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Craig C Wood, Shoko Okada, Matthew C Taylor, Amratha Menon, Anu Mathew, Darren Cullerne, Stuart J Stephen, Robert S Allen, Xue-Rong Zhou, Qing Liu, John G Oakeshott, Surinder P Singh, Allan G Green
Vegetable oils extracted from oilseeds are an important component of foods, but are also used in a range of high value oleochemical applications. Despite being biodegradable, non-toxic and renewable current plant oils suffer from the presence of residual polyunsaturated fatty acids that are prone to free radical formation that limit their oxidative stability, and consequently shelf-life and functionality. Many decades of plant breeding have been successful in raising the oleic content to ~90%, but has come at the expense of overall field performance, including poor yields...
March 6, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Sunhye Shin, Kolapo M Ajuwon
Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not been done. In this study, we compared the effects of different dietary fats, rich in specific 18-carbon fatty acids, on thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing 5.6% kcal fat from lard and 4...
February 23, 2018: Nutrients
Patrick Tso, Mustafa Vurma, Chih-Wei Ko, Dana M Lee, Stephen DeMichele
Breastmilk lutein is better absorbed by infants than lutein delivered in infant formula. Therefore, we wish to better understand the possible absorption differences of lutein in breast milk versus infant formula by determining its bioavailability after gastric administration and whether the intestinal absorption of lutein can be improved by using new delivery vehicles. STUDY ONE compared the intestinal uptake, and the lymphatic and portal transport of lutein in conscious lymph fistula rats. Four groups of lymph and portal vein cannulated rats (n = 8-10/group) were randomized to receive via the gastric tube increasing doses (10,20,40,or 80mg/kg) of 20% lutein in safflower oil (SO) suspension to assess whether there was a saturable level of lutein that can be absorbed and transported in lymph...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
M Baldin, D E Rico, M H Green, K J Harvatine
Rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) has been extensively studied in vitro; however, in vitro BH pathways, rates, and extents may not parallel those in vivo. The objective was to develop an assay to assess in vivo rates, pathways, and extent of BH of oleic (OA), linoleic (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA). Each UFA was characterized in a separate experiment, each using 4 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows. A single bolus consisting of 200 g of a UFA-oil [experiment 1 (EXP1): 87% OA sunflower, experiment 2 (EXP2): 70% LA safflower, and experiment 3 (EXP3): 54% ALA flaxseed] and 12 g of heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) was mixed into the rumen through the fistula...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M S Amro, S L Teoh, A G Norzana, D Srijit
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder of the nervous system in which there is a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. There is a disturbance in the movement in PD and these include resting tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia or akinesia, disturbance, posture and freezing (motor block). The substantia nigra and other parts of the brain are commonly affected. The disorder could be related to oxidative stress and there is an important role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A number of herbal products contain active components which are known to possess antioxidant action...
January 2018: La Clinica Terapeutica
Jianwei Xuan, Min Huang, Yongji Lu, Libo Tao
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Safflower Yellow Injection (SYI) plus conventional treatment (SYI group) versus conventional treatment only (conventional group) for the treatment of stable angina pectoris (SAP) patients in China. METHODS: A decision-tree model was constructed and the treatment impact was estimated for up to 1 year. The data, including treatment effectiveness, episodes of angina pectoris (AP)-associated hospitalization and its in-hospital mortality, mortality rate of heart diseases, and cost of hospitalization, were obtained from literature...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Jiajie Liu, Salma A Abdelmagid, Christopher J Pinelli, Jennifer M Monk, Danyelle M Liddle, Lyn M Hillyer, Barbora Hucik, Anjali Silva, Sanjeena Subedi, Geoffrey A Wood, Lindsay E Robinson, William J Muller, David W L Ma
Marine-derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been shown to inhibit mammary carcinogenesis. However, evidence regarding plant-based α-linolenic acid (ALA), the major n-3 PUFA in the Western diet, remains equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of lifelong exposure to plant- or marine-derived n-3 PUFAs on pubertal mammary gland and tumor development in MMTV-neu(ndl)-YD5 mice. It is hypothesized that lifelong exposure to n-3 PUFA reduces terminal end buds during puberty leading to delayed tumor onset, volume and multiplicity...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Maria Fernanda Fernandes, Maria Cristina Tache, Shannon L Klingel, Francesco Leri, David M Mutch
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have important signalling roles in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain that regulates whole-body energy homeostasis. While evidence suggests that high PUFA intake can impact hypothalamic activity, the underlying molecular mechanisms regulated by essential dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFA (i.e., linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively) remain poorly described in this brain region. To differentiate the roles of essential dietary PUFA on hypothalamic function, we fed male rats high-fat diets (35% kcal/d) containing either safflower (linoleic acid) or flaxseed (α-linolenic acid) oil for 2 months...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Si-Qian Gao, Chen Chang, Xiao-Qian Niu, Long-Jian Li, Yan Zhang, Jian-Qing Gao
To investigate the effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A (HSYA), which is derived from safflower, on the proliferation, migration and angiogenesis of cells in vitro and its potential efficacy in vivo when topically applied to a diabetic wound. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and mouse macrophage cells (RAW264.7) were used to evaluate angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities, respectively. The influence of HSYA on the wound scratch assay was investigated in keratinocytes. A splinted excisional wound model in rats with TIDM induced by streptozotocin was used to assess the effects of wound healing...
January 31, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Dayan Zhou, Zongjie Qu, Hao Wang, Yong Su, Yazhu Wang, Weiwei Zhang, Zhe Wang, Qiang Xu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hydroxy safflower yellow A (HSYA) on coronary heart disease through assessing the expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-like protein 4 (Bax) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Coronary heart disease was induced in male Bama miniature swines via thoracoscope to serve as an animal model. Coronary heart disease swine were lavaged with 20 or 40 mg/kg HSYA. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Anna E Coghill, Jeannette M Schenk, Zeina Mahkoul, Jackson Orem, Warren Phipps, Corey Casper
OBJECTIVE: Kaposi sarcoma is a HIV-associated malignancy caused by human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) that occurs at highest incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. Kaposi sarcoma patients often present with inflammatory symptoms associated with higher mortality. DESIGN: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Uganda to test whether omega-3 supplementation could reduce inflammation in HIV and HHV-8 coinfected adults. Patients with acute illness, AIDS, or advanced Kaposi sarcoma were ineligible, as were pregnant women...
February 20, 2018: AIDS
Xiao-Xiao Huang, Zhi-Yang Yan, Sen Liu, Xiao-Bo Wang, Shao-Jiang Song
Investigation on bioactive chemical constituents of safflower led to the isolation of 10 compounds from the aqueous extract, including a new alkaloid (1), a new glucopyranoside (2), and 8 known compounds (3-10). The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral analyses, including 1D, 2D-NMR and HRESIMS. Biological research on the isolates indicated that compounds 3, 4 and 9 remarkably inhibited tyrosinase with IC50 at 0.11, 0.20 and 0.11 mM, respectively, compared with the positive control arbutin (0...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
Kai-Hong Wang, Shi-Fei Li, Yi Zhao, Hong-Xia Li, Li-Wei Zhang
Safflower injection is well-known as a traditional Chinese medicine used to improve the blood circulation. In this study, seven safflower injection samples from different companies were evaluated for their in vitro anticoagulant activity by measuring their activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) against human plasma. The screening results suggested that the safflower injections exhibited a significant prolonging influence on APTT (p < 0.05 vs. the control group), but not on prolonging PT (p > 0...
January 15, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Wu W Feng, Yi Zhang, Jin F Tang, Cong E Zhang, Qin Dong, Rui Y Li, Xiao H Xiao, Cheng Peng, Xiao P Dong, Dan Yan
Safflower Injection is one kind of injections derived from traditional Chinese medicine. It is widely applied to treat cerebrovascular diseases such as acute cerebral infarction, stroke, coronary heart disease, and angiitis. However, most adverse reactions of Safflower Injection in clinic are caused by its quality problems. In this study, 10 batches of normal and 42 batches of abnormal Safflower Injections were obtained from the clinical practice. Their quality fluctuations were detected by chemical fingerprinting (CF, ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) and bioassays including cell-based biological profile (CBP) assay and enzymatic assay...
March 20, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Mohammad Hossein Shahrokhnia, Ali Reza Sepaskhah
World recent concerns about the shortage of water resources and contamination of groundwater supplies have motivated scientists seeking for more efficient techniques in irrigation and fertilization of farms while taking the advantage of models. The objective of this study is to address how water and nitrogen (N) dynamics are affected by efficient management strategies and to evaluate the application of HYDRUS-1D model in these conditions. In terms of using management policies, different irrigation strategies, planting methods, and different N fertilization rates applied on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Sarah M Ajabnoor, Alastair Forbes
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of enteral nutrition (EN) fat composition in regulating inflammation in Crohn's disease (CD) is not clear. There is, moreover, insufficient evidence to guide the choice of EN in CD with any confidence. We have reanalysed the findings of previous studies in a systematic review focussing on the relationship between EN fat content and remission rates (RR). METHODS: A systematic search with no language restriction was undertaken in Medline and Embase databases supplemented by a manual search in the reference lists of identified studies...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Chan Hum Park, Ah Young Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, Su Hui Seong, Gwi Yeong Jang, Eun Ju Cho, Jae Sue Choi, Jungkee Kwon, Young Ock Kim, Sang Won Lee, Takako Yokozawa, Yu Su Shin
Cisplatin, a platinum chelate with potent antitumor activity against cancers of the testis, ovary, urinary bladder, prostate, and head and neck, has adverse effects on the kidney, bone marrow, and digestive organs, and its use is particularly limited by nephropathy as a side effect. In the present study, safflower seed extract was administered to a mouse model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure to investigate its activity. Cisplatin (20[Formula: see text]mg/kg body weight) was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice that had received oral safflower seed extract (100 or 200[Formula: see text]mg/kg body weight per day) for the preceding 2 days...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Xiao-Meng Shi, Hua Zhang, Zhang-Jiuzhi Zhou, Ying-Ying Ruan, Jie Pang, Lu Zhang, Wei Zhai, Yan-Li Hu
Safflower yellow (SY), one of traditional Chinese medicine extracted from safflower, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects on animal models of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's diseases (AD), by inhibiting oxidative injury, neuronal apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation. In this study, we investigated whether safflower yellow (SY) can improve cognitive function, decrease Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation and overactivation of astrocytes in AD mouse model. We found that SY treatment significantly ameliorated the learning and memory deficits of APP/PS1 mice...
December 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Simone Alves da Silva, Elizabeth A F da Silva Torres, Adriana Palma de Almeida, Geni Rodrigues Sampaio
This study aimed at evaluating the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination of commercial vegetable oils and examined the identity through the fatty acids profiles. Coconut, safflower, evening primrose, and linseed oils marketed in São Paulo (Brazil) were investigated totaling 69 samples. Four PAHs, benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), were detected in 96% of the samples at individual levels ranging from not detected to 14.99 μg kg-1...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Baocheng Xu, Liangxiao Zhang, Fei Ma, Wen Zhang, Xiupin Wang, Qi Zhang, Denglin Luo, Hongyan Ma, Peiwu Li
A method based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) was developed to analyze steroidal compounds in vegetable oils, which could provide better separation and higher sensitivity than conventional one dimensional gas chromatography, and allowed determination of 31 sterols and triterpene alcohols in one injection. Furthermore, the approach also permitted separation and detection of small amounts of other compounds (may be steroidal compounds whose molecular structures have not been confirmed), which were obscured in the lower-resolution single-column technique...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
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