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linezolid resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158271/evaluation-of-the-in-vitro-activity-of-ceftaroline-and-comparators-against-s-pneumoniae-isolates-from-u-s-hospitals-results-from-7-years-of-the-aware-surveillance-program-2010-2016
#1
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Leonard R Duncan, Robert K Flamm, Helio S Sader
We evaluated trends in Streptococcus pneumoniae antimicrobial susceptibility in United States hospitals in the 2010--2016 period. A total of 8,768 clinical isolates from 47 medical centers were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) rates decreased from 25.7/12.4% (MDR/XDR) in 2010 to 17.7%/3.6% in 2016. Susceptibility to most comparator antimicrobial agents increased, whereas susceptibility to ceftaroline, levofloxacin, linezolid, and tigecycline remained stable...
November 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157990/new-method-for-antibiotic-release-from-bone-cement-polymethylmethacrylate-redefining-boundaries
#2
E Carbó-Laso, P Sanz-Ruiz, J C Del Real-Romero, Y Ballesteros-Iglesias, E Paz-Jiménez, F Arán-Ais, M Sánchez-Navarro, M A Pérez-Limiñana, I López-Torres, J Vaquero-Martín
INTRODUCTION: The increasing antimicrobial resistance is promoting the addition of antibiotics with high antistaphylococcal activity to polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), for use in cement spacers in periprosthetic joint infection. Linezolid and levofloxacin have already been used in in-vitro studies, however, rifampicin has been shown to have a deleterious effect on the mechanical properties of PMMA, because it inhibits PMMA polymerization. The objective of our study was to isolate the rifampicin during the polymerization process using microencapsulation techniques, in order to obtain a PMMA suitable for manufacturing bone cement spacers...
November 17, 2017: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149185/linezolid-and-atorvastatin-impact-on-pneumonia-caused-by-staphyloccocus-aureus-in-rabbits-with-or-without-mechanical-ventilation
#3
Laure-Anne Pauchard, Mathieu Blot, Rémi Bruyere, Saber-Davide Barbar, Delphine Croisier, Lionel Piroth, Pierre-Emmanuel Charles
Pneumonia may involve methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with elevated rates of antibiotics failure. The present study aimed to assess the effect of statins given prior to pneumonia development. Spontaneously breathing (SB) or mechanically ventilated (MV) rabbits with pneumonia received atorvastatin alone, linezolid (LNZ) alone, or a combination of both (n = 5 in each group). Spontaneously breathing and MV untreated infected animals (n = 11 in each group), as well as uninfected animals (n = 5 in each group) were used as controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146850/first-insight-into-the-genome-sequences-of-two-linezolid-resistant-nocardia-farcinica-strains-isolated-from-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#4
Sylvia Valdezate, Sara Monzón, Noelia Garrido, Angel Zaballos, María J Medina-Pascual, José M Azcona-Gutiérrez, Begoña Vilar, Isabel Cuesta
The draft genome sequences of two Nocardia farcinica strains isolated from two patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and linezolid, are reported here. The estimated genome sizes were 5.8 Mb with a 70.63% G+C content. Transposases from Tn916 were detected, but not 23S rRNA mutation (G2576T) related to linezolid resistance.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146499/antimicrobial-resistance-and-virulence-genes-profiling-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-in-a-burn-center-a-5-year-study
#5
Bei Jiang, Supeng Yin, Bo You, Yali Gong, Guangtao Huang, Zichen Yang, Yulong Zhang, Yu Chen, Jing Chen, Zhiqiang Yuan, Xiaomei Hu, Yizhi Peng
Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has attracted more and more attention in recent years, especially in burn medical centers. Here we conducted a 5-year period study to evaluate the MRSA infection in our burn center. The staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) typing, antimicrobials susceptibility and virulence profiles were also performed among the MRSA isolates. Of the 259 S. aureus isolates, 239 (92.28%) isolates were identified as MRSA. A decreased trend of MRSA isolation rate over time was found (P = 0...
November 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142798/verification-of-diagnosis-in-tuberculosis-a-case-report-and-discussion
#6
Amanda M Dave, Abed Adelrahman, Vishist Mehta, Stephen Cavalieri, Renuga Vivekanadan
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. tuberculosis), is a pulmonary infection that is spread by airborne droplet transmission. The development and spread of drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosisgreatly jeopardize TB control efforts. We report the case of a previously healthy 43-year-old male, visiting from China, who presented to the emergency department complaining of hemoptysis of 10 days' duration. Cultures were positive for acid fast bacteria and negative for fungi...
September 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124451/current-treatment-concepts-for-iatrogenic-ventriculitis-a-nationwide-survey-in-germany
#7
Niklas von Spreckelsen, Norma Jung, Sergej Telentschak, Jürgen Hampl, Roland Goldbrunner, Stefan Grau
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic ventriculitis is a common complication of the external ventricular drainage. While the procedure and indications for external ventricular drains (EVD) are highly standardized, the treatment of ventriculitis is not clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: To depict the treatment of iatrogenic ventriculitis currently performed in German hospitals. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire consisting of 18 multiple choice questions, each with the ability to provide additional individual answers, covering the diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic ventriculitis as well as general handling of EVDs, was sent to 121 neurosurgical hospitals registered in the German Society for Neurosurgery (DGNC)...
November 9, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121980/a-complicated-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-due-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococci-treated-with-linezolid-and-ciprofloxacin-a-case-report
#8
C G K Amiyangoda, H Wimalaratna, S Bowatte
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a rare disease with significant mortality and morbidity. With the emerging resistance and adverse effect profile of vancomycin which is the standard treatment, there is a compelling necessity of an effective alternative for vancomycin. Linezolid is proved as such an agent for infections caused by MRSA in other sites. However to-date the evidence for successful use of linezolid for MRSA prosthetic valve endocarditis is limited only for few case studies...
November 9, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120971/a-systematic-review-of-salivary-versus-blood-concentrations-of-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-and-their-potential-for-salivary-therapeutic-drug-monitoring
#9
Simone H J van den Elsen, Lisette M Oostenbrink, Scott K Heysell, Daiki Hira, Daan J Touw, Onno W Akkerman, Mathieu S Bolhuis, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring is useful in the treatment of tuberculosis to assure adequate exposure, minimize antibiotic resistance, and reduce toxicity. Salivary therapeutic drug monitoring could reduce the risks, burden, and costs of blood-based therapeutic drug monitoring. This systematic review compared human pharmacokinetics of anti-tuberculosis drugs in saliva and blood to determine if salivary therapeutic drug monitoring could be a promising alternative. METHODS: On December 2, 2016, PubMed and the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge were searched for pharmacokinetic studies reporting human salivary and blood concentrations of anti-tuberculosis drugs...
November 8, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111969/resistance-mechanisms-of-linezolid-nonsusceptible-enterococci-in-korea-low-rate-of-23s-rrna-mutations-in-enterococcus-faecium
#10
Sae-Mi Lee, Hee Jae Huh, Dong Joon Song, Hyang Jin Shim, Kyung Sun Park, Cheol-In Kang, Chang-Seok Ki, Nam Yong Lee
PURPOSE: To investigate linezolid-resistance mechanisms in linezolid-nonsusceptible enterococci (LNSE) isolated from a tertiary hospital in Korea. METHODOLOGY: Enterococcal isolates exhibiting linezolid MICs ≥4 mg l(-1) that were isolated between December 2011 and May 2016 were investigated by PCR and sequencing for mutations in 23S rRNA or ribosomal proteins (L3, L4 and L22) and for the presence of cfr, cfr(B) and optrA genes.Results/Key findings. Among 135 LNSE (87 Enterococcus faecium and 48 Enterococcus faecalis isolates), 39...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109580/fosfomycin-susceptibility-in-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-species-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-urinary-isolates
#11
Linda B Ou, Lynn Nadeau
Background: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to drug-resistant species of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus (e.g., organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL] or AmpC β-lactamase, as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]). However, this type of therapy can promote selection of resistant organisms and may necessitate venous access. Fosfomycin is an orally administered, single-dose antibiotic for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103695/distribution-of-optra-and-cfr-in-florfenicol-resistant-staphylococcus-sciuri-of-pig-origin
#12
Run Fan, Dexi Li, Andrea T Feßler, Congming Wu, Stefan Schwarz, Yang Wang
A novel transferable oxazolidinone-phenicol resistance gene, optrA, which confers resistance to linezolid, the next-generation oxazolidinone tedizolid, and also to chloramphenicol and florfenicol, has been identified in enterococcal and staphylococcal species. Here, we investigated the epidemiology of optrA in florfenicol-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolates of pig origin, and characterized the genetic context of oxazolidinone resistance genes in 20 optrA-positive florfenicol- and methicillin-resistant S...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102052/reduction-of-bacterial-burden-by-copper-alloys-on-high-touch-athletic-center-surfaces
#13
Zina Ibrahim, Alexandra J Petrusan, Patrick Hooke, Shannon M Hinsa-Leasure
BACKGROUND: Athletic centers have been locations for the transmission of community-acquired infections. This study assessed the capacity of copper alloys to reduce the bacterial burden associated with high-touch athletic center equipment. Copper alloy weights and grips were rotated with rubber coated and stainless steel controls in an undergraduate college athletic center over a 16-month period. The athletic center is used by college athletic teams, student body, and local community. METHODS: The primary outcome was to compare bacterial burdens on copper and control grips by swabbing surfaces...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101082/the-emerging-problem-of-linezolid-resistant-enterococcus
#14
REVIEW
Ruru Bi, Tingting Qin, Wenting Fan, Ping Ma, Bing Gu
Enterococcus is a significant pathogen of numerous infections, particularly nosocomial infections, thus conferring a great challenge to clinicians. Linezolid (an oxazolidinone antibiotic) is an important therapeutic option for infections caused by Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, especially vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). To characterize these infections with respect to epidemiological, microbiological and clinical scenarios, we make a systematic review of literature available on linezolid-resistant Enterococcus (LRE)...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092052/long-lasting-successful-dissemination-of-resistance-to-oxazolidinones-in-mdr-staphylococcus-epidermidis-clinical-isolates-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-france
#15
Laurent Dortet, Philippe Glaser, Najiby Kassis-Chikhani, Delphine Girlich, Philippe Ichai, Marc Boudon, Didier Samuel, Elodie Creton, Dilek Imanci, Rémy Bonnin, Nicolas Fortineau, Thierry Naas
Objectives: Patient- and procedure-related changes in modern medicine have turned CoNS into one of the major nosocomial pathogens. Treatments of CoNS infections are challenging owing to the large proportion of MDR strains and oxazolidinones often remain the last active antimicrobial molecules. Here, we have investigated a long-lasting outbreak (2010-13) due to methicillin- and linezolid-resistant (LR) CoNS (n = 168), involving 72 carriers and 49 infected patients. Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested by the disc diffusion method and MICs were determined by broth microdilution or Etest...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091212/penetration-of-linezolid-into-synovial-fluid-and-muscle-tissue-after-elective-arthroscopy
#16
R Schwameis, S Syré, K Sarahrudi, A Appelt, D Marhofer, D Burau, C Kloft, M Zeitlinger
Objectives: Penetration of antibiotics into synovial fluid is crucial to combat septic arthritis efficiently. Since linezolid may be used for treatment of septic arthritis when methicillin-resistant bacterial strains are suspected, we investigated its target-site concentrations in synovial fluid. Patients and methods: Ten patients undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were included in this study. Subjects received a single dose of 600 mg of linezolid intravenously and linezolid concentrations were measured in plasma and by using microdialysis in muscle tissue and synovial fluid...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091186/antimicrobial-resistance-in-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-isolated-from-patients-with-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-at-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-taiwan
#17
Ming-Chun Lee, Pei-Lun Sun, Tsu-Lan Wu, Li-Hsin Wang, Chih-Hsun Yang, Wen-Hung Chung, An-Jing Kuo, Tsui-Ping Liu, Jang-Jih Lu, Cheng-Hsun Chiu, Hsin-Chih Lai, Nan-Yu Chen, Jeng-How Yang, Ting-Shu Wu
Background: Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) is the most common non-tuberculous mycobacterium that causes complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs). The selection of antimycobacterial agents for successful treatment of such infections is a critical issue. Objectives: To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MABC isolates from skin and soft tissue to a variety of antimycobacterial agents. Methods: Sixty-seven MABC isolates were collected and partial gene sequencing of secA1, rpoB and hsp65 was used to classify them into three subspecies: M...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089777/correlation-between-resistance-mechanisms-in-staphylococcus-aureus-and-cell-wall-and-septum-thickening
#18
Ana Belén García, José Manuel Viñuela-Prieto, Laura López-González, Francisco Javier Candel
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to examine cell wall and septum thickening of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and methicillin- and linezolid-resistant S. aureus (MLRSA) isolates by transmission electron microscopy to correlate the association of resistance mechanisms with major changes in the morphology of membrane or septum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MSSA, MRSA, and MLRSA strains obtained from clinical samples of an outbreak that occurred in 2010 at the Intensive Care Unit of our Hospital were thawed and sown at 37°C in blood agar overnight...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089153/in-vitro-activity-between-linezolid-and-other-antimicrobial-agents-against-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex
#19
Zhijian Zhang, Jie Lu, Yuanyuan Song, Yu Pang
Linezolid (LZD) serves as an effective option in the treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) infection. Unfortunately, the combined activities of LZD with other antimicrobial agents against MABC have not been evaluated systemically. In this study, we randomly selected 32 Mycobacterium abscessus and 32 Mycobacterium massiliense isolates for the determination of in vitro synergistic effect between LZD and other antimicrobial agents, including amikacin (AMK), moxifloxacin (MOX), cefoxitin (CFX) and tigecycline (TGC)...
September 22, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066216/performance-of-the-genotype-mtbdrsl-assay-for-the-detection-second-line-anti-tuberculosis-drug-resistance
#20
Young Seok Lee, Bo Young Lee, Kyung-Wook Jo, Tae Sun Shim
The rapid detection of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is important to improve treatment outcomes and prevent disease transmission. The GenoType MTBDRsl assay (MTBDRsl assay) was developed to detect fluoroquinolone (FQ) and second-line injectable drug (SLID) resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and clinical utility of MTBDRsl assay. We retrospectively reviewed patient medical records with MTBDRsl assay data between December 2011 and February 2017. MTBDRsl assay results were compared with that of phenotypic drug susceptibility testing...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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