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linezolid resistance

Pierre Dehoux, Jean Christophe Marvaud, Amr Abouelleil, Ashlee M Earl, Thierry Lambert, Catherine Dauga
BACKGROUND: Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Keertan Dheda, Kwok Chiu Chang, Lorenzo Guglielmetti, Jennifer Furin, H Simon Schaaf, Dumitru Chesov, Aliasgar Esmail, Christoph Lange
Globally there is a burgeoning epidemic of drug mono-resistant tuberculosis (TB), multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). Almost 20% of all TB strains worldwide are resistant to at least 1 major TB drug including isoniazid. In several parts of the world there is an increasing incidence of MDR-TB, and alarmingly almost a third of MDR-TB cases globally are resistant to either a fluoroquinolone or aminoglycocide. This trend cannot be ignored because DR-TB is associated with greater morbidity compared to drug-sensitive TB, it accounts for almost 25% of global TB mortality, is extremely costly to treat, consuming substantial portions of budgets allocated to national TB programmes in TB endemic countries, and is a major threat to healthcare workers who are already in short supply in resource-poor settings...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Hongyu He, Lirong Jin, Minjie Ju, Guowei Tu, Zhe Luo
BACKGROUND: Acute transverse myelitis is uncommon and presumably results from an autoimmune process or a preceding infection. Most cases of bacterial myelitis are due to hematogenous dissemination from urinary or respiratory tract infections or contiguous spreading from a neighboring infected structure. A psoas abscess rarely spreads to higher levels of the spinal cord. No cases of acute cervical myelitis due to a psoas abscess have been previously reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old man was transferred to our hospital due to progressive muscle weakness, sensory deficits and severe hypotension...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Caroline Rouard, Elisabeth Aslangul, Alexandre Rivière, Claire Deback, Marie-José Butel, Florence Doucet-Populaire, Nadège Bourgeois-Nicolaos
Linezolid (LZD) has arisen as an alternative treatment in diabetic foot osteitis due to staphylococci. LZD resistance selection is difficult and involved various molecular mechanisms. As a better knowledge of those mechanisms could be beneficial for pathogenic strains' screening, we simulated in vitro the spontaneous mutagenesis process that leads to LZD-resistant strains from two Staphylococcus epidermidis strains responsible for monomicrobial diabetic foot osteitis. LZD high resistance was selected for both strains, with the same timeline of mutation appearance...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Alexander A Firsov, Maria V Golikova, Elena N Strukova, Yury A Portnoy, Svetlana A Dovzhenko, Mikhail B Kobrin, Stephen H Zinner
To explore if combinations of linezolid (L) with rifampicin (R) are able to restrict Staphylococcus aureus resistance, the enrichment of L- and R-resistant mutants was studied in an in vitro dynamic model. L- and R-resistant mutants were enriched in all single drug treatments. In contrast, L-resistant mutants were not enriched and R-resistant mutants were similar to baseline amounts with only minimal regrowth at the end of the combination treatments. These effects appear to be explained by lowering the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) for L+R combinations (MPCL+R) compared to the MPCs of L and R alone (MPCL and MPCR) and thereby the longer times above MPCL+R (73-100% of the dosing interval for L and 42-58% for R) compared to the times above MPCL (0-44%) and MPCR (0%)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
Santiago Pérez-Parra, Alejandro Peña-Monje, Juan Luis Recio, Federico García-García
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Jotam Pasipanodya, Eric Nuermberger, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  When treated with the same antibiotic dose, children achieve different 0- to 24-hour area under the concentration-time curves (AUC0-24) because of maturation and between-child physiological variability on drug clearance. Children are also infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with different antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Thus, each child will achieve different AUC0-24/MIC ratios when treated with the same dose. METHODS:  We used 10 000-subject Monte Carlo experiments to identify the oral doses of linezolid, moxifloxacin, and faropenem that would achieve optimal target exposures associated with optimal efficacy in children with disseminated tuberculosis...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Eric Nuermberger, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Soumya Swaminathan, Tawanda Gumbo
BACKGROUND:  The regimen of linezolid and moxifloxacin was found to be efficacious in the hollow fiber system model of pediatric intracellular tuberculosis. However, its kill rate was slower than the standard 3-drug regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide. We wanted to examine the effect of adding a third oral agent, faropenem, to this dual combination. METHODS:  We performed a series of studies in the hollow fiber system model of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis, by mimicking pediatric pharmacokinetics of each antibiotic...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Yu-Chia Hsieh, Yu-Chun Lin, Yhu-Chering Huang
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility trend of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood isolates of different clones over an 11-year period.From 2000 to 2010, all bloodstream MRSA isolates from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan were prospectively collected. Three periods, namely 2000 to 2001, 2004 to 2005, and 2010, were included and 124 MRSA isolates were selected from each period. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by E-test...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Nandini Chatterjee, Chandan Chatterjee, Sinjan Ghosh, Mainak Mukhopadhyay, Ramkrishna Brahmachari, Kartik Patar
BACKGROUND: Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in urinary tract infections have led to emergence of 'superbugs' worldwide. Periodical review of antibiograms is of utmost importance for optimum patient benefit. OBJECTIVE: To identify the spectrum of organisms responsible for urinary tract infection and evaluate the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity of the organisms. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from all consecutive patients getting admitted in the medicine indoor irrespective of symptomatology...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Rosario Musumeci, Enrico Calaresu, Jolanda Gerosa, Davide Oggioni, Simone Bramati, Patrizia Morelli, Ida Mura, Andrea Piana, Bianca Maria Are, Clementina Elvezia Cocuzza
Linezolid is the main representative of the oxazolidinones, introduced in 2000 in clinical practice to treat severe Gram-positive infections. This compound inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the peptidyl transferase centre of the 50S bacterial ribosomal subunit. The aim of this study was to characterize 12 clinical strains of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolated in Northern Italy. All isolates of Staphylococcus spp. studied showed a multi-antibiotic resistance phenotype. In particular, all isolates showed the presence of the mecA gene associated with SSCmec types IVa, V or I...
September 13, 2016: New Microbiologica
S Jolivet, M Fines-Guyon, B Nebbad, J C Merle, D Le Pluart, C Brun-Buisson, J-W Decousser, V Cattoir
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus raffinosus has rarely been associated with nosocomial infection and outbreaks. AIM: To report the successful control of a nosocomial outbreak of vanA-type vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus in a surgical intensive care unit. METHODS: The investigation of the outbreak is reported with control measures taken. Molecular typing of vancomycin-resistant E. raffinosus isolates was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Vaishali Gaikwad, Tejash Gohel, Shrijeet Panickar, Vijay Chincholkar, Santosh Mangalkar
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection, especially pneumonia, surgical site infections, blood stream infections, and continues to be a major cause of community-acquired infections. The emergence of penicillin resistance followed by the development and spread of strains resistant to the semisynthetic penicillins such as methicillin, oxacillin and nafcillin, macrolides, tetracycline, and aminoglycosides has made the treatment of staphylococcal infection a global challenge...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Jingdong Shi, Ying Jiang, Yanfang Zhao
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of drug-resistant Helicobacter pylori in Beijing Tian Tan Hospital (Beijing, China) and to determine the susceptibility of H. pylori to linezolid and novel oxazolidinone analogues. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and levofloxacin against H. pylori were determined by Etest. The in vitro antibacterial activities of linezolid and novel oxazolidinone analogues were assessed by the disk diffusion method...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
A-F Dureau, G Duclos, F Antonini, D Boumaza, N Cassir, J Alingrin, C Vigne, E Hammad, L Zieleskiewicz, M Leone
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with excess mortality and costs. Molecular biology test allows rapid identification of MRSA in sputum with high negative predictive value. We hypothesized that use of a rapid diagnostic test in patients with suspected VAP was associated with reduced use of antibiotics directed against MRSA. This retrospective, observational study was conducted in a polyvalent intensive care unit (ICU) of a university hospital...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Stefania Stefani, Dafne Bongiorno, Gino Mongelli, Floriana Campanile
Linezolid, the first oxazolidinone to be used clinically, is effective in the treatment of infections caused by various Gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus. It has been used successfully for the treatment of patients with endocarditis and bacteraemia, osteomyelitis, joint infections and tuberculosis and it is often used for treatment of complicated infections when other therapies have failed. Linezolid resistance in Gram-positive cocci has been encountered clinically as well as in vitro, but it is still a rare phenomenon...
June 24, 2010: Pharmaceuticals
Ellie J C Goldstein, Diane M Citron, Kerin L Tyrrell, Elisa Leoncio, C Vreni Merriam
The comparative in vitro activity of tedizolid against 124 Bacteroides group species isolates, including carbapenem, metronidazole and piperacillin-tazobactam resistant strains, had an MIC90 of 2 μg/ml (range, 0.5-4 μg/ml) and was 1-4 times more active than linezolid that had an MIC90 of 8 μg/ml (range, 2-16 μg/ml).
October 3, 2016: Anaerobe
Velma Rebic, Ana Budimir, Mufida Aljicevic, Sabaheta Bektas, Sabina Mahmutovic Vranic, Damir Rebic
BACKGROUND: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for a wide spectrum of nosocomial and community associated infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze MRSA strains from the general population in Canton Sarajevo, B&H. METHODS: Our investigation including either phenotypic and genotypic markers such as antimicrobial resistance, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), SCC typing, and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) detection...
July 16, 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Ossama K Abou Hassan, Mohamad Karnib, Riyad El-Khoury, Georges Nemer, Mamdouha Ahdab-Barmada, Pierre BouKhalil
The recent rise in the use of linezolid to treat a variety of resistant pathogens has uncovered many side effects. Some patients develop lactic acidosis, myelosuppression, optic or peripheral neuropathies, and myopathies. We evaluated an elderly patient who presented to the Emergency Room with linezolid toxicity and a novel neurologic complication characterized by bilateral globi pallidi necrosis. Mitochondrial ribosome inhibition was described to be the predisposing factor. The patient belongs to the mitochondrial J1 haplotype known to be associated with side effects of the drug...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Myrella Cariry Lira, Paricia Emília Naves Givisiez, Francisca Geovânia Canafístula De Sousa, Marciane Magnani, Evandro Leite De Souza, Denis Augusto Spricigo, Wondwossen Abebe Gebreyes, Celso José Bruno De Oliveira
INTRODUCTION: Biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance is of increasing importance to the maintenance and spread of foodborne pathogens in the food industry. This study aimed to investigate the ability to form biofilm and the antimicrobial resistance of staphylococci contaminating small-scale goat milk dairy plants. METHODOLOGY: Sixty isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 20 drugs by the microdilution method. Biofilm-forming traits were assessed by the microtiter plate method (MtP), Congo red agar method (CRA), and icaD gene detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
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