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Cancer nano

Guosheng Song, Chenghong Ji, Chao Liang, Xuejiao Song, Xuan Yi, Ziliang Dong, Kai Yang, Zhuang Liu
Cancer radiotherapy (RT) is a clinically used tumor treatment strategy applicable for a wide range of solid tumors. However, during RT treatment of tumors, only a small portion of applied ionizing irradiation energy is absorbed by the tumor, in which the largely hypoxic microenvironment also limits the anti-tumor efficacy of RT. In this work, we rationally fabricate polyethylene glycol (PEG) stabilized perfluorocarbon (PFC) nano-droplets decorated with TaOx nanoparticles (TaOx@PFC-PEG) as a multifunctional RT sensitizer...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Cong Wu, Meng-Qing Gong, Bo-Ya Liu, Ren-Xi Zhuo, Si-Xue Cheng
To effectively reverse multiple drug resistance (MDR) in tumor treatments, a functional nano-sized drug delivery system with active targeting function and pH sensitivity was prepared for the co-delivery of multiple drug resistance inhibitors. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) to inhibit GSH synthesis and celecoxib (CXB) to down-regulate P-gp expression were co-loaded in polymer/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles to form buthionine sulfoximine/celecoxib@biotin-heparin/heparin/calcium carbonate/calcium phosphate nanoparticles (BSO/CXB@BNP)...
October 13, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Hung-Wei Yang, Rung-Ywan Tsai, Jung-Po Chen, Shin-Pon Ju, Jing-Fong Liao, KuoChen Wei, Wei-Lun Zou, Mu-Yi Hua
A simple and accurate device for early detection of malignancies is paramount for prompt treatment and prevention of metastases. In this study, we describe a novel fabrication method for producing an ordered nano-gold-dot array with strong localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and narrow bandwidth. The array was used as an optical bio-sensing chip for the detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human serum. The biochip was constructed by conjugating an anti-VEGF antibody, a specific bio-recognition element for VEGF, onto the array via the fragment crystallizable (Fc) region of the antibody, ultimately increasing the efficiency of VEGF detection...
October 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shufang Dong, Xin Zhou, Jiying Yang
BACKGROUND: Co-delivery of anticancer drugs and gene is promising to generate synergistic anticancer effects. Surface modification of nanocarriers with specific ligands could further assist in targeting and internalization of the nanocarriers into specific cell populations, such as cancers and disease organs. PURPOSE: The aim of the study reported here is to develop Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) modified lipid - PEI hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) for effective co-delivery of docetaxel (DTX) and plasmid DNA (pDNA) for combination chemotherapy...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Arpit Bhargava, Dinesh K Mishra, Subodh K Jain, Rupesh K Srivastava, Nirmal K Lohiya, Pradyumna K Mishra
We aimed to identify an optimum nano-carrier system to deliver tumor antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) for efficient targeting of tumor reinitiating cells (TRICs) in gynecological malignancies. Different lipid based nano-carrier systems i.e. liposomes, ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNPs) were examined for their ability to activate DCs in allogeneic settings. Out of these three, the most optimized formulation was subjected for cationic and mannosylated surface modification and pulsed with DCs for specific targeting of tumor cells...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Immunology
J Panek, E Koziolova, P Stepanek, T Etrych, O Janouskova
Nanocarriers bearing anticancer drugs are promising candidates to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy and minimize side effects. The most potent cytostatics used in the treatment of various cancers are anthracyclines, e.g. doxorubicin or pirarubicin. Recently, polymer therapeutics carrying anthracyclines have been intensively studied. The precise characterization of in vitro nanocarrier biological behavior brings a better understanding of the nanocarrier characteristics and enables prediction of the behavior of the nanocarrier during in vivo application...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Farideh Mohammadian, Alireza Abhari, Hassan Dariushnejad, Alireza Nikanfar, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Nosratollah Zarghami
BACKGROUND: Recently, Chrysin, as a flavone, has revealed cancer chemo-preventive activity. The present experiment utilized the PLGA-PEG-chrysin complex, and free chrysin, to evaluation of the expression of miR-22, miR-34a and miR-126 in human gastric cell line. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether nano encapsulating chrysin improves the anti-cancer effect of free chrysin on AGS human gastric cell line. METHODS: Properties of the chrysin encapsulated in PLGA-PEG nanoparticles were investigated by SEM, H NMR, and FTIR...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention
Jamal El-Saghir, Farah Nassar, Nadim Tawil, Marwan El-Sabban
BACKGROUND: Exosomes are membrane nano-vesicles secreted by a multitude of cells that harbor biological constituents such as proteins, lipids, mRNA and microRNA. Exosomes can potentially transfer their cargo to other cells, implicating them in many patho-physiological processes. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), residents of the bone marrow and metastatic niches, potentially interact with cancer cells and/or their derived exosomes. In this study, we investigated whether exosomes derived from adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) cells act as intercellular messengers delivering leukemia-related genes that modulate the properties of human MSCs in favor of leukemia...
October 19, 2016: Retrovirology
Bikramjeet Singh, Gurpreet Kaur, Paviter Singh, Kulwinder Singh, Baban Kumar, Ankush Vij, Manjeet Kumar, Rajni Bala, Ramovatar Meena, Ajay Singh, Anup Thakur, Akshay Kumar
Highly water dispersible boron based compounds are innovative and advanced materials which can be used in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for cancer treatment (BNCT). Present study deals with the synthesis of highly water dispersible nanostructured Boron Nitride (BN). Unique and relatively low temperature synthesis route is the soul of present study. The morphological examinations (Scanning/transmission electron microscopy) of synthesized nanostructures showed that they are in transient phase from two dimensional hexagonal sheets to nanotubes...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Bingjiang Zhou, Yunzheng Li, Guangle Niu, Minhuan Lan, Qingyan Jia, Qionglin Liang
Given their easy structural modification and good biocompatibility advantages, near-infrared (NIR) organic dyes with a large molar extinction coefficient while a super-low fluorescence quantum yield show considerable potential application in photothermal therapy (PTT). Herein, a new NIR-absorbing asymmetric cyanine dye, namely, RC, is designed and synthesized via the hybrid of rhodamine and hemicyanine derivatives. RC-BSA nanoparticles (NPs) are fabricated by using the bovine serum albumin (BSA) matrix. The NPs exhibit a strong NIR absorption peak at ~868 nm and 28...
October 19, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Peidang Liu, Haizhen Jin, Zhirui Guo, Jun Ma, Jing Zhao, Dongdong Li, Hao Wu, Ning Gu
Radiotherapy performs an important function in the treatment of cancer, but resistance of tumor cells to radiation still remains a serious concern. More research on more effective radiosensitizers is urgently needed to overcome such resistance and thereby improve the treatment outcome. The goal of this study was to evaluate and compare the radiosensitizing efficacies of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on glioma at clinically relevant megavoltage energies. Both AuNPs and AgNPs potentiated the in vitro and in vivo antiglioma effects of radiation...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Bernard Omolo, Mingli Yang, Fang Yin Lo, Michael J Schell, Sharon Austin, Kellie Howard, Anup Madan, Timothy J Yeatman
BACKGROUND: The KRAS gene is mutated in about 40 % of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, which has been clinically validated as a predictive mutational marker of intrinsic resistance to anti-EGFR inhibitor (EGFRi) therapy. Since nearly 60 % of patients with a wild type KRAS fail to respond to EGFRi combination therapies, there is a need to develop more reliable molecular signatures to better predict response. Here we address the challenge of adapting a gene expression signature predictive of RAS pathway activation, created using fresh frozen (FF) tissues, for use with more widely available formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
N R Datta, S Krishnan, D E Speiser, E Neufeld, N Kuster, S Bodis, H Hofmann
Effective multimodal cancer management requires the optimal integration of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, alone or in combination, are integral parts of various cancer treatment protocols. Hyperthermia at 39-45°C is a potent radiosensitiser and has been shown to improve therapeutic outcomes in various tumours through its synergy with chemotherapy. Gene silencing approaches, using small interfering RNAs and microRNAs, are also being explored in clinical trials in oncology...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Anji Anura, Debanjan Das, Mousumi Pal, Ranjan Rashmi Paul, Soumen Das, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
Oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSF), a potentially malignant disorder, exhibits extensive remodeling of extra-cellular matrix in the form of sub-epithelial fibrosis which is a possible sequel of assaults from different oral habit related irritants. It has been assumed that micro/nanobio-mechanical imbalance experienced in the oral mucosa due to fibrosis may be deterministic for malignant potential (7-13%) of this pathosis. Present study explores changes in mechanobiological attributes of sub-epithelial connective tissue of OSF and the normal counterpart...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Gaoxing Su, Xiaofei Zhou, Hongyu Zhou, Ye Li, Xianren Zhang, Yin Liu, Dapeng Cao, Bing Yan
Understandings of how biomolecules modify nanoparticles in a biological context and how these exchanges impact nano-bio interactions are fundamental to nanomedicine and nanotoxicology research. In this work, cancer-targeting gold nanoparticles (TGNPs) with different sizes (5, 15, and 40 nm) were designed and synthesized. These nanoparticles spontaneously adsorbed proteins in complete cell culture medium (DMEM with 10% human serum). Although the targeting ligands on the surface of nanoparticles were likely to be shielded by adsorbed proteins, the targeting capability of nanoparticles was maintained due to the highly dynamic nature of protein adsorption...
October 17, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shoriya Aruni Abdul Manaf, Gurumurthy Hedge, Uttam Kumar Mandal, Wong Tin Wui, Partha Roy
BACKGROUND: Nano-scale carbon systems are emerging alternatives in drug delivery and bioimaging applications of which they gradually replace the quantum dots characterized by toxic heavy metal content in the latter application. OBJECTIVE: The work intended to use carbon nanospheres synthesized from biowaste Sago bark for cancer cell imaging applications. METHODS: This study synthesised carbon nanospheres from biowaste Sago bark using a catalyst-free pyrolysis technique...
October 17, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
Elham Ajorlou, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi
PURPOSE: The dawn of the state-of-the-art methods of cancer treatments, nano-based delivery systems, has dispensed with the mainstream chemotherapy for being inadequate in yielding productive results and the numerous reported side effects. The popularity of this complementary approach in the course of the last two decades has been primarily attributed to its capacity to elevate the therapeutic index of anticancer drugs as well as removing the impassable delivery barriers in solid tumors with the minimal damage to the normal tissues...
October 15, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Louis T Curtis, Hermann B Frieboes
Although extensive research effort and resources have been dedicated to the development of nanotherapeutics to treat cancer, few formulations have reached clinical application. A major reason is that the large number of parameters available to tune nanotherapy characteristics coupled with the variability in tumor tissue precludes evaluation of complex interactions through experimentation alone. In order to optimize the nanotechnology design and gain further insight into these phenomena, mathematical modeling and computational simulation have been applied to complement empirical work...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mojgan Najafzadeh, Charmaine Normington, Badie K Jacob, Mohammad Isreb, Rajendran C Gopalan, Diana Anderson
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumor effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n = 17) and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n = 36). White blood cells (WBC) were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e., bulk (B) or nano-suspension (N) of aspirin (ASP) or ibuprofen (IBU) up to 500 μg/ml in the comet assay and up to 125 μg/ml in the micronucleus assay...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Xiao-Qing Wang, Zhou-Na Li, Qi-Ming Wang, Zhonggao Gao, Zhe-Hu Jin
Keloids were characterized by excessive growth of fibrous tissues, and shared several pathological characteristics with cancer. They did put physical and emotional stress on patients in that keloids could badly change appearance of patients. N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4HPR) showed cytotoxic activity on a wide variety of invasive-growth cells. Our work was aim to prepare N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide-loaded lipid microbubbles (4HPR-LM) combined with ultrasound for anti-keloid therapy. 4HPR-loaded liposomes (4HPR-L) were first prepared by film evaporation method, and then 4HPR-LM were manufactured by mixing 4HPR-L and perfluoropentane (PFP) with ultrasonic cavitation method...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Liposome Research
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