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Radiology, imaging, oncology

C Boy, T Poeppel, J Kotzerke, B J Krause, H Amthauer, R P Baum, I Buchmann, S Ezziddin, D Führer, M Gabriel, T Kuwert, H Lahner, T Lauenstein, H R Maecke, J Nagarajah, F Rösch, K Scheidhauer, M Schmidt, M A Walter, A Bockisch
The present guideline is focused on quality assurance of somatostatin receptor PET/CT (SSTR-PET/CT) in oncology patients. The document has been developed by a multidisciplinary board of specialists providing consensus of definitions, prerequisites, methodology, operating procedures, assessment, and standardized reporting. In particular, imaging procedures for the two most commonly used radioligands of human SSTR, i. e. 68Ga-DOTATOC and 68Ga-DOTATATE are presented. Overall, SSTR-PET/CT requires close interdisciplinary communication and cooperation of referring and executing medical disciplines, taking into account existing guidelines and recommendations of the European and German medical societies, including the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), German Society for Endocrinology (DGE), German Society for Nuclear Medicine (DGN) and German Society for Radiology (DRG)...
February 2018: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
Mark Gainey, Montserrat Carles, Michael Mix, Philipp T Meyer, Michael Bock, Anca-Ligia Grosu, Dimos Baltas
Recently, there has been an increase in the imaging modalities available for radiotherapy planning and radiotherapy prognostic outcome: dual energy computed tomography (CT; DECT), dynamic contrast enhanced CT, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted MRI, positron emission tomography-CT, dynamic contrast enhanced ultrasound, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography-MR. These techniques enable more precise gross tumor volume definition than CT alone and moreover allow subvolumes within the gross tumor volume to be defined which may be given a boost dose or an individual voxelized dose prescription may be derived...
March 9, 2018: Future Oncology
Matea Pavic, Marta Bogowicz, Xaver Würms, Stefan Glatz, Tobias Finazzi, Oliver Riesterer, Johannes Roesch, Leonie Rudofsky, Martina Friess, Patrick Veit-Haibach, Martin Huellner, Isabelle Opitz, Walter Weder, Thomas Frauenfelder, Matthias Guckenberger, Stephanie Tanadini-Lang
BACKGROUND: Radiomics is a promising methodology for quantitative analysis and description of radiological images using advanced mathematics and statistics. Tumor delineation, which is still often done manually, is an essential step in radiomics, however, inter-observer variability is a well-known uncertainty in radiation oncology. This study investigated the impact of inter-observer variability (IOV) in manual tumor delineation on the reliability of radiomic features (RF). METHODS: Three different tumor types (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)) were included...
March 7, 2018: Acta Oncologica
Malte Rörden, Clemens Hinterleitner, Janina Metzger, Lothar Kanz
More and more follow-up care gets important in the treatment of oncological patients. In addition to detection of recurrent and secondary diseases, the focus should be put particularly on identifying and medicating sequelae associated with therapy. Anamnesis and clinical examination remain at the centre of follow-up treatment. Further contents of follow-up care are based on the disease situation, previous therapies and individual risk factors. For most entities there is no recommendation for routine radiological diagnosis in asymptomatic patients...
March 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Crescens Tiu, Annie Wong, Alan Herschtal, Linda Mileshkin
AIM: To characterize the outcomes of patients with nonmelanoma solid tumors receiving anti-PD-1 immunotherapy not funded by the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. METHODS: Medical records of patients with metastatic nonmelanoma tumor diagnoses treated with anti-PD-1 (self-funded pembrolizumab or nivolumab through an access program) from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2016, at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, were retrospectively reviewed. Events after December 31, 2016, were censored...
March 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Mahyar Kashan, Mazyar Ghanaat, Andreas M Hötker, Cihan Duzgol, Alejandro Sanchez, Renzo G DiNatale, Kyle A Blum, Maria Becerra, Brandon J Manley, Jozefina Casuscelli, Michael Chiok, Jonathan A Coleman, Paul Russo, Satish K Tickoo, Oguz Akin, A Ari Hakimi
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of surgical intervention and active surveillance in patients diagnosed with cystic renal cell carcinoma at our hypothesized radiologic cutoff of >50% cystic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified all patients with a pathologically confirmed cystic renal mass that fit our criteria from 2000 to 2015 (n=430). Patients with lack of CT imaging, tumors <50% cystic on imaging, multifocal tumors and prior renal cell carcinoma were excluded (n=292)...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Urology
Gloria C Chiang, Ilhami Kovanlikaya, Changho Choi, Rohan Ramakrishna, Rajiv Magge, Dikoma C Shungu
Advances in metabolic imaging techniques have allowed for more precise characterization of gliomas, particularly as it relates to tumor recurrence or pseudoprogression. Furthermore, the emerging field of radiogenomics where radiographic features are systemically correlated with molecular markers has the potential to achieve the holy grail of neuro-oncologic neuro-radiology, namely molecular diagnosis without requiring tissue specimens. In this section, we will review the utility of metabolic imaging and discuss the current state of the art related to the radiogenomics of glioblastoma...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Antoine Iannessi, Hubert Beaumont, Christophe Hebert, Claire Dittlot, Marie Noëlle Falewee
OBJECTIVE: The measure of body surface area (BSA) is a standard for planning optimal dosing in oncology. This index is derived from a model having questionable performances. In this study, we proposed measurement of BSA from whole body CT images (iBSA). We tested the reliability of iBSA assessments and simulated the impact of our approach on patient chemotherapy dosage planning. METHODS: We first evaluated accuracy and precision of iBSA in measuring 14 phantom and 11 CT test-retest images...
2018: PloS One
Maria A Rueda, Celia Riga, Mohamad S Hamady
Interventional Radiology procedures, equipment and techniques as well as image guidance have developed dramatically over the last few decades. The evidence for minimally invasive interventions in vascular and oncology fields is rapidly growing and several procedures are considered the first line management. However, radiation exposure, image guidance and innovative solutions to known anatomical challenges are still lagging behind. Robotic technology and its role in surgery have been developing at a steady speed...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Alexander J Towbin, Rebecka L Meyers, Helen Woodley, Osamu Miyazaki, Christopher B Weldon, Bruce Morland, Eiso Hiyama, Piotr Czauderna, Derek J Roebuck, Greg M Tiao
Imaging is crucial in the assessment of children with a primary hepatic malignancy. Since its inception in 1992, the PRETEXT (PRE-Treatment EXTent of tumor) system has become the primary method of risk stratification for hepatoblastoma and pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma in numerous cooperative group trials across the world. The PRETEXT system is made of two components: the PRETEXT group and the annotation factors. The PRETEXT group describes the extent of tumor within the liver while the annotation factors help to describe associated features such as vascular involvement (either portal vein or hepatic vein/inferior vena cava), extrahepatic disease, multifocality, tumor rupture and metastatic disease (to both the lungs and lymph nodes)...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Phoebe Star, Annabel Goodwin, Rony Kapoor, R Max Conway, Georgina V Long, Richard A Scolyer, Pascale Guitera
The germline BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein-1) mutation and associated cancer pre-disposition syndrome was first described in 2011. Since then, physicians have considered this diagnosis for patients with a characteristic personal or family history of BAP1-associated tumours (mainly uveal and cutaneous melanoma, pleural/peritoneal mesothelioma, renal cell carcinoma and BAP1-deficient melanocytic lesions). However, a positive germline BAP1 mutation detection creates significant uncertainty in terms of appropriate cancer surveillance...
March 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Omer Ekinci, Bulent Baran, Asli Cifcibasi Ormeci, Ozlem Mutluay Soyer, Suut Gokturk, Sami Evirgen, Arzu Poyanli, Mine Gulluoglu, Filiz Akyuz, Cetin Karaca, Kadir Demir, Fatih Besisik, Sabahattin Kaymakoglu
AIM: To investigate clinical, etiological, and prognostic features in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were followed-up from 2001 to 2011 were included in the study. The diagnosis was established by histopathological and/or radiological criteria. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data, etiology of primary liver disease, imaging characteristics and treatments. Child-Pugh and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage was determined at initial diagnosis...
January 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Kenneth Alan Miles, Julia Squires, Michelle Murphy
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify potential barriers to the clinical implementation of quantitative imaging for the assessment of tumor heterogeneity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 18-month prospective observational study was undertaken in which the clinical implementation of computed tomography texture analysis (CTTA) as a technique for quantifying tumor heterogeneity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer was assessed using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework...
February 2, 2018: Academic Radiology
C Matthew Hawkins, Alexander J Towbin, Derek J Roebuck, Eric J Monroe, Anne E Gill, Avnesh S Thakor, Richard B Towbin, Anne Marie Cahill, Matthew P Lungren
Hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are the most common pediatric liver malignancies, with hepatoblastoma occurring more commonly in younger children and HCC occurring more commonly in older children and adolescents. Although surgical resection (including transplant when necessary) and systemic chemotherapy have improved overall survival rate for hepatoblastoma to approximately 80% from 30%, a number of children with this tumor type are not eligible for operative treatment. In contradistinction, pediatric HCC continues to carry a dismal prognosis with an overall 5-year survival rate of 30%...
February 2, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Janice D McDaniel, John M Racadio, Manish N Patel, Neil D Johnson, Kamlesh Kukreja
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nodules in pediatric oncology patients can present a diagnostic and treatment dilemma. Imaging findings are often nonspecific and tissue diagnosis may be required for appropriate treatment. The smaller subpleural nodules may not be visualized and cannot be palpated during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical (VATS) resection. Preoperative localization has been beneficial in obtaining an adequate pathological specimen. OBJECTIVE: This study presents experience in a large pediatric hospital using CT-guided preoperative localization of pulmonary nodules combining two previously utilized techniques, hook wire and methylene blue blood patch localization...
January 23, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Atul Gupta
Atul Gupta, MD speaks to Adam Price-Evans, Managing Commissioning Editor of Future Cardiology. Atul Gupta is the Global Chief Medical Officer for the business group Image Guided Therapy at Philips, providing medical guidance to Philips' clinical vision and strategy. As a practicing interventional and diagnostic radiologist, he also serves as a key external clinical voice for Image Guided Therapy. His key responsibilities include supporting innovation and product development in cardiology, peripheral vascular, surgical, oncology interventions, clinical education, office-based labs, medical affairs and new business development and ventures...
January 23, 2018: Future Cardiology
Hedvig Hricak
This article is based on the New Horizons lecture delivered at the 2016 Radiological Society of North America Annual Meeting. It addresses looming changes for radiology, many of which stem from the disruptive effects of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. This is an emerging era of unprecedented rapid innovation marked by the integration of diverse disciplines and technologies, including data science, machine learning, and artificial intelligence-technologies that narrow the gap between man and machine. Technologic advances and the convergence of life sciences, physical sciences, and bioengineering are creating extraordinary opportunities in diagnostic radiology, image-guided therapy, targeted radionuclide therapy, and radiology informatics, including radiologic image analysis...
March 2018: Radiology
Kris Ann P Schultz, Gretchen M Williams, Junne Kamihara, Douglas R Stewart, Anne K Harris, Andrew J Bauer, Joyce Turner, Rachana Shah, Katherine Schneider, Kami Wolfe Schneider, Ann Garrity Carr, Laura A Harney, Shari Baldinger, A Lindsay Frazier, Daniel Orbach, Dominik T Schneider, David Malkin, Louis P Dehner, Yoav H Messinger, Ashley Hill
Pathogenic germline DICER1 variants cause a hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome with a variety of manifestations. In addition to conferring increased cancer risks for pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) and ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, particularly Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, individuals with pathogenic germline DICER1 variants may also develop lung cysts, cystic nephroma, renal sarcoma and Wilms tumor, nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid, nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma, ciliary body medulloepithelioma, genitourinary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma and brain tumors including pineoblastoma and pituitary blastoma...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Syril Keena T Que, Fiona O Zwald, Chrysalyne D Schmults
While the majority of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs) can be treated surgically, the additional work-up and treatments indicated for high-risk cSCC remain undefined. In recent years, improvements in tumor staging systems have allowed for the more accurate stratification of tumors into high- and low-risk categories. This insight, along with the publication of cSCC guidelines, brings us closer to the development of a consensus approach. The second article in this continuing medical education series addresses in question and answer format the most common questions related to advanced and high-stage cSCCs, with a simplified flowchart...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
David R Fogelman, Gauri Varadhachary
The majority of PCs present as advanced disease, and treatment goals are for prolongation of life and palliation of the symptoms. Oncologists rely on our radiology colleagues to provide information on the extent of disease and the effectiveness of our treatment. The stakes rise in those patients where the disease has seemingly not spread and who might be treated with a goal of cure. For this subset of patients, medical oncologists and surgeons require as precise a radiologic description as possible in order to most accurately characterize the extent of the disease, in turn informing us as to the likelihood of a successful surgery and potential cure...
December 28, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
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