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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668274/behavioral-and-cognitive-data-in-mice-with-different-tryptophan-metabolizing-enzymes-knocked-out
#1
Lay Khoon Too, Kong M Li, Cacang Suarna, Ghassan J Maghzal, Roland Stocker, Iain S McGregor, Nicholas H Hunt
This article demonstrates behavioral changes in mice in response to free adaptation and drinking session adaptation modules implemented in their social home environment, the IntelliCage. These data complement the study "Deletion of TDO2, IDO-1 and IDO-2 differentially affects mouse behavior and cognitive function" (Too LK, Li KM, Suarna C, Maghzal GJ, Stocker R, McGregor IS, et al., 2016) [1]. Prior to programmed drinking sessions, all mice were exposed to a home cage adaptation module during which there was no time limit on water access - the free adaptation module...
December 2016: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604387/the-roles-of-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-its-dopamine-receptors-in-self-paced-cost-benefit-decision-making-in-rats
#2
Shuai Wang, Shan-Hu Hu, Yi Shi, Bao-Ming Li
It has been shown that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and its dopamine system are crucial for decision making that requires physical/emotional effort, but not for all forms of cost-benefit decision making. Previous studies had mostly employed behavioral tasks with two competing cost-reward options that were preset by the experimenters. However, few studies have been conducted using scenarios in which the subjects have full control over the energy/time expenditure required to obtain a proportional reward...
September 7, 2016: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589889/behavioral-representation-of-cost-and-benefit-balance-in-rats
#3
Hua Tang, Fei Luo, Si-Hai Li, Bao-Ming Li
Decision making is dependent upon individual motivation. Previous studies showed that animals with higher levels of motivation are more likely to invest more time to acquire larger rewards rather than acquiring smaller rewards with less time to wait. However, little is known about how this motivation mediates the cognitive effort animals devote upon making said decisions in detail. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral response in a goal-directed action under a differential reward schedule by training rats to perform a "Do more, get more" (DM-GM) task using a nosepoke operandum when longer nosepoke durations resulted in correspondingly larger rewards...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26774978/altered-behaviour-and-cognitive-function-following-combined-deletion-of-toll-like-receptors-2-and-4-in-mice
#4
Lay Khoon Too, Iain S McGregor, Alan G Baxter, Nicholas H Hunt
Activation of the immune system due to infection or aging is increasingly linked to impaired neuropsychological function. Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2, TLR4) are well-characterised for their role in inflammatory events, and their combined activation has been implicated in neurological diseases. We therefore determined whether TLR2 and TLR4 double gene knockout (GKO) mice showed modified behaviour and cognitive function during a 16-day test sequence that employed the automated IntelliCage test system. The IntelliCage features a home cage environment in which groups of mice live and where water reward is gained through performing various tasks centred on drinking stations in each corner of the apparatus...
April 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26764255/adolescent-rats-self-administer-less-nicotine-than-adults-at-low-doses
#5
Rachel L Schassburger, Emily M Pitzer, Tracy T Smith, Laura E Rupprecht, Edda Thiels, Eric C Donny, Alan F Sved
INTRODUCTION: Although nearly 90% of current smokers initiated tobacco use during adolescence, little is known about reinforcement by nicotine in adolescents. Researchers are currently investigating whether a potential public health policy setting a tobacco product standard with very low nicotine levels would improve public health, and it is essential to understand whether data generated in adults translates to adolescents, particularly as it relates to the threshold dose of nicotine required to support smoking...
September 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26558620/effects-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-faah-inhibitors-on-working-memory-in-rats
#6
Leigh V Panlilio, Eric B Thorndike, Spyros P Nikas, Shakiru O Alapafuja, Tiziano Bandiera, Benjamin F Cravatt, Alexandros Makriyannis, Daniele Piomelli, Steven R Goldberg, Zuzana Justinova
RATIONALE: Manipulations of the endocannabinoid system could potentially produce therapeutic effects with minimal risk of adverse cannabis-like side effects. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) increase endogenous levels of the cannabinoid-receptor agonist, anandamide, and show promise for treating a wide range of disorders. However, their effects on learning and memory have not been fully characterized. OBJECTIVES: We determined the effects of five structurally different FAAH inhibitors in an animal model of working memory known to be sensitive to impairment by delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)...
May 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26520647/temporal-averaging-across-multiple-response-options-insight-into-the-mechanisms-underlying-integration
#7
Benjamin J De Corte, Matthew S Matell
Rats trained on a dual-duration, dual-modality peak-interval procedure (e.g., tone = 10 s/light = 20 s) often show unimodal response distributions with peaks that fall in between the anchor durations when both cues are presented as a simultaneous compound. Two hypotheses can explain this finding. According to the averaging hypothesis, rats integrate the anchor durations into an average during compound trials, with each duration being weighted by its respective reinforcement probability. According to the simultaneous temporal processing hypothesis, rats time both durations veridically and simultaneously during compound trials and respond continuously across both durations, thereby producing a unimodal response distribution with a peak falling in between the anchor durations...
March 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26293178/inhibition-of-lactate-transport-erases-drug-memory-and-prevents-drug-relapse
#8
Yan Zhang, Yanxue Xue, Shiqiu Meng, Yixiao Luo, Jie Liang, Jiali Li, Sizhi Ai, Chengyu Sun, Haowei Shen, Weili Zhu, Ping Wu, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
BACKGROUND: Drug memories that associate drug-paired stimuli with the effects of abused drugs contribute to relapse. Exposure to drug-associated contexts causes consolidated drug memories to be in a labile state, during which manipulations can be given to impair drug memories. Although substantial evidence demonstrates the crucial role of neuronal signaling in addiction, little is known about the contribution of astrocyte-neuron communication. METHODS: Rats were trained for cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) or self-administration and microinjected with the glycogen phosphorylation inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) immediately after retrieval...
June 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26289919/reconsolidation-of-a-cocaine-associated-memory-requires-dna-methyltransferase-activity-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#9
Hai-Shui Shi, Yi-Xiao Luo, Xi Yin, Hong-Hai Wu, Gai Xue, Xu-Hong Geng, Yan-Ning Hou
Drug addiction is considered an aberrant form of learning, and drug-associated memories evoked by the presence of associated stimuli (drug context or drug-related cues) contribute to recurrent craving and reinstatement. Epigenetic changes mediated by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) have been implicated in the reconsolidation of fear memory. Here, we investigated the role of DNMT activity in the reconsolidation of cocaine-associated memories. Rats were trained over 10 days to intravenously self-administer cocaine by nosepokes...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26093048/distinct-effects-of-ventral-tegmental-area-nmda-and-acetylcholine-receptor-blockade-on-conditioned-reinforcement-produced-by-food-associated-cues
#10
R J Wickham, W B Solecki, E J Nunes, N A Addy
Stimuli paired with rewards acquire reinforcing properties to promote reward-seeking behavior. Previous work supports the role of ventral tegmental area (VTA) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in mediating conditioned reinforcement elicited by drug-associated cues. However, it is not known whether these cholinergic mechanisms are specific to drug-associated cues or whether VTA cholinergic mechanisms also underlie the ability of cues paired with natural rewards to act as conditioned reinforcers. Burst firing of VTA dopamine (DA) neurons and the subsequent phasic DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in cue-mediated behavior and in the ability of cues to acquire reinforcing properties...
August 20, 2015: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26053764/budget-constraints-affect-male-rats-choices-between-differently-priced-commodities
#11
Marijn van Wingerden, Christine Marx, Tobias Kalenscher
Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26030429/early-life-stress-produces-compulsive-like-but-not-impulsive-behavior-in-females
#12
Nichola M Brydges, Megan C Holmes, Anjanette P Harris, Rudolf N Cardinal, Jeremy Hall
Adverse experiences during childhood are associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. In particular, childhood abuse and neglect are risk factors for addictive disorders, such as substance misuse and pathological gambling. Impulsivity and compulsivity are key features of these disorders. Therefore, we investigated whether childhood adversity might increase vulnerability for addictive disorders through promotion of compulsive and impulsive behaviors. Rats were exposed to a brief, variable childhood or prepubertal stress protocol (Postnatal Days 25-27), and their behavior in a delay discounting task was compared with that of control animals in adulthood...
June 2015: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25979604/relative-reward-effects-on-operant-behavior-incentive-contrast-induction-and-variety-effects
#13
E S Webber, N E Chambers, J A Kostek, D E Mankin, H C Cromwell
Comparing different rewards automatically produces dynamic relative outcome effects on behavior. Each new outcome exposure is to an updated version evaluated relative to alternatives. Relative reward effects include incentive contrast, positive induction and variety effects. The present study utilized a novel behavioral design to examine relative reward effects on a chain of operant behavior using auditory cues. Incentive contrast is the most often examined effect and focuses on increases or decreases in behavioral performance after value upshifts (positive) or downshifts (negative) relative to another outcome...
July 2015: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25781911/the-serotonin-2c-receptor-agonist-lorcaserin-attenuates-intracranial-self-stimulation-and-blocks-the-reward-enhancing-effects-of-nicotine
#14
Fiona D Zeeb, Guy A Higgins, Paul J Fletcher
Lorcaserin, a serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) 2C receptor agonist, was recently approved for the treatment of obesity. We previously suggested that 5-HT2C receptor agonists affect reward processes and reduce the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Here, we determined whether lorcaserin (1) decreases responding for brain stimulation reward (BSR) and (2) prevents nicotine from enhancing the efficacy of BSR. Rats were trained on the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigm to nosepoke for BSR of either the dorsal raphé nucleus or left medial forebrain bundle...
July 15, 2015: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25621788/role-of-the-striatopallidal-pathway-in-renewal-and-reacquisition-of-alcohol-seeking
#15
Audrey T Khoo, Gabrielle D Gibson, Asheeta A Prasad, Gavan P McNally
The ventral pallidum (VP) is a key component of the neural circuitry mediating relapse to drug seeking, but the critical afferent pathways to VP recruited during relapse remain poorly understood. We studied the role of the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC) → VP pathway in ABA renewal and reacquisition of alcohol seeking. Rats received application of adenoviral vectors encoding eYFP, ChR2(H134R), or eNpHr3.0 to AcbC and implantation of fiber optic cannulas into VP to permit photostimulation of AcbC terminals there...
February 2015: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24792526/spontaneous-behavior-in-the-social-homecage-discriminates-strains-lesions-and-mutations-in-mice
#16
Elisabetta Vannoni, Vootele Voikar, Giovanni Colacicco, María Alvarez Sánchez, Hans-Peter Lipp, David P Wolfer
BACKGROUND: Modern molecular genetics create a rapidly growing number of mutant mouse lines, many of which need to be phenotyped behaviorally. Poor reliability and low efficiency of traditional behavioral tests have prompted the development of new approaches to behavioral phenotyping, such as fully automated analysis of behavior in the homecage. NEW METHOD: We asked whether the analysis of spontaneous behavior during the first week in the social homecage system IntelliCage could provide useful prescreening information before specialized and time consuming test batteries are run...
August 30, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23895063/%C3%AE-opioid-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-mediate-context-induced-reinstatement-renewal-but-not-primed-reinstatement-of-extinguished-alcohol-seeking
#17
Christina J Perry, Gavan P McNally
Opioid antagonists reduce the rate of relapse to drinking in clinical trials and reduce reinstatement in animal models of drug seeking. However, the neuroanatomical locus for this effect remains poorly understood. We examined the role of nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) μ-opioid receptors in two different forms of recovery of alcoholic beer seeking. Rats were trained to nosepoke for alcoholic beer in a distinctive context and this response was then extinguished. Response recovery was produced via renewal (context-induced reinstatement) (Experiment 1) or primed reinstatement (Experiment 2)...
August 2013: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23106416/the-role-of-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-extinction-and-reinstatement-of-alcohol-seeking-in-rats
#18
Andrea L Willcocks, Gavan P McNally
The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to play opposing roles in drug-seeking behaviour. Specifically, the PL promotes drug-seeking whereas the IL is necessary for the inhibition of drug-seeking during extinction. We studied the roles of the PL, IL and dorsal peduncular PFC (DP) in the expression of context-induced reinstatement, reacquisition and extinction of alcoholic beer-seeking. In context-induced reinstatement (renewal), animals were trained to nosepoke for alcoholic beer (context A), extinguished (context B) and then tested in context A and B...
January 2013: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22855794/activation-of-dorsal-raphe-serotonin-neurons-is-necessary-for-waiting-for-delayed-rewards
#19
Kayoko W Miyazaki, Katsuhiko Miyazaki, Kenji Doya
The forebrain serotonergic system is a crucial component in the control of impulsive behaviors. We previously reported that the activity of serotonin neurons in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus increased when rats performed a task that required them to wait for delayed rewards. However, the causal relationship between serotonin neural activity and the tolerance for the delayed reward remained unclear. Here, we test whether the inhibition of serotonin neural activity by the local application of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin in the dorsal raphe nucleus impairs rats' tolerance for delayed rewards...
August 1, 2012: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22754507/auditory-stimuli-elicit-hippocampal-neuronal-responses-during-sleep
#20
Ekaterina Vinnik, Sergey Antopolskiy, Pavel M Itskov, Mathew E Diamond
To investigate how hippocampal neurons code behaviorally salient stimuli, we recorded from neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in rats while they learned to associate the presence of sound with water reward. Rats learned to alternate between two reward ports at which, in 50% of the trials, sound stimuli were presented followed by water reward after a 3-s delay. Sound at the water port predicted subsequent reward delivery in 100% of the trials and the absence of sound predicted reward omission. During this task, 40% of recorded neurons fired differently according to which of the two reward ports the rat was visiting...
2012: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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