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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339389/in-vitro-antibiotic-susceptibility-pattern-of-non-diphtheriae-corynebacterium-in-ontario-2011-2016
#1
Alefiya Neemuchwala, Deidre Soares, Vithusha Ravirajan, Alex Marchand-Austin, Julianne V Kus, Samir N Patel
Non-diphtheriae Corynebacterium-associated disease has been increasingly observed and often presents a conundrum to the treating physician. Analysis of antibiotic susceptibility test data for 1,970 clinical Corynebacterium isolates received between 2011 and 2016 revealed that empiric drug treatment options are limited to vancomycin and linezolid. Corynebacterium striatum was the most frequently observed species during this study period along with C. amycolatum and C. pseudodiphtheriticum/propinquum. Low levels of susceptibility to penicillin (14...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339387/the-genetic-basis-of-emerging-vancomycin-linezolid-and-daptomycin-heteroresistance-in-a-case-of-persistent-enterococcus-faecium-bacteremia
#2
Kieran Chacko, Mitchell Sullivan, Colleen Beckford, Deena Altman, Brianne Ciferri, Theodore Pak, Robert Sebra, Andrew Kasarskis, Camille Hamula, Harm van Bakel
Whole-genome sequencing was used to examine a persistent E. faecium bacteremia that acquired heteroresistance to three antibiotics in response to prolonged multidrug therapy. Comparison of complete genomes before and after each change revealed the emergence of known resistance determinants for vancomycin and linezolid, and suggested that a novel mutation in fabF, encoding a fatty acid synthase, was responsible for daptomycin nonsusceptibility. Plasmid recombination contributed to progressive loss of vancomycin resistance after withdrawal of the drug...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328999/discovery-of-novel-piperonyl-derivatives-as-diapophytoene-desaturase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-vancomycin-and-linezolid-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections
#3
Hanwen Wei, Fei Mao, Shuaishuai Ni, Feifei Chen, Baoli Li, Xiaoxia Qiu, Linghao Hu, Manjiong Wang, Xinyu Zheng, Jin Zhu, Lefu Lan, Jian Li
Inhibition of S. aureus diapophytoene desaturase (CrtN) could serve as an alternative approach for addressing the tricky antibiotic resistance by blocking the biosynthesis of carotenoid pigment which shields the bacterium from host oxidant killing. In this study, we designed and synthesized 44 derivatives with piperonyl scaffold targeting CrtN and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) were examined extensively to bring out the discovery of 21b with potent efficacy and better hERG safety profile compared to the first class CrtN inhibitor benzocycloalkane derivative 2...
December 29, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325735/whole-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-potential-novel-mechanisms-of-low-level-linezolid-resistance-in-enterococcus-faecalis
#4
Ruoyi Hua, Yun Xia, Wenyao Wu, Jia Yan, Mi Yang
Linezolid is an oxazolidinone antibiotic commonly used to treat serious infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus. Recently, low-level linezolid resistant Enterococcus faecalis strains have emerged worldwide, but the resistant mechanisms remain undefined. Whole-transcriptome profiling was performed on an E. faecalis strain P10748 with low-level linezolid resistance in comparison with a linezolid-susceptible strain 3138 and the standard control strain ATCC29212. The functions of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were predicted, with some DEGs potentially involved in drug resistance were validated by PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR)...
January 8, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310577/epidemiology-of-invasive-group-b-streptococcal-disease-in-infants-from-urban-area-of-south-china-2011-2014
#5
Xiaoshan Guan, Xiaoping Mu, Wenjing Ji, Chunlei Yuan, Ping He, Lian Zhang, Yanfen Huang, Juan Li, Jianfeng Chen, Huamin Zhong, Shuyin Pang, Nan Tan, Qiulian Deng, Kankan Gao, Yu-Ping Huang, Chien-Yi Chang, Haiying Liu
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants in both developed and developing countries. To our knowledge, only a few studies have been reported the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of the GBS disease in China. The severity of neonatal GBS disease in China remains unclear. Population-based surveillance in China is therefore required. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of <3 months old infants with culture-positive GBS in sterile samples from three large urban tertiary hospitals in South China from Jan 2011 to Dec 2014...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306582/surveillance-of-iclaprim-activity-in-vitro-susceptibility-of-gram-positive-pathogens-collected-from-2012-to-2014-from-the-united-states-asia-pacific-latin-american-and-europe
#6
David B Huang, Thomas M File, Matthew Dryden, G Ralph Corey, Antoni Torres, Mark H Wilcox
Iclaprim is a diaminopyrimidine, which inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, and it is highly active against Gram-positive pathogens including emerging drug-resistant pathogens. In vitro activity of iclaprim and comparators against 2814 Gram-positive clinical isolates from the United States, Asia Pacific, Latin American and Europe collected between 2012 and 2014 were tested. Susceptibility testing was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretations were based on CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) criteria...
December 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304717/analysis-of-the-spectrum-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogens-in-outpatients-at-a-tertiary-hospital
#7
Bo Yang, Fujia Yang, Shanmei Wang, Qian Wang, Zhirui Liu, Wei Feng, Fengjun Sun, Peiyuan Xia
The objective of this study was to analyse the distribution and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial uropathogens isolated from outpatients at Henan Provincial People's Hospital. A total of 1419 samples from 823 newly diagnosed and 596 recurrent UTI outpatients culture positive. Escherichia coli was the most common uropathogen. Compared with the recurrent group, the newly diagnosed group had a higher isolation rate of E. coli and Enterobacter cloacae but a lower isolation rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287806/antibiotic-susceptibility-of-259-listeria-monocytogenes-strains-isolated-from-food-food-processing-plants-and-human-samples-in-germany
#8
Matthias Noll, Sylvia Kleta, Sascha Al Dahouk
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of 259 Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food and food-processing environments and patient samples in Germany to 14 antibiotics widely used in veterinary and human medicine. L. monocytogenes strains were isolated mainly from milk and milk products and classified according to their molecular serotypes IIa (n=112), IIb (n=41), IIc (n=36), IVa (n=1), IVb (n=66), and IVb-v1 (n=3). METHODS: Susceptibility tests were performed by using the automated 96-well based microdilution system Micronaut-S...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283952/is-there-still-a-role-for-vancomycin-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#9
Alessia Savoldi, Anna M Azzini, David Baur, Evelina Tacconelli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSIs) are among the commonest infections encountered in clinical practice. Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus SSIs continues to increase in both health care and community settings and presents a challenge for the best treatment choice. Vancomycin has been the mainstay of SSIs treatment, but recently its use has been questioned because of concerns about its efficacy, tolerability, and unfavorable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277526/dalbavancin-in-vitro-activity-obtained-against-gram-positive-clinical-isolates-causing-bone-and-joint-infections-in-united-states-and-european-hospitals-2011-2016
#10
Michael A Pfaller, Robert K Flamm, Mariana Castanheira, Helio S Sader, Rodrigo E Mendes
BACKGROUND: Osteomyelitis represents hard-to-treat infections that regularly involve prolonged systemic antibiotic use. Dalbavancin has demonstrated activity against gram-positive isolates and has been considered as a candidate for osteomyelitis therapy in adults and children. This study evaluates the activity of dalbavancin against pathogens isolated from bone and joint infections (BJI). METHODS: 801 S. aureus, 160 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 164 β-haemolytic streptococci (BHS), 82 E...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261736/randomized-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-the-effect-of-fecal-microbiota-transplant-for-initial-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-intestinal-microbiome
#11
Adrián Camacho-Ortiz, Eva María Gutiérrez-Delgado, Jose F Garcia-Mazcorro, Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán, Adrián Martínez-Meléndez, Laura Palau-Davila, Simon D Baines, Héctor Maldonado-Garza, Elvira Garza-González
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fecal donor-unrelated donor mix (FMT-FURM) transplantation as first-line therapy for C. difficile infection (CDI) in intestinal microbiome. METHODS: We designed an open, two-arm pilot study with oral vancomycin (250mg every 6 h for 10-14 days) or FMT-FURM as treatments for the first CDI episode in hospitalized adult patients in Hospital Universitario "Dr. Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez". Patients were randomized by a closed envelope method in a 1: 1 ratio to either oral vancomycin or FMT-FURM...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251672/the-role-of-omadacycline-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#12
Philippe Montravers, Alexy Tran Dinh, Sebastien Tanaka
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are among the most frequent infections, contributing to significant morbidity and healthcare costs. Although numerous antibiotics are available for this indication, several medical needs remain unmet, especially for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or mixed infections. This review summarizes the results achieved in the development of omadacycline, a new aminomethylcycline, which could have useful properties for the treatment of SSTIs...
December 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246634/genetics-of-bi-component-leukocidin-and-drug-resistance-in-nasal-and-clinical-staphylococcus-aureus-in-lagos-nigeria
#13
Nkechi V Enwuru, Solayide A Adesida, Christian A Enwuru, Beniam Ghebremedhin, Udoma E Mendie, Akitoye O Coker
BACKGROUND: Resistant and virulent Staphylococcus aureus is a global public health challenge. Staphylococcal Bi-component leukotoxins are cytolytic to immune cells and evolve to disarm the innate immunity during infections, hence the severity of the disease. OBJECTIVE: We studied drug resistance profile and the occurrence of bi-component leukocidin in clinical and nasal S. aureus in Lagos, Nigeria. METHOD: Ninety-two S. aureus (70 clinical and 22 nasal) strains were characterized by conventional and molecular methods...
December 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243920/novel-terminal-bipheny-based-diapophytoene-desaturases-crtn-inhibitors-as-anti-mrsa-visr-lrsa-agents-with-reduced-herg-activity
#14
Baoli Li, Shuaishuai Ni, Fei Mao, Feifei Chen, Yifu Liu, Hanwen Wei, Wenhua Chen, Jin Zhu, Lefu Lan, Jian Li
CrtN has been identified as an attractive and druggable target for treating pigmented S. aureus infections. More than 100 new compounds were synthesized that target the overwhelming the defects of the CrtN inhibitor 1. Analogs 23a-b demonstrated significant activity against pigmented S. aureus Newman and thirteen MRSA strains (IC50 = 0.02~10.5 nM), along with lower hERG inhibition (IC50 > 30 μM, ~10-fold decrease in comparison with 1). Furthermore, 23a-b were confirmed to reduce the staphylococcal load in the kidney and heart in a mice model with normal treatment deeper than pretreatment ones, comparable even with vancomycin and linezolid...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238455/in-vitro-activity-of-recombinant-lysostaphin-in-combination-with-linezolid-vancomycin-and-oxacillin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Nagalakshmi Narasimhaswamy, Indira Bairy, Gautham Shenoy, Laxminarayana Bairy
Background and Objectives: The antimicrobial combination with synergistic mechanism is recommended to provide broad-spectrum coverage, and prevent the emergence of resistant mutants. In the present study, the synergistic activity of lysostaphin with linezolid, oxacillin and vancomycin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates was determined. Materials and Methods: Seventy-three MRSA isolates collected from clinical specimens were tested, for in vitro synergistic activity of lysostaphin with linezolid, vancomycin and oxacillin, by checkerboard assay...
August 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225595/characteristics-of-and-virulence-factors-associated-with-biofilm-formation-in-clinical-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-in-china
#16
Jin-Xin Zheng, Yang Wu, Zhi-Wei Lin, Zhang-Ya Pu, Wei-Ming Yao, Zhong Chen, Duo-Yun Li, Qi-Wen Deng, Di Qu, Zhi-Jian Yu
Enterococcus faecalis biofilm traits and distribution characteristics in China have not been clarified. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of E. faecalis biofilm formation in a sample of clinical isolates and to explore the virulence factors associated with biofilm formation in those isolates. A total of 265 E. faecalis isolates were collected from patients in Shenzhen, China. Virulence genes were detected within the genomes of the microbes by polymerase chain reaction. The isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on housekeeping genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224318/-distribution-and-drug-resistance-of-pathogens-of-blood-stream-infection-in-patients-with-hematological-malignancies-after-chemotherapy
#17
S Z Chen, K N Lin, M Xiao, X F Luo, Q Li, J H Ren, R Y Huang, M M Chen, Z Z Ally, T Chen, J D Yang, Jianda Hu
Objective: To investigate the distribution and resistance of pathogens isolated from blood cultures in patients with hematological malignancies after chemotherapy in Union Hospital of Fujian Medical University so as to understand the real situation of blood stream infection (BSI) and provide the basis for rational use of antibiotics in clinic. Methods: The data of 657 strains isolated from blood culture specimens of patients with hematological malignancies from January 2013 to December 2016 were collected analyzed...
November 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224317/-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-of-pathogenic-bacteria-distribution-and-drug-resistance-in-febrile-neutropenic-patients-with-hematological-diseases-in-shanghai
#18
J Zhu, J Hu, Y F Mao, F Y Chen, J Y Zhu, J M Shi, D D Yu, S G Hao, R Tao, P Liu, S Y Gu, J Hou, H Y He, A B Liang, Y Ding, L G Liu, Y H Xie, Q Zhu, Y H Yu, Y H Yao, W Chen, H L Xu, X H Han, C Wang
Objective: To investigate the pathogen spectrum distribution and drug resistance of febrile neutropenic patients with hematological diseases in Shanghai. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on the clinical isolates from the febrile neutropenic patients hospitalized in the departments of hematology in 12 general hospitals in Shanghai from January 2012 to December 2014. The drug susceptibility test was carried out by Kirby-Bauer method. WHONET 5.6 software was used to analyze pathogenic bacteria and drug susceptibility data...
November 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224313/-incidence-of-blood-stream-infections-of-1265-patients-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-and-analysis-of-pathogenic-bacteria
#19
Q Z Han, Y Chen, H Yang, X F Zhang, J Chen, D P Wu, S N Chen, H Y Qiu
Objective: To analyze the incidence and microbiological features of blood stream infections (BSI) of patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and to provide laboratory data for empirical use of antibiotic for the HSCT patients with BSI. Methods: The incidence of bloodstream infection, the positive rate of blood culture, bacterial spectrum and drug resistance were analyzed in 1 265 HSCT recipients during 2013 and 2015 were retrospectively studied. Results: Of 1265 patients undergoing HSCT, 1 422 cases of suspected BSI occurred in 784 patients (61...
November 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223615/differences-in-drug-susceptibility-pattern-between-mycobacterium-avium-and-mycobacterium-intracellulare-isolated-in-respiratory-specimens
#20
Eun Hye Cho, Hee Jae Huh, Dong Joon Song, Seong Mi Moon, Seung-Heon Lee, So Youn Shin, Chang Ki Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Won-Jung Koh, Nam Yong Lee
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most common etiologic organisms of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease. In this study, we aimed to retrospectively investigate the differences in drug susceptibility patterns of two major MAC species; Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare. A total of 1883 major two MAC isolates (1060 M. avium and 823 M. intracellulare) from respiratory specimens were included in this study during the period 2011─2016. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by broth microdilution method and MIC50/MIC90 values were derived from MIC distribution...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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