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Mustafa Kiralan, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan
The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of heating and microwave treatment on the levels of volatile oxidation products and the stability of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum) and canola (Brassica napus L.) cold-pressed oils. Cold-pressed oils were subjected to conventional heating (oven test) using air-forced oven at 60°C and microwave heating for 2 and 4 min. The changes in conjugated diene (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) values were monitored during treatments. As expected, heating generates an increase in CD and CT values...
2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Le-Jun Li, Yu-Mei Li, Ben-Yu Qiao, Shan Jiang, Xin Li, Hong-Ming Du, Peng-Cheng Han
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2015/478793.].
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Kaitlin G Henry, Lachlan M Blair, Jonathan Sperry, Elizabeth A Colby Davie
The dimeric natural product montamine was originally reported as two N-feruloylserotonin (moschamine) units linked by a nitrogen-nitrogen bond, but our recent synthesis of this symmetrical diacyl hydrazide structure revealed this to be incorrect. We subsequently hypothesized that the moschamine subunits were linked through the indole C4 site and that montamine was structurally identical to 4,4'-bismoschamine, a known natural product present in safflower oil. However, given that authentic samples of both montamine and 4,4'-bismoschamine were unavailable and that the NMR data for the natural products were recorded in different solvents, we were unable to unequivocally prove this hypothesis...
September 21, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Bin-Feng Cheng, Yao-Xin Gao, Jun-Jiang Lian, Dan-Dan Guo, Lei Wang, Mian Wang, Hai-Jie Yang, Zhi-Wei Feng
Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), the main active ingredient in medical and edible dual purpose plant safflower, is reported to have multiple bioactivities. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory effects of HSYA and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in interleukin (IL)-1β-induced SW982 human synovial cells. The cells were pretreated with HSYA at various concentrations (2.5, 10 and 40 μM) followed by IL-1β (10 ng mL(-1)) stimulation. HSYA significantly inhibited the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 in IL-1β-stimulated SW982 cells...
October 7, 2016: Food & Function
Kathryn E Hopperton, Marc-Olivier Trépanier, Vanessa Giuliano, Richard P Bazinet
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation is a proposed mechanism by which Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology potentiates neuronal death and cognitive decline. Consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of AD in human observational studies and exerts protective effects on cognition and pathology in animal models. These fatty acids and molecules derived from them are known to have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties, presenting a potential mechanism for these protective effects...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Nobuhiro Wada, Satoru Yamanaka, Junko Shibato, Randeep Rakwal, Satoshi Hirako, Yuzuru Iizuka, Hyounju Kim, Akiyo Matsumoto, Ai Kimura, Fumiko Takenoya, Genta Yasunaga, Seiji Shioda
This study investigates effects of dipeptide balenine, as a major component of whale meat extract (hereafter, WME), supplementation on senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), an Alzheimer's disease (AD) model at level of learning and memory formation and brain expression profiles genome-wide in brain. Mice fed experimental balenine (+ WME) supplemented diet for 26 weeks were subjected to four behavioral tests - open field, Y-maze, new object recognition, and water-filled multiple T-maze - to examine effects on learning and memory...
December 2016: Genomics Data
Young Taek Oh, Hyun Hee Oh, Anh-Khoi Nguyen, Cheol Soo Choi, Jang H Youn
Previous rodent studies showed that when injected into the brain, free fatty acids (FFAs) reduced food intake in an oleate-specific manner. The present study was performed to test whether food intake is regulated by circulating FFAs in an oleate-specific manner. Male Wistar rats received an intravenous infusion of olive, safflower, or coconut oil (100mg/h), together with heparin, to raise circulating oleate, linoleate, or palmitate, respectively, and their effects on overnight food intake were evaluated. Compared to other oils, olive oil infusion showed a significantly greater effect to reduce food intake (P<0...
September 18, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Eun-Young Hwang, Mi-Hee Yu, Yeon-Seop Jung, Sam-Pin Lee, Jin Han Shon, Syng-Ook Lee
In the present study, we hypothesized that defatted safflower seed which is known to be rich in polyphenols might influence adipogenesis and obesity-related disorders, and therefore the anti-adipogenic and hypolipidemic effects of ethanol extract from defatted safflower (Cathamus tinctorius L.) seeds (CSE) were investigated both in cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in C57BL/6J ob/ob mice fed a high-fat diet. CSE inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and decreased expression of the adipogenic transcription factors, SREBP1c and PPARγ, and their target genes...
September 2016: Nutrition Research
Jinchao Ai, Haitong Wan, Mingchun Shu, Huifen Zhou, Tao Zhao, Wei Fu, Yu He
Guhong injection (GHI), composed of aceglutamide and safflower aqueous extract, has been used clinically for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as cerebral embolism, hemorrhage and mental deterioration. In this paper, we reported the results of the first study on the anti-inflammatory effects of GHI in murine focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: Sham group, I/R group, GHI-L group (2.5 mL/kg), GHI-M group (5 mL/kg), GHI-H group (10 mL/kg) and Nimodipine group...
September 13, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Yang Wang, Chunhu Zhang, Weijun Peng, Zian Xia, Pingping Gan, Wei Huang, Yafei Shi, Rong Fan
Free radical-induced oxidative damage occurs rapidly and is of primary importance during the secondary pathophysiological cascades of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a constituent of the flower petals of Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) and may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to improve outcomes following TBI. The present study aimed to identify HSYA in the brain tissues of rats exposed to TBI to determine its absorption and to investigate the underlying effects of HSYA on antioxidant enzymes in the brain tissues of TBI rats...
October 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Nuramatjan Ablat, Deyong Lv, Rutong Ren, Yilixiati Xiaokaiti, Xiang Ma, Xin Zhao, Yi Sun, Hui Lei, Jiamin Xu, Yingcong Ma, Xianrong Qi, Min Ye, Feng Xu, Hongbin Han, Xiaoping Pu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc). Rotenone is a neurotoxin that is routinely used to model PD to aid in understanding the mechanisms of neuronal death. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. L.) has long been used to treat cerebrovascular diseases in China. This plant contains flavonoids, which have been reported to be effective in models of neurodegenerative disease. We previously reported that kaempferol derivatives from safflower could bind DJ-1, a protein associated with PD, and that a flavonoid extract from safflower exhibited neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced mouse model of PD...
August 24, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Len H Storlien, Yan Y Lam, Ben J Wu, Linda C Tapsell, Arthur B Jenkins
BACKGROUND: Dietary n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have an impact on insulin secretion and sensitivity but whether and how these may be related to maternal glucose homeostasis during pregnancy is unclear. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (240-250 g) were assigned to laboratory CHOW or high fat diets rich in either n-6 (safflower oil; n-6 group) or n-6 + n-3 (safflower oil + fish oil; n-3 group) PUFAs. After 10 days half of the animals in each diet group were inseminated and confirmed pregnant...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
H G Androcioli, A T Hoshino, M A Pastório, P C Cardoso, P M de Araújo, T A P Fernandes, A O Menezes
We present the first report on Euphoria lurida (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) infestation on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a crop of industrial and medicinal importance. Between September and October 2013-2015 in Paraná State, we observed E. lurida adults feeding on safflower plants from the inception of flower head formation onwards, over an area of approximately 400 m(2). Losses in the productivity of infested plants were estimated between 15 and 50%. The damage was characterized by perforations in the upper portion and at the base of the developing flower heads or open flowers, resulting in withering and abortion of the reproductive structures...
August 23, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Junichi Shinozaki, Hiromichi Kenmoku, Kenichi Nihei, Kazuo Masuda, Masaaki Noji, Katsuhiro Konno, Yoshinori Asakawa, Kohei Kazuma
The flowers of safflowers (Carthamus tinctorius L.) are very important as they are the sole source of their distinct pigments, i.e. carthamus-red and -yellows, and have historically had strong connections to the cultural side of human activities such as natural dyes, rouge, and traditional medicines. The distinct pigments are quinochalcone C-glucosides, which are found specifically in the flowers of C. tinctorius. To investigate the biosynthetic pathways of quinochalcone C-glucosides, de novo assembly of the transcriptome was performed on the flowers using an Illumina sequencing platform to obtain 69,312 annotated coding DNA sequences...
June 2016: Natural Product Communications
C E Høy, G Hølmer, N Kaur, I Byrjalsen, D Kirstein
Three groups of rats were fed diets with either 10 weight percent (wt%) of evening primrose oil, safflower oil or soybean oil for 11 weeks. Diets contained 7.1 wt% linoleic acid +0.8 wt% γ-linolenic acid, 7.6 wt% linoleic acid, or 5.3 wt% linoleic acid +0.7 wt% α-linolenic acid, respectively. In liver mitochondria as well as in heart, dietary γ-linolenic acid did not affect the fatty acid profiles of phosphatidylcholnes (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) or cardiolipins (CL), whereas dietary α-linolenic acid caused an increased formation of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)...
November 1983: Lipids
Rogério Conte, Letícia M D Gullich, Denise Bilibio, Odivan Zanella, João P Bender, Naira Carniel, Wagner L Priamo
This work investigates the extraction process of safflower oil using pressurized ethanol, and compares the chemical composition obtained (in terms of fatty acids) with other extraction techniques. Soxhlet and Ultrasound showed maximum global yield of 36.53% and 30.41%, respectively (70°C and 240min). PLE presented maximum global yields of 25.62% (3mLmin(-1)), 19.94% (2mLmin(-1)) and 12.37% (1mLmin(-1)) at 40°C, 100bar and 60min. Palmitic acid showed the lower concentration in all experimental conditions (from 5...
December 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
Alejandro Berra, Julia Tau, Gustavo Zapata, Pablo Chiaradia
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 and n-6 PUFAs) in a murine model of herpetic chorioretinitis. METHODS: BALB/c mice were fed on three high fat diets, which contained: Menhaden oil (rich in n-3 PUFAs); Safflower oil (rich in n-6 PUFAs); or Corn oil (rich in saturated fatty acids) as control group, 14 days previously and until 12 days following anterior chamber (AC) HSV-1 inoculation. RESULTS: Mice fed on Menhaden oil present an early development of contralateral chorioretinitis by day 6 post-AC HSV-1 inoculation and also significant increase of RNA HSV-1 expression compared with Safflower and Corn oil groups...
July 20, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Dinesh Babu Jestadi, Alugoju Phaniendra, Undru Babji, Bhavatharini Shanmuganathan, Latha Periyasamy
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of low dose of atrazine on reproductive system of male Wistar rats. 16 rats were divided into four groups of four animals each. Group I (nondiabetic) and group III (diabetic) animals served as controls that received safflower oil (300 μL/kg bw/day), respectively. Group II (nondiabetic) and group IV (diabetic) animals received atrazine (300 μg/kg bw/day). Nonsignificant decrease in the activities of antioxidant and steroidogenic enzymes and sperm parameters suggests that atrazine did not produce any effect on reproductive system of rats...
2014: International Scholarly Research Notices
James M Stringham, Nicole T Stringham
The macular carotenoids lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z), and mesozeaxanthin (MZ) have been shown to have neuroprotective and visual performance benefits once deposited in retinal tissues. The purpose of this 12-week trial was to determine biweekly the absorption kinetics, efficiency of retinal deposition, and effects on the spatial profile of macular pigment for three levels of L + Z + MZ supplement. This study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week trial. Twenty-eight healthy subjects, aged 18-25 yrs participated...
October 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Dan-Dan Guo, Fei Liu, Yan-Hua Tu, Bei-Xuan He, Yue Gao, Mei-Li Guo
Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant in China. Flavonoids are the dominant active medical compounds. UDP-glycosyltransferase plays an essential role in the biosynthesis and storage of flavonoids in safflower. In this study, 45 UGT unigenes were screened from our transcriptomic database of safflower. Among them, 27 UGT unigenes were predicted to own a complete open reading frame with various pI and Mw. The phylogenetic tree showed that CtUGT3 and CtUGT16 were classified under the UGT71 subfamily involved in metabolite process, whereas CtUGT25 has high identities with PoUGT both catalyzing the glycosylation of flavonoids and belonging to the UGT90 subfamily...
2016: PloS One
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