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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444321/evidence-of-altered-brain-responses-to-nicotine-in-an-animal-model-of-adhd
#1
Guillaume L Poirier, Wei Huang, Kelly Tam, Joseph R DiFranza, Jean A King
Introduction: Individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are susceptible to earlier and more severe nicotine addiction. To shed light on the relationship between nicotine and ADHD, we examined nicotine's effects on functional brain networks in an animal model of ADHD. Methods: Awake magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare functional connectivity in adolescent (postnatal day 44±2) males of the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR) strain and two control strains, Wistar Kyoto and Sprague Dawley (n = 16 each)...
April 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441791/selective-toxicity-of-non-polar-bioactive-compounds-of-persian-gulf-sea-squirt-phallusia-nigra-on-skin-mitochondria-isolated-from-rat-model-of-melanoma
#2
Yalda Arast, Nina Seyed Razi, Enayatollah Seydi, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Melika Nazemi, Jalal Pourahmad
Background: Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer and one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. Marin animals have attracted much attention in recent years as useful substances having application in medicine. It was shown that Phallusia nigra (P. nigra) known as sea squirt could play an important role in cancer therapy. Methods: This study was designed to figure out the probable selective toxicity of n-hexane, diethyl ether, methanolic and aqueous extracts of P. nigra on cancerous mitochondria isolated from the skin of melanoma induced rats...
March 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440468/vitamin-d-attenuates-hyperoxia-induced-lung-injury-through-downregulation-of-toll-like-receptor%C3%A2-4
#3
Li Yao, Yongyan Shi, Xinyi Zhao, Ana Hou, Yujiao Xing, Jianhua Fu, Xindong Xue
With considerable morbidity and mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a focus of attention in neonatology. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury has long been used as a model of BPD. Among all the signaling pathways involved, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been demonstrated to play an important role, and is known to be regulated by vitamin D. This study aimed at elucidating the effect of vitamin D on hyperoxia-induced lung injury and the role of TLR4 in the process. Vitamin D was administered to hyperoxia-treated neonatal rats to investigate changes in the morphology of lungs and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic proteins and TLR4...
April 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439226/the-phosphodiesterase-10a-inhibitor-pf-2545920-enhances-hippocampal-excitability-and-seizure-activity-involving-the-upregulation-of-glua1-and-nr2a-in-post-synaptic-densities
#4
Yanke Zhang, Baobing Gao, Fangshuo Zheng, Shanshan Lu, Yun Li, Yan Xiong, Qin Yang, Yong Yang, Pengfei Fu, Fei Xiao, Xuefeng Wang
Phosphodiesterase regulates the homeostasis of cAMP and cGMP, which increase the strength of excitatory neural circuits and/or decrease inhibitory synaptic plasticity. Abnormally, synchronized synaptic transmission in the brain leads to seizures. A phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitor PF-2545920 has recently attracted attention as a potential therapy for neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesized that PF-2545920 plays an important role in status epilepticus (SE) and investigated the underlying mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439100/ventral-striatal-regulation-of-crem-mediates-impulsive-action-and-drug-addiction-vulnerability
#5
M L Miller, Y Ren, H Szutorisz, N A Warren, C Tessereau, G Egervari, A Mlodnicka, M Kapoor, B Chaarani, C V Morris, G Schumann, H Garavan, A M Goate, M J Bannon, J M Halperin, Y L Hurd
Impulsivity, a multifaceted behavioral hallmark of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), strongly influences addiction vulnerability and other psychiatric disorders that incur enormous medical and societal burdens yet the neurobiological underpinnings linking impulsivity to disease remain poorly understood. Here we report the critical role of ventral striatal cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) in mediating impulsivity relevant to drug abuse vulnerability. Using an ADHD rat model, we demonstrate that impulsive animals are neurochemically and behaviorally more sensitive to heroin and exhibit reduced Crem expression in the nucleus accumbens core...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438865/effect-of-hydrogen-dioxide-treatment-on-the-osteogenic-potential-of-duck-beak-bone-derived-natural-bioceramic-microparticles
#6
Joong-Hyun Kim, Min-Ho Park, Seok Jin Jang, Soo Jin Son, Jae Yeon Lee, Jun Sik Son, Se Eun Kim, Seong Soo Kang, Seok Hwa Choi
As an alternative material to the autogenous bone, duck-beak bone particle for bone substitute have been attracting great attention due to their biological properties. To deliver the most favorable outcome of medical treatment, it is essential to study the effect of various processing methods of the duck-beak bone. In this study, we compared the two deproteinizing agents for manufacturing duck-beak bone. Group 1 was treated by a conventional chemical agent (ethylenediamine) and Group 2 by hydrogen dioxide (H2O2)...
May 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438647/effects-of-bms-902483-an-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-partial-agonist-on-cognition-and-sensory-gating-in-relation-to-receptor-occupancy-in-rodents
#7
Rick L Pieschl, Regina Miller, Kelli M Jones, Debra J Post-Munson, Ping Chen, Kimberly Newberry, Yulia Benitex, Thaddeus Molski, Daniel Morgan, Ivar M McDonald, John E Macor, Richard E Olson, Yukiko Asaka, Siva Digavalli, Amy Easton, James Herrington, Ryan S Westphal, Nicholas J Lodge, Robert Zaczek, Linda J Bristow, Yu-Wen Li
The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is thought to play an important role in human cognition. Here we describe the in vivo effects of BMS-902483, a selective potent α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in relationship to α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor occupancy. BMS-902483 has low nanomolar affinity for rat and human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and elicits currents in cells expressing human or rat α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are about 60% of the maximal acetylcholine response...
April 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433656/impaired-endothelium-derived-hyperpolarization-type-relaxation-in-superior-mesenteric-arteries-isolated-from-female-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rats
#8
Takayuki Matsumoto, Shota Kobayashi, Makoto Ando, Shun Watanabe, Maika Iguchi, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) is an important signaling mechanism of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and little attention has been paid to the EDH-type responses in female metabolic syndrome such as that observed with type-2 diabetes. We previously reported that EDH-type relaxation was impaired in superior mesenteric arteries from male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model of type-2 diabetes, however, the response was unclear in female OLETF rat. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine if EDH-type relaxation was altered in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from female OLETF rats compared to age-matched, control female Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats at age 50-59 weeks...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432778/cross-species-studies-of-cognition-relevant-to-drug-discovery-a-translational-approach
#9
REVIEW
T W Robbins
This Review advances the case that bidirectional, cross-species translation of findings from experimental animals to and from humans is an important strategy for drug discovery. Animal models of mental disorders require appropriate behavioural or cognitive outcome variables that can be generalized cross-species. One example is the treatment of impulsive behaviour in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant drugs. Performance on the stop signal reaction task as an index of impulsivity is improved both in healthy human volunteers and in patients with adult ADHD by stimulant drugs and also by the selective noradrenergic reuptake blocker atomoxetine...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431810/in-vivo-ameliorative-effect-of-cerium-oxide-nanoparticles-in-isoproterenol-induced-cardiac-toxicity
#10
Shereen S El Shaer, Taher A Salaheldin, Nashwa M Saied, Sally M Abdelazim
BACKGROUND: Cerium oxide nanoparticles have gained much more attention especially in the field of nanomedicine. This work represents cerium oxide nanoparticles as a new prophylactic model for heart failure progression. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential protective effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on Isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. METHODS: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (5±1nm) were synthesized by reverse micelle method and characterized using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and particle size analyzer...
April 18, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430676/a-biomimetic-alternative-to-synthetic-hydroxyapatite-boron-containing-bone-like-hydroxyapatite-precipitated-from-simulated-body-fluid
#11
Mert Calis, Tugrul Tolga Demirtas, Alper Vatansever, Gulseren Irmak, Ahmet Hamdi Sakarya, Pergin Atilla, Figen Ozgur, Menemse Gumusderelioglu
BACKGROUND: Biological hydroxyapatite (HA), has several mechanical and physical advantages over the commercially available synthetic apatite (CAP-HA). The aim of this in vivo study was to investigate the effect of osteoinductive "bone-like hydroxyapatite" obtained from simulated body fluid (SBF) combined with osteoinductive "boron" (B) on bone healing. MATERIALS: Bone like nanohydroxyapatite (SBF-HA) was precipitated from 10× simulated body fluid (10×SBF). Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 experimental groups (n = 6 each)...
April 20, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430048/a-spinal-epidural-abscess-due-to-streptobacillus-moniliformis-infection-following-a-rat-bite-case-report
#12
Alexander Hammer, Dorit Wolff, Walter Geißdörfer, Michael Schrey, Renate Ziegler, Hans-Herbert Steiner, Christian Bogdan
The authors describe the case of a 40-year-old man suffering from an epidural abscess in the thoracic spine due to a rarely isolated pathogen, Streptobacillus moniliformis, the causative agent of rat bite fever. Besides diffuse abdominal pain, ataxia, paresthesia, hypesthesia, and enhanced reflexes of the lower extremities, the patient suffered from a decreased sensation of bladder filling. His history was also positive for a rat bite 6 weeks earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an epidural, space-occupying lesion compressing the spinal cord at the vertebral levels of T6-8...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428038/non-invasive-tracking-of-hydrogel-degradation-using-upconversion-nanoparticles
#13
Yuqing Dong, Guorui Jin, Changchun Ji, Rongyan He, Min Lin, Xin Zhao, Ang Li, Tian Jian Lu, Feng Xu
Tracking the distribution and degradation of hydrogels in vivo is important for various applications including tissue engineering and drug delivery. Among various imaging modalities, fluorescence imaging has attracted intensive attention due to their high sensitivity, low cost and easy operation. Particularly, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that emit visible lights upon near-infrared (NIR) light excitation as tracking probes are promising in deciphering the fate of hydrogels after transplantation. Herein, we reported a facile and non-invasive in vivo hydrogel tracking method using UCNPs, where the degradation of hydrogels was determined using the decrease in fluorescence intensity from the UCNPs encapsulated in the hydrogels...
April 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423519/vitamin-d-and-vdr-in-cancer-cachexia-and-muscle-regeneration
#14
Andrea Camperi, Fabrizio Pin, Domiziana Costamagna, Fabio Penna, Maria Lopez Menduina, Zaira Aversa, Teresa Zimmers, Roberto Verzaro, Raffaella Fittipaldi, Giuseppina Caretti, Francesco Maria Baccino, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Paola Costelli
Low circulating levels of vitamin D were associated with decreased muscle strength and physical performance. Along this line, the present study was aimed to investigate: i) the therapeutic potential of vitamin D in cancer-induced muscle wasting; ii) the mechanisms by which vitamin D affects muscle phenotype in tumor-bearing animals.Rats bearing the AH130 hepatoma showed decreased circulating vitamin D compared to control rats, while muscle vitamin D receptor (VDR) mRNA was up-regulated. Both circulating vitamin D and muscle VDR expression increased after vitamin D administration, without exerting appreciable effects on body weight and muscle mass...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422445/transcriptional-profiling-of-shr-ncrl-prefrontal-cortex-reveals-hyperactivity-associated-genes-responsive-to-amphetamine-challenge
#15
Irene Joy I Dela Peña, Ike Dela Peña, June Bryan de la Peña, Hee Jin Kim, Aeree Sohn, Chan Young Shin, Doug Hyun Han, Bung-Nyun Kim, Jong Hoon Ryu, Jae Hoon Cheong
Several studies suggest a strong genetic component of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by inappropriate levels of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Determining specific genetic risk variants for each symptom dimension of ADHD may aid in the identification of the biological risk factors of the disorder. In this study, we explored the potential genetic underpinnings of the hyperactive phenotype of ADHD. To this end, we examined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of SHR/NCrl, an animal model of ADHD, compared with its genetic control, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NCrl) rat and the Wistar rat, strain used to represent the "normal" heterogeneous population...
April 19, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421119/influences-of-realgar-indigo-naturalis-a-traditional-chinese-medicine-formula-on-the-main-cyp450-activities-in-rats-using-a-cocktail-method
#16
Huan-Hua Xu, Fei-Ran Hao, Mei-Xi Wang, Si-Jia Ren, Ming Li, Hong-Ling Tan, Yu-Guang Wang, Xiang-Lin Tang, Cheng-Rong Xiao, Qian-De Liang, Yue Gao, Zeng-Chun Ma
The purpose of this work was to study the influences of Realgar-Indigo naturalis (RIF) and its principal element realgar on 4 main cytochrome P450 enzymes activities in rats. A simple and efficient cocktail method was developed to detect the four probe drugs simultaneously. In this study, Wistar rats were administered intragastric RIF and realgar for 14 days; mixed probe drugs were injected into rats by caudal vein. Through analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameter of mixed probe drugs in rats, we can calculate the CYPs activities...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415432/fabrication-of-dicalcium-phosphate-dihydrate-coated-%C3%AE-tcp-granules-and-evaluation-of-their-osteoconductivity-using-experimental-rats
#17
Khairul Anuar Shariff, Kanji Tsuru, Kunio Ishikawa
β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has attracted much attention as an artificial bone substitute owing to its biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. In this study, osteoconductivity of β-TCP bone substitute was enhanced without using growth factors or cells. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), which is known to possess the highest solubility among calcium phosphates, was coated on β-TCP granules by exposing their surface with acidic calcium phosphate solution. The amount of coated DCPD was regulated by changing the reaction time between β-TCP granules and acidic calcium phosphate solution...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400722/sex-differences-in-the-physiological-and-behavioral-effects-of-chronic-oral-methylphenidate-treatment-in-rats
#18
Lisa S Robison, Michalis Michaelos, Jason Gandhi, Dennis Fricke, Erick Miao, Chiu-Yim Lam, Anthony Mauceri, Melissa Vitale, Junho Lee, Soyeh Paeng, David E Komatsu, Michael Hadjiargyrou, Panayotis K Thanos
Methylphenidate (MP) is a psychostimulant prescribed for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Previously, we developed a dual bottle 8-h-limited-access-drinking-paradigm for oral MP treatment of rats that mimics the pharmacokinetic profile of treated patients. This study assessed sex differences in response to this treatment. Male and female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of three treatment groups at 4 weeks of age (n = 12/group): Control (water), low dose (LD) MP, and high dose (HD) MP. Rats drank 4 mg/kg MP (LD) or 30 mg/kg MP (HD) during the first hour, and 10 mg/kg (LD) or 60 mg/kg MP (HD) for the remaining 7 h each day...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394013/intermittent-theta-burst-stimulation-rescues-dopamine-dependent-corticostriatal-synaptic-plasticity-and-motor-behavior-in-experimental-parkinsonism-possible-role-of-glial-activity
#19
Fabrizio Cacace, Desirèe Mineo, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Emanuele Claudio Latagliata, Maria Mancini, Valeria Sasso, Anna Vannelli, Tiziana Pascucci, Valentina Pendolino, Elena Marcello, Silvia Pelucchi, Stefano Puglisi-Allegra, Marco Molinari, Barbara Picconi, Paolo Calabresi, Veronica Ghiglieri
BACKGROUND: Recent studies support the therapeutic utility of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD), whose progression is correlated with loss of corticostriatal long-term potentiation and long-term depression. Glial cell activation is also a feature of PD that is gaining increasing attention in the field because astrocytes play a role in chronic neuroinflammatory responses but are also able to manage dopamine (DA) levels. METHODS: Intermittent theta-burst stimulation protocol was applied to study the effect of therapeutic neuromodulation on striatal DA levels measured by means of in vivo microdialysis in 6-hydroxydopamine-hemilesioned rats...
April 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389379/exposure-to-welding-fumes-activates-dna-damage-response-and-redox-sensitive-transcription-factor-signalling-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#20
Jayaraman Krishnaraj, Jaganathan Kowshik, Robin Sebastian, Sathees C Raghavan, Siddavaram Nagini
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes containing a complex mixture of genotoxic heavy metals, radiation, gases and nanoparticles poses a serious health hazard to welders. Since their categorization as possible carcinogens, welding fumes have gained increasing attention as high priority agents for risk assessment. OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of welding fume inhalation on oxidative stress, DNA damage response (DDR), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) signalling in the lung tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
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