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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161682/socioeconomic-status-disparities-in-late-life-disability-based-on-age-period-and-cohort-in-japan
#1
Hidehiro Sugisawa, Ken Harada, Yoko Sugihara, Shizuko Yanagisawa, Masaya Shinmei
INTRODUCTION: Effects of disparities in socioeconomic status (SES) on late-life disabilities have been reported around the world. However, there are only a few studies that have examined age, period, and cohort dependent influences of SES disparities on late-life disabilities. We investigated associations between SES disparities and late-life disability based on the Age-Period-Cohort. We also investigated how macro-economic conditions unique to a period, or a cohort might explain the period or the cohort trends...
November 14, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161174/the-telescoping-phenomenon-origins-in-gender-bias-and-implications-for-contemporary-scientific-inquiry
#2
Katherine R Marks, Claire D Clark
BACKGROUND: In an article published in International Journal of the Addictions in 1989, Nick Piazza and his coauthors described "telescoping," an accelerated progression through "landmark symptoms" of alcoholism, among a sample of recovering women. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this critical analysis is to apply a feminist philosophy of science to examine the origins of the framework of telescoping research and its implications for contemporary scientific inquiry. METHODS: A feminist philosophy of science framework is outlined and applied to key source publications of telescoping literature drawn from international and United States-based peer-reviewed journals published beginning in 1952...
November 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161066/increasing-prescription-opioid-and-heroin-overdose-mortality-in-the-united-states-1999-2014-an-age-period-cohort-analysis
#3
Xiwen Huang, Katherine M Keyes, Guohua Li
OBJECTIVES: To assess cohort effects in prescription opioid and heroin overdose mortality in the United States. METHODS: Using the National Center for Health Statistics' multiple-cause-of-death file for 1999 to 2014, we performed an age-period-cohort analysis of drug overdose mortality in the United States. RESULTS: Compared with those born in 1977 and 1978, individuals born between 1947 and 1964 experienced excess risks of prescription opioid overdose death (e...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159533/reduced-bone-mineral-density-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-a-meta-analysis-of-its-prevalence-and-risk-factors
#4
S S L Goh, P S M Lai, A T B Tan, S Ponnampalavanar
A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis in HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated individuals was significantly higher than respective controls. Evidence regarding bone loss within first year of HIV infection or ART initiation was preliminary. PURPOSE: The aim of the study is to systematically review published literature on the prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis and its associated risk factors in HIV-infected individuals...
November 20, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158987/lowland-extirpation-of-anuran-populations-on-a-tropical-mountain
#5
Marconi Campos-Cerqueira, T Mitchell Aide
Background: Climate change and infectious diseases threaten animal and plant species, even in natural and protected areas. To cope with these changes, species may acclimate, adapt, move or decline. Here, we test for shifts in anuran distributions in the Luquillo Mountains (LM), a tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico by comparing species distributions from historical (1931-1989)and current data (2015/2016). Methods: Historical data, which included different methodologies, were gathered through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and published literature, and the current data were collected using acoustic recorders along three elevational transects...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158700/x-ray-crystallographic-and-validated-hptlc-analysis-of-the-biomarker-chromone-glucoside-schumanniofioside-a-isolated-from-acalypha-fruticosa-growing-in-saudi-arabia
#6
Areej M Al-Taweel, Ghada A Fawzy, Shagufta Perveen, Perwez Alam, Ali A El Gamal
A chromone glucoside 2-methyl-5,7-dihydroxychromone 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (schumanniofioside A, compound 1) was isolated from the methanol extract of Acalypha fruticosa. The structure of compound 1 was fully assigned based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ((1)H, (13)C and 2D) spectra and electrospray ionization mass spectrum (ESI-MS) in addition to X-ray Crystallography. The molecules were packed in the crystal structure by eight intermolecular O-H⋯O and C-H⋯O interactions. The structure of compound 1 belongs to monoclinic, P21, a = 9...
November 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158254/weight-history-and-subclinical-myocardial-damage
#7
Chiadi E Ndumele, Laura Cobb, Mariana Lazo, Natalie A Bello, Amil Shah, Vijay Nambi, Roger S Blumenthal, Gary Gerstenblith, Scott D Solomon, Christie M Ballantyne, Elizabeth Selvin, Josef Coresh
BACKGROUND: Excess weight is associated with subclinical myocardial damage, as reflected by high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentrations, which portends high heart failure risk. However, the association between weight history and myocardial damage is unknown. METHODS: We evaluated 9062 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) visit 4 (1996-1999) participants with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) and no previous cardiovascular disease. We cross-tabulated visit 4 ("current") BMI categories of normal weight, overweight, and obese with those at visit 1 (1987-1989) and with BMI categories calculated from self-reported weight at age 25 years...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158039/association-between-the-american-board-of-internal-medicine-s-general-internist-s-maintenance-of-certification-requirement-and-mammography-screening-for-medicare-beneficiaries
#8
Bradley M Gray, Jonathan L Vandergrift, Rebecca S Lipner
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States. Continuing medical education programs such as the American Board of Internal Medicine's Maintenance of Certification (MOC) program can increase early detection of cancers by educating physicians about the benefits of screening. Did the imposition of American Board of Internal Medicine's MOC requirement affect guideline-compliant mammography screening? METHOD: To address this question, we took advantage of a natural experiment that occurred when one group of general internists was required to complete MOC by 2001 because they initially certified in 1991 (MOC required) and another group was grandfathered out of this requirement because they initially certified in 1989 (MOC grandfathers)...
November 17, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157617/the-role-of-interleukin-6-in-castleman-disease
#9
REVIEW
Kazuyuki Yoshizaki, Shinichi Murayama, Hiroki Ito, Tomohiro Koga
Since its discovery, improvements in treating Castleman disease and its variants have centered on interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-6 was discovered from T-cell factors (BCDF or BSF-2), which induced B-cell maturation. Most symptoms of the plasma cell variant of Castleman disease are linked to the hyperfunction of IL-6, constitutively produced in the affected lymph nodes (1989), suggesting IL-6 is key in the pathogenesis of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). The results of several studies have shown that most MCD symptoms and abnormal laboratory results are improved by anti-IL-6 MCD treatments, such as tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, and siltuximab, an anti-IL-6 antibody...
February 2018: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154402/transvaginal-ultrasound-tvs-versus-magnetic-resonance-mr-for-diagnosing-deep-infiltrating-endometriosis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
S Guerriero, L Saba, M A Pascual, S Ajossa, I Rodriguez, V Mais, J L Alcazar
OBJECTIVES: To perform a systematic review of studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of TVS and MRI in Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis (DIE) including only studies in which patients have been underwent both techniques. METHODS: An extensive search of papers comparing TVS and MRI in DIE was performed in Medline (Pubmed) and Web of Sciences from January 1989 to January 2016. Studies were considered eligible if they reported on the use of TVS and MRI in the same set of patients for the preoperative detection of endometriosis in pelvic locations in women with clinical suspicion of DIE using the surgical data as a reference standard...
November 20, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150189/uranium-mobility-across-annual-growth-rings-in-three-deciduous-tree-species
#11
Kelly C McHugh, Elisabeth Widom, Henry B Spitz, Gregory C Wiles, Sam E Glover
Black walnut (Juglans nigra), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), and white ash (Fraxinus americana) trees were evaluated as potential archives of past uranium (U) contamination. Like other metals, U mobility in annual growth rings of trees is dependent on the tree species. Uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions (masses 234, 235, 236, and 238) were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry to test the efficacy of using tree rings to retroactively monitor U pollution from the FFMPC, a U purification facility operating from 1951 to 1989...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147955/kidney-transplantation-in-romania-two-transplant-centers-experience
#12
A Gramaticu, D Siriopol, A Miron, D Tacu, I Sinescu, C Gingu, C Bucsa, A Nastasa, A Covic
PURPOSE: Kidney graft survival rates improved from decade to decade, but data about factors that affect patient and graft survival remain challenging and even controversial. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively data from kidney transplanted patients followed in two Romanian transplant centers (Iasi and Bucharest)-new programmes specifically developed after 1989 to cover transplantation requirements for two-thirds of Romania. We used a composite survival outcome defined as 50% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), return to dialysis or death...
November 17, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146008/heat-and-pregnancy-related-emergencies-risk-of-placental-abruption-during-hot-weather
#13
Siyi He, Tom Kosatsky, Audrey Smargiassi, Marianne Bilodeau-Bertrand, Nathalie Auger
INTRODUCTION: Outdoor heat increases the risk of preterm birth and stillbirth, but the association with placental abruption has not been studied. Placental abruption is a medical emergency associated with major morbidity and mortality in pregnancy. We determined the relationship between ambient temperature and risk of placental abruption in warm seasons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a case-crossover analysis of 17,172 women whose pregnancies were complicated by placental abruption in Quebec, Canada from May to October 1989-2012...
November 13, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145854/burnout-in-medical-students-a-systematic-review-of-experiences-in-chinese-medical-schools
#14
Wang Michael Chunming, Reema Harrison, Raina MacIntyre, Joanna Travaglia, Chinthaka Balasooriya
BACKGROUND: To identify the: extent to which medical students in China experience burnout; factors contributing to this; potential solutions to reduce and prevent burnout in this group; and the extent to which the experiences of Chinese students reflect the international literature. METHODS: Systematic review and narrative synthesis. Key words, synonyms and subject headings were used to search five electronic databases in addition to manual searching of relevant journals...
November 16, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144881/improving-graduation-rates-for-african-americans-in-drug-court-importance-of-human-relationships-and-barriers-to-gaining-and-sustaining-employment
#15
John Robert Gallagher, Anne Nordberg, Alyssa R Dibley
Drug courts have been an important part of the criminal justice system since 1989. They continue to expand throughout the United States because nearly three decades of research has shown that they are more effective than other interventions, such as traditional probation. There is a pattern, though, in some drug courts where African Americans are less likely to graduate than their Caucasian counterparts. This qualitative study explores this phenomenon by asking African American participants (n = 31) their views on the most helpful aspects of drug court and how drug court could be more helpful in supporting them in graduating the program...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144222/child-language-and-parenting-antecedents-and-externalizing-outcomes-of-emotion-regulation-pathways-across-early-childhood-a-person-centered-approach
#16
Jason José Bendezú, Pamela M Cole, Patricia Z Tan, Laura Marie Armstrong, Elizabeth B Reitz, Rachel M Wolf
Decreases in children's anger reactivity because of the onset of their autonomous use of strategies characterizes the prevailing model of the development of emotion regulation in early childhood (Kopp, 1989). There is, however, limited evidence of the varied pathways that mark this development and their proposed antecedents and consequences. This study used a person-centered approach to identify such pathways, antecedents, and outcomes. A sample of 120 children from economically strained rural and semirural households were observed while waiting to open a gift at ages 24, 36, and 48 months...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140636/trends-and-patterns-in-unintentional-injury-fatalities-in-australian-agriculture
#17
Tony Lower, Margaret Rolfe, Noeline Monaghan
Agriculture is recognized internationally as a hazardous industry. This article describes the trends and patterns of unintentional farm fatalities in Australia. Data from the National Coronial Information System were analyzed to assess all unintentional farm fatalities for the 2001-2015 period. A secondary comparison with earlier coronial system data from 1989-1992 was also completed to ascertain historical changes. There was no statistically significant change in the rate of work-related fatalities per 100,000 workers in the 2001-2015 period...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140453/faecal-transplantation-for-ibd-management-pitfalls-and-promises
#18
M N Quraishi, T Critchlow, N Bhala, N Sharma, T Iqbal
Background: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an area of active current research, having been stimulated by the remarkable efficacy of FMT in treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated colitis. Sources of data: This review is based on data from numerous case series on FMT in IBD since 1989 and results of four RCTs in ulcerative colitis (UC); three fully published. Areas of agreement: Early signals of short to medium-term efficacy of FMT for UC are promising...
November 13, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138205/long-term-prognosis-of-young-breast-cancer-patients-%C3%A2-40-years-who-did-not-receive-adjuvant-systemic-treatment-protocol-for-the-paradigm-initiative-cohort-study
#19
Gwen Mhe Dackus, Natalie D Ter Hoeve, Mark Opdam, Willem Vreuls, Zsuzsanna Varga, Esther Koop, Stefan M Willems, Carolien Hm Van Deurzen, Emilie J Groen, Alicia Cordoba, Jos Bart, Antien L Mooyaart, Jan G van den Tweel, Vicky Zolota, Jelle Wesseling, Anna Sapino, Ewa Chmielik, Ales Ryska, Frederic Amant, Annegien Broeks, Ron Kerkhoven, Nikolas Stathonikos, Mitko Veta, Adri Voogd, Katarzyna Jozwiak, Michael Hauptmann, Marlous Hoogstraat, Marjanka K Schmidt, Gabe Sonke, Elsken van der Wall, Sabine Siesling, Paul J van Diest, Sabine C Linn
INTRODUCTION: Currently used tools for breast cancer prognostication and prediction may not adequately reflect a young patient's prognosis or likely treatment benefit because they were not adequately validated in young patients. Since breast cancers diagnosed at a young age are considered prognostically unfavourable, many treatment guidelines recommend adjuvant systemic treatment for all young patients. Patients cured by locoregional treatment alone are, therefore, overtreated. Lack of prognosticators for young breast cancer patients represents an unmet medical need and has led to the initiation of the PAtients with bReAst cancer DIaGnosed preMenopausally (PARADIGM) initiative...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136417/occupational-exposure-to-inhalable-manganese-at-german-workplaces
#20
Benjamin Kendzia, Rainer Van Gelder, Tobias Schwank, Cornelia Hagemann, Wolfgang Zschiesche, Thomas Behrens, Tobias Weiss, Thomas Brüning, Beate Pesch
Due to mounting evidence of neurotoxic effects of manganese (Mn) already at low concentrations, occupational exposure limits (OELs) have been adopted. We analyzed 5771 personal measurements of inhalable manganese (Mn) together with information on sampling conditions and job tasks from the German exposure database Messdaten zur Exposition gegenüber Gefahrstoffen am Arbeitsplatz (MEGA) to assess exposure levels in welders and other occupations between 1989 and 2015. Geometric means (GMs) of exposure to Mn were estimated for various occupational settings adjusted for 2-h sampling duration and analytical method, centered at 2009...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
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