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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723333/enhanced-prophylaxis-plus-antiretroviral-therapy-for-advanced-hiv-infection-in-africa
#1
James Hakim, Victor Musiime, Alex J Szubert, Jane Mallewa, Abraham Siika, Clara Agutu, Simon Walker, Sarah L Pett, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Abbas Lugemwa, Symon Kaunda, Mercy Karoney, Godfrey Musoro, Sheila Kabahenda, Kusum Nathoo, Kathryn Maitland, Anna Griffiths, Margaret J Thomason, Cissy Kityo, Peter Mugyenyi, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Diana M Gibb
Background In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%. Methods In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter...
July 20, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723228/thermal-processing-of-live-bivalve-molluscs-for-controlling-viruses-on-the-need-for-a-risk-based-design
#2
Winy Messens, Pablo S Fernandez-Escamez, David Lees, Roland Lindqvist, Michael O'Mahony, Elisabetta Suffredini, José Cortiñas Abrahantes, Emmanouil Chantzis, Kostas Koutsoumanis
Norovirus (NoV) and Hepatitis A virus (HAV) are the most important viral hazards associated with human illness following consumption of contaminated bivalve molluscs. The effectiveness of the current EU criteria for heat processing of bivalve molluscs (i.e. raising the temperature of the internal mollusc flesh to at least 90°C for a minimum of 90 seconds) was evaluated using predictive microbiology. A HAV thermal inactivation model was developed based on literature data in mollusc matrices during isothermal heat treatment...
July 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723196/label-free-homogeneous-electroanalytical-platform-for-pesticide-detection-based-on-acetylcholinesterase-mediated-dna-conformational-switch-integrated-with-rolling-circle-amplification
#3
Xiaojuan Liu, Mengmeng Song, Ting Hou, Feng Li
This study addresses the need for sensitive pesticide assay by reporting a new label-free and immobilization-free homogeneous electroanalytical strategy, which combines acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-catalyzed hydrolysis product-mediated DNA conformational switch and rolling circle amplification (RCA) to detect organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides in a "signal-on" mode. When target pesticides were present, AChE activity was inhibited and could not trigger the following DNA conformational change and the RCA reaction, which results in numerous methylene blue (MB) molecules in a free state, generating a strong electrochemical response...
April 28, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723147/quantum-dot-based-molecularly-imprinted-polymers-on-three-dimensional-origami-paper-microfluidic-chip-for-fluorescence-detection-of-phycocyanin
#4
Bowei Li, Zhong Zhang, Ji Qi, Na Zhou, Song Qin, Jaebum Choo, Lingxin Chen
In this work, we developed a novel strategy using fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) combined with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) on three-dimensional (3D) origami paper-based microfluidic devices for specific recognition and sensitive detection of phycocyanin. This method can realize the liquid phase of QDs@MIPs being transferred to the solid-phase paper base and achieve easy portability for the analysis. Under optimal conditions, we successfully demonstrated the proposed paper@QDs@MIPs 3D microfluidic chip for the sensitive and selective detection of phycocyanin protein target in a simple and robust manner...
February 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722361/-food-dependent-exercise-induced-anaphylaxis-a-stepwise-diagnosis
#5
Julien Gaillard, Amélie Borgeat-Kaeser, Guillaume Buss, François Spertini
Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a potentially severe food allergy. Physical exercise, NSAID, alcohol, infectious diseases and estrogens are recognized cofactors, able to reduce the amount of allergen needed to achieve a threshold for the induction of anaphylaxis. Various kinds of causative food but only a few responsible proteins have been identified. The best known is wheat ω5-gliadine. An oral food challenge remains the gold standard to prove the diagnosis. Its clinical application remains difficult and includes an allergen challenge, a cofactor challenge and a third step which integrates both of them in a single test...
April 5, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722217/personal-and-situational-predictors-of-everyday-snacking-an-application-of-temporal-self-regulation-theory
#6
Katherine G Elliston, Stuart G Ferguson, Benjamin Schüz
OBJECTIVES: This study aims at testing predictions derived from temporal self-regulation theory (TST) in relation to discretionary food choices (snacks). TST combines a motivational sphere of influence (cognitions and temporal valuations resulting in intentions) with a momentary sphere (encompassing social and physical environmental cues). This dual approach differs from current health behaviour theories, but can potentially improve our understanding of the interplay of personal and environmental factors in health behaviour self-regulation...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721686/rationale-for-initiation-and-titration-of-the-basal-insulin-glp-1ra-fixed-ratio-combination-products-ideglira-and-iglarlixi-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
REVIEW
Virginia Valentine, Jennifer Goldman, Jay H Shubrook
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a progressive disease affecting glucose regulation and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Many patients are not escalated up the treatment ladder appropriately despite failing to achieve glycemic control, with barriers such as fear of hypoglycemia, weight gain, and treatment burden recognized as factors. Exogenous basal insulin is titrated to address control of fasting plasma glucose and may preserve residual β-cell function, thus promoting a greater endogenous prandial insulin response...
July 18, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721503/salinity-drives-the-virioplankton-abundance-but-not-production-in-tropical-coastal-lagoons
#8
Pedro C Junger, André M Amado, Rodolfo Paranhos, Anderson S Cabral, Saulo M S Jacques, Vinicius F Farjalla
Viruses are the most abundant components of microbial food webs and play important ecological and biogeochemical roles in aquatic ecosystems. Virioplankton is regulated by several environmental factors, such as salinity, turbidity, and humic substances. However, most of the studies aimed to investigate virioplankton regulation were conducted in temperate systems combining a limited range of environmental variables. In this study, virus abundance and production were determined and their relation to bacterial and limnological variables was assessed in 20 neighboring shallow tropical coastal lagoons that present wide environmental gradients of turbidity (2...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721095/chemotherapy-associated-paronychia-treated-with-2-povidone-iodine-a-series-of-cases
#9
Kara Capriotti, Joseph Capriotti, Jesse Pelletier, Kevin Stewart
BACKGROUND: Nail changes are known to occur during the use of chemotherapy for a variety of malignancies, particularly those treated with taxanes and EGFR inhibitors. There are currently no actively recruiting prospective clinical trials investigating potential treatments. There are also no US Food and Drug Administration-approved medical treatments for chemotherapy-associated paronychia and no consensus on the best way to treat these common chemotherapy-induced events. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases presenting to a single dermatology private practice from June 2016 to January 2017 identified nine patients with chemotherapy-associated paronychia seeking treatment...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721060/clinical-use-of-lenvatinib-in-combination-with-everolimus-for-the-treatment-of-advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
REVIEW
Alessandro Leonetti, Francesco Leonardi, Melissa Bersanelli, Sebastiano Buti
INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents 2%-3% of all cancers in adults, and its pathogenesis is mainly related to altered cellular response to hypoxia. Lenvatinib, a novel multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), represents a therapeutic option, in combination with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus, for the treatment of metastatic RCC (mRCC). AIM: The objective of this article is to review the evidence about the treatment of mRCC with combination of lenvatinib plus everolimus...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720947/reduction-of-whey-protein-concentrate-antigenicity-by-using-a-combined-enzymatic-digestion-and-ultrafiltration-approach
#11
Laura Quintieri, Linda Monaci, Federico Baruzzi, Maria Gabriella Giuffrida, Silvia de Candia, Leonardo Caputo
The global interest in saving food resources is leading to recycle wasted-food materials to extract useful nutrients. In dairy industry, the recycling of whey proteins determines their utilization in the healthy-addressed foods, which, however, can cause immunological responses in allergic subjects. In this work, a whey protein concentrate (WPC) was alternatively hydrolyzed with pepsin, papain, trypsin and rennin in order to attenuate or abolish the β-lactoglobulin (BLG) antigenicity. The electrophoretic profiles of both pepsin and papain WPC hydrolysates proved the disappearance of the BLG band, even though a slight antigenicity was still found by ELISA...
June 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720377/sucrose-and-fat-content-significantly-affects-palatable-food-consumption-in-adolescent-male-and-female-rats
#12
Christine M Tenk, Tina Felfeli
Hyperpalatable foods are highly pleasurable and possess a heightened capacity to stimulate eating. Adolescents appear especially vulnerable to hyperpalatable foods. These foods are typically high in sugar, fat, or both, but the specific elements that underlie their increased consumption are still not clearly understood. Combinations of high fat and high sugar may particularly intensify overeating. Animal models allow investigation of the consumption of these foods separately from many of the environmental and psychological influences that impact eating in humans...
July 15, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720221/evaluation-of-nanoflow-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-for-pesticide-residue-analysis-in-food
#13
David Moreno-González, Patricia Pérez-Ortega, Bienvenida Gilbert-López, Antonio Molina-Díaz, Juan F García-Reyes, Amadeo R Fernández-Alba
This article reports on the evaluation of nanoflow liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for pesticide residue analysis in food. The approach is based on the use of reversed-phase C18nano columns with an integrated emitter, so that separation, ionization and detection are performed minimizing dead volumes. The use of nanoflow not only increases ionization efficiency and minimizes ionization suppression but also boost sensitivity compared to analytical-scale LC-MS methods. The nanoflow LC system was combined with full-scan high resolution mass spectrometry using a Q-Exactive Orbitrap instrument...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719146/natural-compounds-in-cancer-prevention-effects-of-coffee-extracts-and-their-main-polyphenolic-component-5-cqa-on-oncogenic-ras-proteins
#14
Alessandro Palmioli, Carlotta Cairamelli, Renata Tisi, Michela Spinelli, Gaia De Sanctis, Elena Sacco, Cristina Airoldi
Recent epidemiological studies demonstrate that consumption of healthy foods, especially rich in polyphenols content, might reduce the incidence of cancer and degenerative diseases. In particular, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) occur ubiquitously in food, representing the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet. A number of CGA beneficial biological effects, including anti-inflammatory activity, anti-carcinogenic activity and protection against neurodegenerative diseases have been reported. However, the molecular mechanisms at the basis of these biological activities have not yet been investigated in depth...
July 18, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718922/physical-compatibility-between-wax-esters-and-triglycerides-in-hybrid-shortenings-and-margarines-prepared-in-rice-bran-oil
#15
Chi Diem Doan, Iris Tavernier, Sabine Danthine, Tom Rimaux, Koen Dewettinck
BACKGROUND: Wax esters contribute to the transformation of liquid oils into solid-like oleogel systems, which can act as alternatives for trans- and/or saturated fats in food products. The use of solely waxes reduces the solid content, consistency and sensory quality in the final products. Therefore, a combination of sunflower wax and palm fat in rice bran oil was created to accomplish the hybrid low-saturated shortenings and margarines with a compatible structure and lower amounts of saturated fats...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718805/emerging-fusarium-and-alternaria-mycotoxins-occurrence-toxicity-and-toxicokinetics
#16
REVIEW
Sophie Fraeyman, Siska Croubels, Mathias Devreese, Gunther Antonissen
Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria mycotoxins gain more and more interest due to their frequent contamination of food and feed, although in vivo toxicity and toxicokinetic data are limited. Whereas the Fusarium mycotoxins beauvericin, moniliformin and enniatins particularly contaminate grain and grain-based products, Alternaria mycotoxins are also detected in fruits, vegetables and wines. Although contamination levels are usually low (µg/kg range), higher contamination levels of enniatins and tenuazonic acid may occasionally occur...
July 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718204/detrital-shadows-estuarine-food-web-connectivity-depends-on-fluvial-influence-and-consumer-feeding-mode
#17
Emily Howe, Charles A Simenstad, Andrea Ogston
We measured the influence of landscape setting on estuarine food web connectivity in five macrotidal Pacific Northwest estuaries across a gradient of freshwater influence. We used stable isotopes (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(34) S) in combination with a Bayesian mixing model to trace primary producer contributions to suspension- and deposit-feeding bivalve consumers (Mytilus trossulus and Macoma nasuta) transplanted into three estuarine vegetation zones: emergent marsh, mudflat, Japanese eelgrass (Zostera japonica), and native eelgrass (Zostera marina)...
July 17, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718025/reduction-of-individual-or-combined-toxicity-of-fumonisin-b1-and-zearalenone-via-dietary-inclusion-of-organo-modified-nano-montmorillonite-in-rats
#18
Aziza A El-Nekeety, Ahmed A El-Kady, Khaled G Abdel-Wahhab, Nabila S Hassan, Mosaad A Abdel-Wahhab
Fusarium mycotoxins are nature environmental contaminants worldwide in animal feed and human food resulting in a serious health risk. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential role of organo-modified nano-montmorillonite (OMNM) against the health risk and the oxidative stress resulted from the exposure of fumonisin (FB1) and zearalenone (ZEN) individually and in combination in rats. Eight groups of female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally for 3 weeks including the control group, FB1 alone-treated group (50 mg/kg b...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716098/awakening-sleeping-beauty-production-of-propionic-acid-in-escherichia-coli-through-the-sbm-operon-requires-the-activity-of-a-methylmalonyl-coa-epimerase
#19
Ricardo Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia, Tim McCubbin, Annalena Wille, Manuel Plan, Lars Keld Nielsen, Esteban Marcellin
BACKGROUND: Propionic acid is used primarily as a food preservative with smaller applications as a chemical building block for the production of many products including fabrics, cosmetics, drugs, and plastics. Biological production using propionibacteria would be competitive against chemical production through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene if native producers could be engineered to reach near-theoretical yield and good productivity. Unfortunately, engineering propionibacteria has proven very challenging...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715875/acute-orexigenic-effect-of-agmatine-involves-interaction-between-central-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-and-gabaergic-receptors
#20
Brijesh Gulabrao Taksande, Omi Sharma, Manish Manohar Aglawe, Mayur Bhimrao Kale, Dinesh Yugraj Gawande, Milind Janraoji Umekar, Nandkishor Ramdas Kotagale
Agmatine and GABA have been abundantly expressed in brain nuclei involved in regulation of energy homeostasis and promoting stimulation of food intake in rodents. However, their mutual interaction, if any, in the elicitation of feeding behavior is largely remains unclear. The current study provides experimental evidence for the possible interaction of agmatine, adrenergic and GABAergic systems in stimulation of feeding in satiated rats. Satiated rats fitted with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannulae and were administered agmatine, alone or jointly with (a) GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol, diazepam or antagonist bicuculline and flumazenil, GABAA positive modulator, allopregnanolone or negative modulator of GABAA receptor, dehydroepiandrosterone (b) In view of the high affinity of agmatine for α2-adrenoceptors and the close association between α2-adrenoceptors and GABAergic system, the effect of their modulators on feeding elicited by agmatine/GABAergic agonists were also examined...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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