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attention in rats

Sergio A A Santos, Ana C Camargo, Flávia B Constantino, Ketlin T Colombelli, Fernanda Mani, Jaqueline C Rinaldi, Suelen Franco, Luiz M F Portela, Bruno O S Duran, Wellerson R Scarano, Barry T Hinton, Sergio L Felisbino, Luis A Justulin
Carcinogenesis is frequently linked to genetic background, however, exposure to environmental risk factors has gained attention as the etiologic agent for several types of cancer, including prostate. The intrauterine microenvironment has been described as a preponderant factor for offspring health; and maternal exposure to insult has been linked to chronic disease in older offspring. Using a model of maternal exposure to low protein diet (LPD; 6% protein), we demonstrated that impairment of offspring rat prostatic growth on postnatal day (PND) 21 was associated with prostate carcinogenesis in older offspring (PND 540)...
May 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Mingyan Zhao, Peng Li, Haijia Xu, Qunwen Pan, Rong Zeng, Xiaotang Ma, Zhanghua Li, Hao Lin
The extracellular microvesicles (MVs) are attracting much attention because they are found to be the key paracrine mediator participating in tissue regeneration. Dexamethasone (DXM) is widely accepted as an important regulator in tailoring the differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the effect of DXM on the paracrine signaling of MSCs remains unknown. To this point, we aimed to explore the role of DXM in regulating the paracrine activity of MSCs through evaluating the release and function of MSC-MVs, based on their physicochemical characteristics and support on osteogenic response...
2018: Stem Cells International
Buket Demirci, Fadime Kahyaoğlu, Tolga Atakul, Mustafa Yılmaz, Yavuz Özoran
OBJECTIVE: Hypericum perforatum (HP) is widely used for depression and distress treatment as an over-the-counter plant in any age. This study investigated the safety of HP on ovarian functions and infertility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: HP given to the rats in two different doses (100 and 300 mg/kg/day) with drinking water for four weeks. Half of the treatment groups have been sacrificed at the end of four weeks intervention, remained have been sacrificed after additional waiting period for four weeks to see reversibility if there is...
May 14, 2018: Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association
Ashley M Fortress, Ian M Smith, Kevin C H Pang
Anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) share a common feature of pathological avoidance behavior. The Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat has been used as a model of anxiety vulnerability, expressing a behaviorally inhibited temperament, acquiring avoidance behavior more rapidly and displaying extinction-resistant avoidance compared to Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Subanesthetic levels of ketamine have gained attention as a rapid antidepressant in treatment-resistant depression. While traditional antidepressants are commonly used to treat anxiety disorders and PTSD, the therapeutic utility of ketamine for these disorders is much less understood...
May 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Vicente Botella-Soler, Stéphane Deny, Georg Martius, Olivier Marre, Gašper Tkačik
Retina is a paradigmatic system for studying sensory encoding: the transformation of light into spiking activity of ganglion cells. The inverse problem, where stimulus is reconstructed from spikes, has received less attention, especially for complex stimuli that should be reconstructed "pixel-by-pixel". We recorded around a hundred neurons from a dense patch in a rat retina and decoded movies of multiple small randomly-moving discs. We constructed nonlinear (kernelized and neural network) decoders that improved significantly over linear results...
May 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Imen M'rad, Mustapha Jeljeli, Naima Rihane, Pascal Hilber, Mohsen Sakly, Salem Amara
Recently, the biosafety and potential influences of nanoparticles on central nervous system have received more attention. In the present study, we assessed the effect of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2 O3 -NPs) on spatial cognition. Male Wistar rats were intravenously administered Al2 O3 -NP suspension (20 mg/kg body weight/day) for four consecutive days, after which they were assessed. The results indicated that Al2 O3 -NPs impaired spatial learning and memory ability. An increment in malondialdehyde levels with a concomitant decrease in superoxide dismutase activity confirmed the induction of oxidative stress in the hippocampus...
2018: EXCLI Journal
Yu Chen, Dong-Jie Guo, Hui Deng, Min-Feng Wu, Ya-Nan Zhang, Su Li, Rong Xu, Jie Chen, Xing-Xiu Jin, Bin Li, Qi Xu, Fu-Lun Li
BACKGROUND: The potential toxicity of Chinese herbal medicine has attracted more attention in recent years. Jueyin granules (JYG), a polyherbal formula, have been proven to be an effective agent for treating psoriasis in both animal models and clinical research. However, little is known about the possible acute and chronic toxicity of JYG. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety of JYG in ICR mice and Wistar rats. METHODS: To examine the acute toxicity of JYG, ICR mice were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group, each comprising 20 mice (10 male and 10 female)...
May 8, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Daiying Zuo, Yumiao Liu, Zi Liu, Jiahui Cui, Xuejiao Zhou, Yang Liu, Zengqiang Li, Yingliang Wu
Currently, an increasing proportion of adolescent ketamine users simultaneously consume alcohol. However, the potential behavioural and neurological alterations induced by such a drug combination and the underlying mechanisms have not been systematically examined. Therefore, in the present study, the behavioural and morphological changes and the underlying mechanisms were studied in adolescent rats after repeated alcohol and/or ketamine treatment. This study provided the first evidence that co-administration of alcohol (2 and 4 g/kg, i...
May 5, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Feiran Xu, Jing Zhang, Zhigao Wang, Yijun Yao, Griffiths G Atungulu, Xingrong Ju, Lifeng Wang
WDHHAPQLR (RAP), an anti-oxidative peptide derived from rapeseed protein. Although the health benefits from RAP due to their antioxidant activities have been determined by chemical methods, a systematic assessment regarding the absorption, metabolism and antioxidation process of RAP is still lacking attention. Hence, Caco-2 cell monolayers model and animal experiment were used to evaluate the absorption and bioavailability of RAP. As expected, RAP could be absorbed by intestinal epithelial cell, and the Papp was (0...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Miranda J Delahoy, Breanna Wodnik, Lydia McAliley, Gauthami Penakalapati, Jenna Swarthout, Matthew C Freeman, Karen Levy
Animals found in close proximity to humans in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) harbor many pathogens capable of infecting humans, transmissible via their feces. Contact with animal feces poses a currently unquantified-though likely substantial-risk to human health. In LMIC settings, human exposure to animal feces may explain some of the limited success of recent water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions that have focused on limiting exposure to human excreta, with less attention to containing animal feces...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Zhixiang Yan, Xue-Jiao Gao, Ting Li, Bin Wei, Panpan Wang, Ying Yang, Ru Yan
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is gaining attention for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Data from individual case studies have suggested that FMT may be beneficial for UC but the detailed microbial and molecular basis remains unknown. Here, we employ 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics to investigate the influence of FMT on gut microbial community composition and host metabolism in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced UC rat model. The findings from this pilot study suggest that FMT from normal donors to UC recipients could alleviate UC symptoms without close resemblance of donor's gut microbial and metabolic pattern...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Anton Pekcec, Niklas Schülert, Birgit Stierstorfer, Serena Deiana, Cornelia Dorner-Ciossek, Holger Rosenbrock
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Insufficient prefrontal dopamine 1 (D1) receptor signalling has been linked to cognitive dysfunction in several psychiatric conditions. Because the phosphodiesterase-1 (PDE1) isoform B (PDE1B) is postulated to regulate D1 receptor-dependent signal transduction, this study intended to elucidate the role of PDE1 for cognitive processes reliant on D1 receptor function. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cognitive performance of the D1 receptor agonist, SKF38393, was studied in the T-maze continuous alternation task and the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task...
May 3, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Zhongxue Yuan, Rui Xu, Jinquan Li, Yueli Chen, Binghui Wu, Jianghua Feng, Zhong Chen
Background: Core-shell-structured nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted much scientific attention due to their promising potential in biomedical fields in recent years. However, their underlying mechanisms of action and potential adverse effects following administration remain unknown. Methods: In the present study, a 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic strategy was applied to investigate the metabolic consequences in rats following the intravenous administration of parent NPs of core-shell-structured nanoparticles, Fe3 O4 @SiO2 -NH2 (Fe@Si) NPs...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Nausheen Alam, Rahila Ikram
Methylphenidate is commonly use for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its long term use was found to produce hepatic necrosis in mice. Purpose of this study was to investigate that co-administration of buspirone (drug which attenuates methylphenidate induced sensitization) may attenuate methylphenidate-induced hepatotoxic effects and to determine the effect of challenge dose of haloperidol (D2 antagonist that blocks the effects of methylphenidate in case of intoxication) on SGPT and SGOT levels in methylphenidate treated rats...
May 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Aleksander A Aleksandrov, Veronika M Knyazeva, Anna B Volnova, Elena S Dmitrieva, Olga Korenkova, Stefano Espinoza, Andrey Gerasimov, Raul R Gainetdinov
Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a well-defined component of human event-related potentials that reflects the pre-attentive, stimulus-discrimination process and is associated with involuntary switching of attention. MMN-like responses detected in animal models provide an opportunity to investigate the neural mechanisms of this process that involves several neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems. Trace amines are believed to play a significant role in neuromodulation of synaptic transmission. The present study aimed to determine the role of trace amine-associated receptor 5 (TAAR5) in the MMN-like response in rats...
May 1, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Jiajia Liu, Hongyan Kang, Xuejiao Ma, Anqiang Sun, Huiqin Luan, Xiaoyan Deng, Yubo Fan
Vascular remodeling induced by hemodynamic stimuli contributes to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. The importance of vascular cells (endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells) glycocalyx in the mechanotransduction of flow-induced shear stress at the cellular and molecular levels has been demonstrated over the past decade. However, its potential mechanotransduction role in vascular remodeling has triggered little attention. In the present study, a home-made apparatus was used to expose the rat abdominal aorta to sterile, flow or no flow, normal-pressure or high-pressure conditions for 4 days...
April 30, 2018: Hypertension
Yongli Gao, Weili Kong, Bao Li, Yilu Ni, Tun Yuan, Likun Guo, Hai Lin, Hongsong Fan, Yujiang Fan, Xingdong Zhang
Injectable and self-crosslinkable hydrogels have drawn much attention for their potential application as cell delivery carriers to deliver cells to the injury site of arbitrary shape. In this study, injectable and self-crosslinkable hydrogels were designed and fabricated based on collagen type I (Col I) and activated chondroitin sulfate (CS-sNHS) by physical and chemical crosslinking without the addition of any catalysts. The physical properties of hydrogels, including mechanical properties, swelling and degradation properties, were investigated...
April 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Christian Solís-Calero, Taize M Augusto, Hernandes F Carvalho
The androgen receptor (AR) promoter contains guanine-rich regions that are able to fold into polymorphic G-quadruplex (GQ) structures, and whose deletion decreases AR gene transcription. Our attention was focused on this region because of the frequent termination of sequencing reactions during promoter methylation studies. UV and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of synthetic oligonucleotides encompassing these guanine-rich regions suggested a parallel quadruplex topology with three guanine quartets and three side loops in the three cases...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Aaron Kucinski, Cindy Lustig, Martin Sarter
Cognitive-motivational vulnerability traits are associated with increased risk for substance addiction and relapse. Sign-tracking (ST) behavior in rats is associated with poor attentional control, mediated by an unresponsive basal forebrain cholinergic system, and an increased risk for substance addiction/relapse. A separate literature links poor attentional control and cholinergic losses to increased fall risk in Parkinson's disease. Here we tested the hypothesis that the relatively inferior attentional control of STs extends to complex movement control and a propensity for falls...
April 26, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Bronwyn M Graham, Geena Shin
Anxiety disorders are characterized by impaired fear extinction and heightened attentional allocation to threatening stimuli. The sex hormones estradiol and progesterone modulate fear extinction in female rats and women; whether these hormones are similarly related to attentional biases to threat has not been examined. In the present study 74 women (53 cycling, 21 using hormonal contraception), and a comparison group of 30 men, completed standard assessments of state-trait anxiety, as well symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, followed by a computerized assessment of attentional bias, the dot-probe task...
April 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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