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Radiology, imaging, oncology

Michael S Hofman, Rodney J Hicks
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is a pivotal imaging modality for cancer imaging, assisting diagnosis, staging of patients with newly diagnosed malignancy, restaging following therapy and surveillance. Interpretation requires integration of the metabolic and anatomic findings provided by the PET and CT components which transcend the knowledge base isolated in the worlds of nuclear medicine and radiology, respectively. In the manuscript we detail our approach to reviewing and reporting a PET/CT study using the most commonly used radiotracer, FDG...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Ankur M Doshi, Luke A Ginocchio, Yindalon Aphinyanaphongs
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the performance of a text classification machine-learning model in predicting highly cited articles within the recent radiological literature and to identify the model's most influential article features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We downloaded from PubMed the title, abstract, and medical subject heading terms for 10,065 articles published in 25 general radiology journals in 2012 and 2013. Three machine-learning models were applied to predict the top 10% of included articles in terms of the number of citations to the article in 2014 (reflecting the 2-year time window in conventional impact factor calculations)...
September 27, 2016: Academic Radiology
Dániel Deme, András Telekes
The International Commission on Radiological Protection estimates, that 100 mSv exposure of radiation increases cancer risk by 0.5%. The central hypothesis of the Linear No Threshold model is that low dose ionizing radiation can induce carcinogenesis through the so called "one hit action", that is one or more deoxyribonucleic acid strands can be broken by the hit of only one electron particule. Regardless of the radiation dose, radiation exposure increases cancer risk. In the United States of America, one-third of computed tomographic scans are carried with no clear clinical indication, i...
September 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Jose G Bazan, Fenghai Duan, Bradley S Snyder, Dunstan Horng, Edward E Graves, Barry A Siegel, Mitchell Machtay, Billy W Loo
PURPOSE: To determine whether higher pre-treatment metabolic tumor volume (tMTV-pre) is associated with worse overall survival (OS) in patients with inoperable NSCLC treated with definitive chemoradiation (CRT). METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) 6668/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0235 trial. Pre-treatment PET scans were performed on ACRIN-qualified scanners. Computer-aided MTV measurement was performed using RT_Image...
September 19, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sughosh Dhakal, Ranjana Advani, Leslie K Ballas, Bouthaina S Dabaja, Christopher R Flowers, Chul S Ha, Bradford S Hoppe, Nancy P Mendenhall, Monika L Metzger, John P Plastaras, Kenneth B Roberts, Ronald Shapiro, Sonali M Smith, Stephanie A Terezakis, Karen M Winkfield, Anas Younes, Louis S Constine
This topic addresses the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with favorable prognosis stage I and II Hodgkin lymphoma. In most cases, combined modality therapy (chemotherapy followed by involved site radiation therapy) constitutes the current standard of care. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios...
September 16, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Mariaelena Occhipinti, Benedikt H Heidinger, Christina Pfannenberg, Reginald F Munden, Ronald L Eisenberg, Alexander A Bankier
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact that a clinical history of an oncologic disease may have on the management decisions for incidentally detected lung nodules on chest computed tomographic (CT) examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic survey was sent to all 796 members of the Society of Thoracic Radiology regarding criteria for the management of incidentally detected lung nodules in oncologic patients, as well as recommendations for nodule follow-up...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Eirini V Pantiora, Elissaios A Kontis, Vasiliki Michalaki, Elias Primetis, Antonios Vezakis, Andreas Polydorou, Georgios P Fragulidis
Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) improves the diagnostic interpretation of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG ) PET and CT in oncologic patients and has an impact on both diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of patient management. However, false positive findings from the PET/CT imaging should be taken into consideration as they mislead physicians into improper therapeutic actions. We present a 48-year-old female patient with a history of left colectomy for colorectal cancer and subsequent liver metastasectomy...
2016: Curēus
Minna Räsänen, Ari Ristimäki, Ritja Savolainen, Laura Renkonen-Sinisalo, Anna Lepistö
AIM: The primary purpose of this study was to analyse the overall survival and local recurrence rate after extended resection of locally advanced rectal cancer. The second aim was to determine the ability of radiological irradiation response to predict R0 resection. METHOD: A retrospective study was performed of 94 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal cancer operated on at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland during 2005-2013. Data were collected from patient records...
September 13, 2016: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Amita Maheshwari, Neha Kumar, Umesh Mahantshetty
Gynecological cancers are among the most common cancers in women and hence an important public health issue. Due to the lack of cancer awareness, variable pathology, and dearth of proper screening facilities in developing countries such as India, most women report at advanced stages, adversely affecting the prognosis and clinical outcomes. Ovarian cancer has emerged as one of the most common malignancies affecting women in India and has shown an increase in the incidence rates over the years. Although cervical cancer is on a declining trend, it remains the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer...
July 2016: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Shannon E Fogh, Christopher H Pope, Seth A Rosenthal, Patrick D Conway, Peter R Hulick, Jennifer L Johnson, Tariq A Mian, Indra J Das, Ann Lazar, Nikhil G Thaker, Brian T Monzon
PURPOSE: The American College of Radiology (ACR) Radiation Oncology Practice Accreditation (ROPA) program has accredited more than 600 sites since 2006, including practices within academic, hospital-based, and freestanding settings. The purpose of this report is to evaluate and compare patterns of change in common deficiencies over time. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The ACR database was queried to analyze the common deficiencies noted by the ACR ROPA program between 2012 and 2014...
September 2016: Practical Radiation Oncology
Philip Cornford, Joaquim Bellmunt, Michel Bolla, Erik Briers, Maria De Santis, Tobias Gross, Ann M Henry, Steven Joniau, Thomas B Lam, Malcolm D Mason, Henk G van der Poel, Theo H van der Kwast, Olivier Rouvière, Thomas Wiegel, Nicolas Mottet
OBJECTIVE: To present a summary of the 2016 version of the European Association of Urology (EAU) - European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) - International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) Guidelines on the treatment of relapsing, metastatic, and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The working panel performed a literature review of the new data (2013-2015). The guidelines were updated, and the levels of evidence and/or grades of recommendation were added based on a systematic review of the literature...
August 31, 2016: European Urology
Christopher P Millward, Conor Mallucci, Tim Jaspan, Donald Macarthur, Richard Heyward, Tim Cox, Kung Chong, Richard G Grundy
PURPOSE: To improve uniformity in radiological review/reporting and discussion of surgical resection status in the forthcoming SIOP Ependymoma II trial, a central review of imaging and resection status will be carried out prior to treatment stratification. We present a review of surgical decision-making from the UKCCSG/SIOP Ependymoma trial for very young children (<3 years) (Lancet Oncol 8:696-705, 2007) and propose a primary surgical staging system for residual disease that could be used for Ependymoma II...
September 1, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Arun Thenappan, Ihab Halaweish, Rajen J Mody, Ethan A Smith, James D Geiger, Peter F Ehrlich, Rama Jasty Rao, Raymond Hutchinson, Gregory Yanik, Raja M Rabah, Amer Heider, Tammy Stoll, Erika A Newman
BACKGROUND: Optimal cancer care requires a multidisciplinary approach. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a multidisciplinary tumor board on the treatment plans of children with solid tumors. PROCEDURES: The records of 158 consecutive patients discussed at a formal multidisciplinary pediatric tumor board between July 2012 and April 2014 were reviewed. Treatment plans were based on clinical practice guidelines and on current Children's Oncology Group protocols...
August 31, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Yolanda Y Huang, Lucy Li, Matthew Monteleone, Lynne Ferrari, Lisa J States, James J Riviello, Steven G Kernie, Ali A Mencin, Sumit Gupta, Lena S Sun
Ongoing investigation from the Pediatric Anesthesia NeuroDevelopment Assessment (PANDA) study hopes to examine the long-term effect on cognitive and language development of a single anesthetic exposure in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair. The fifth PANDA Symposium, held in April 2016, continued the mission of previous symposia to examine evidence from basic science and clinical studies on potential neurotoxic effects of anesthetics on developing brain. At the 2016 Symposium, a panel of specialists from nonsurgical pediatric disciplines including anesthesiology, radiology, neurology, gastroenterology, oncology, cardiology, and critical care reviewed use of anesthesia in their practices, including how concern over possible neurodevelopmental effects of early childhood anesthetic exposure has changed discussion with patients and families regarding risks and benefits of imaging studies and interventional procedures involving sedation or anesthesia...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Susanna Ranta, Maarit Palomäki, Mette Levinsen, Mervi Taskinen, Jonas Abrahamsson, Karin Mellgren, Riitta Niinimäki, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Mats Heyman, Arja Harila-Saari
BACKGROUND: Each year approximately 200 children and adolescents are diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the five Nordic countries, and 3% of these have central nervous system (CNS) involvement confirmed by leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or neurological symptoms. We sought to determine the significance of neuraxis imaging in such patients. PROCEDURE: Magnetic resonance images of children aged 1-17.9 with CNS leukemia at diagnosis of ALL were centrally reviewed and clinical data were retrieved from the medical records and the Nordic leukemia registry...
August 24, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
A B Lukiyanchenko, V E Sinitsin, V O Panov
Paper gives a review of recent technical innovations in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that could be applied in abdominal oncology. Perfusion and dualenergy CT gives new opportunities for tissue characterization. Interactive reconstruction algorythms decrease radiation exposure to patients. Abdominal MRI has some important advantages over CT in detection and staging of abdominal malignancies. Nowadays standard MR protocols include DWI and dynamic 3D sequences with extracellular or liver-specific contrast media...
March 2016: Vestnik Rentgenologii i Radiologii
B Morgan, J A Stephenson, Y Griffin
Radiological error is inevitable and usually multifactorial. Error can be secondary to radiologist-specific causes, including cognitive and perceptive errors or ambiguity of report, or system-related causes, including inadequate, misleading, or incorrect clinical information, poor imaging technique, excessive workload, and poor working conditions. In this paper, we discuss a systematic approach to reduce errors in oncological radiology reporting, thus reducing risk to the patient. Rather than attempt to discuss all types of error, we concentrate on the most important and commonly occurring errors that we have encountered over 20 years of practice, based on weekly discrepancy reviews of our practice and independent reviews of clinical and research imaging from other institutions...
November 2016: Clinical Radiology
Wolfgang Peter Fendler, Johannes Czernin, Ken Herrmann, Thomas Beyer
OBJECTIVES: Information has been collected from positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) operational sites to identify its present and future applications. This may help to focus discussions on common interests of the PET/MRI community. METHODS: A web-based survey of PET/MRI users was conducted from June to October 2015. The survey was composed of 26 questions related to (A) the PET/MRI center, (B) present utilization and imaging protocols and (C) perspectives on key applications...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Anju Sahdev
CT of the abdomen and pelvis is the first line imaging modality for staging, selecting treatment options and assessing disease response in ovarian cancer. The staging CT provides disease distribution, disease burden and is the imaging surrogate for surgico-pathological FIGO staging. Optimal cyto-reductive surgery offers patients' the best chance for disease control or cure, but sub-optimal resection confers no advantage over chemotherapy and adversely increases the risk of post surgical complications. Although there is extensive literature comparing performance of CT against laparoscopy and surgery, for the staging abdominal and pelvic CT, there are currently no accepted guidelines for interpretation or routinely used minimum data set templates for reporting these complex CT scans often with extensive radiological findings...
2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Kreshnike Dedushi, Serbeze Kabashi, Sefedin Mucaj, Gazmed Hasbahta, Naser Ramadani, Astrit Hoxhaj
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer is the 10(th)most common malignancy and the 4(th)largest cancer killer in adults. AIM: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the number of cases presented with pancreatic carcinoma during the years 2011-2015, our experience of the imaging characteristics of pancreatic carcinoma. We evaluated prevalence of the pancreatic cancers, distant metastases and other local infiltration signs among the total cases of the pancreatic cancers diagnosed in the University Clinical Center of Kosovo, with the aim to compare these research findings to similar studies made in the developed countries...
June 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
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