogenesis and probably to hepatocirrhosis. Cytokines play a major role in the development of hepatic fibrosis, the wound-healing response of the liver to chronic injury. Cytokines in hepatic fibrogenesis may be pro- or antifibrogenic. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is pro-fibrogenic cytokine and plays a key role in liver fibrogenesis...
February 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455887/human-adipose-stromal-cell-therapy-improves-survival-and-reduces-renal-inflammation-and-capillary-rarefaction-in-acute-kidney-injury
#19
Jason A Collett, Dmitry O Traktuev, Purvi Mehrotra, Allison Crone, Stephanie Merfeld-Clauss, Keith L March, David P Basile
Damage to endothelial cells contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI) by causing impaired perfusion, while the permanent loss of the capillary network following AKI has been suggested to promote chronic kidney disease. Therefore, strategies to protect renal vasculature may impact both short-term recovery and long-term functional preservation post-AKI. Human adipose stromal cells (hASCs) possess pro-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory properties and therefore have been tested as a therapeutic agent to treat ischaemic conditions...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454190/evaluation-of-the-effect-of-epilobium-angustifolium-aqueous-extract-on-lncap-cell-proliferation-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#20
Jakub P Piwowarski, Barbara Bobrowska-Korczak, Iwona Stanisławska, Wojciech Bielecki, Robert Wrzesien, Sebastian Granica, Katarzyna Krupa, Anna K Kiss
Epilobium sp. are commonly used in traditional medicine in the treatment of early stages of benign prostatic hyperplasia and inflammation. It is suggested that a dominating constituent, oenothein B, is responsible for the extracts therapeutic effects. Several bioactivities were established for extracts and oenothein B in various in vitro models, but due to the questionable bioavailability of this dimeric macrocyclic ellagitannin, their significance in the in vivo effects remains unresolved. We have thus focused our attention on a complex comparative investigation of the in vitro and in vivo activities of phytochemically characterized Epilobium angustifolium aqueous extract and oenothein B on prostate cancer cells proliferation...
April 28, 2017: Planta Medica
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