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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720674/synergistic-antitumour-effects-of-rapamycin-and-oncolytic-reovirus
#1
Charles Comins, Guy Richard Simpson, William Rogers, Kate Relph, Kevin Harrington, Alan Melcher, Victoria Roulstone, Joan Kyula, Hardev Pandha
There are currently numerous oncolytic viruses undergoing clinical trial evaluation in cancer patients and one agent, Talimogene laherparepvec, has been approved for the treatment of malignant melanoma. This progress highlights the huge clinical potential of this treatment modality, and the focus is now combining these agents with conventional anticancer treatments or agents that enhance viral replication, and thereby oncolysis, in the tumour microenvironment. We evaluated the combination of reovirus with rapamycin in B16F10 cell, a murine model of malignant melanoma, based on potential mechanisms by which mTOR inhibitors might enhance viral oncolysis...
May 3, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709967/the-development-of-a-novel-diagnostic-assay-that-uses-a-pseudotyped-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-for-the-detection-of-neutralising-activity-to-crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever-virus
#2
Yuto Suda, John Chamberlain, Stuart Dowall, Masayuki Saijo, Taisuke Horimoto, Roger Hewson, Masayuki Shimojima
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus is a risk group 4 pathogen, which mandates the use of maximum containment facilities, often called biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) or containment level 4 (CL-4) laboratories when working with infectious materials. Diagnostic and research work involving live viruses in such laboratories is time-consuming and awkward resulting in delays. We herein show that the serum neutralising activity against the virus can be measured in low-containment laboratories using a pseudotyped virus...
April 27, 2018: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709447/a-phase-iii-randomised-trial-of-the-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-quadrivalent-versus-trivalent-inactivated-subunit-influenza-vaccine-in-adult-and-elderly-subjects-assessing-both-anti-haemagglutinin-and-virus-neutralisation-antibody-responses
#3
Serge van de Witte, Jos Nauta, Emanuele Montomoli, Jos Weckx
BACKGROUND: Trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) offer substantial protection against matching B-strains, however, protection against alternate-lineage B-strains may be enhanced by adding a second B-strain in quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs). In this Phase III, double-blind, multicentre, randomised study, the immunogenicity and safety of subunit inactivated QIV versus TIV was assessed in adult (aged ≥18 to ≤60 years) and elderly (aged ≥61 years) subjects by analysing a combination of haemagglutinin inhibition (HI) and virus neutralisation (VN)...
April 27, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703647/adeno-associated-virus-gene-therapy-translational-progress-and-future-prospects-in-the-treatment-of-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
Sebastian Bass-Stringer, Bianca C Bernardo, Clive N May, Colleen J Thomas, Kate L Weeks, Julie R McMullen
Despite advances in treatment over the past decade, heart failure remains a significant public health burden and a leading cause of death in the developed world. Gene therapy provides a promising approach for preventing and reversing cardiac abnormalities, however, clinical application has shown limited success to date. A substantial effort is being invested into the development of recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) for cardiac gene therapy as AAV gene therapy offers a high safety profile and provides sustained and efficient transgene expression following a once-off administration...
March 17, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702694/test-selection-for-antibody-detection-according-to-the-seroprevalence-level-of-schmallenberg-virus-in-sheep
#5
Srđan Pejaković, Laëtitia Wiggers, Damien Coupeau, Nathalie Kirschvink, James Mason, Benoît Muylkens
Schmallenberg virus (SBV), initially identified in Germany in 2011, spread rapidly throughout Europe causing significant economic losses in ruminant livestock. The ability to correctly detect emerging and re-emerging diseases such as SBV with reliable tests is of high importance. Firstly, we tested diagnostic performance, specificity, and sensitivity of three different assays used in SBV antibody detection using control sheep samples of determined status. After obtaining the results from the control samples, we assessed the potential of the assays to detect previously infected animals in field situations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691855/virus-neutralising-antibody-responses-in-horses-following-vaccination-with-equivac%C3%A2-hev-a-field-study
#6
Rhh Tan, A Hodge, R Klein, N Edwards, J A Huang, D Middleton, S P Watts
OBJECTIVE: To determine the antibody responses to a commercial Hendra virus vaccine (Equivac® HeV) in a field environment. METHODS: A group of 61 horses received a primary vaccination course comprising two doses administered 3-6 weeks apart (V1, V2) and a 3rd dose (V3) given 6 months after the second. This was followed by booster vaccinations at 12 monthly intervals (V4, V5). Antibody titres were assessed using a virus-neutralisation test. RESULTS: Neutralising antibodies against HeV were not detected prior to vaccination...
May 2018: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678552/the-immunogenicity-of-recombinant-vaccines-based-on-modified-vaccinia-ankara-mva-viruses-expressing-african-horse-sickness-virus-vp2-antigens-depends-on-the-levels-of-expressed-vp2-protein-delivered-to-the-host
#7
Eva Calvo-Pinilla, Simon Gubbins, Peter Mertens, Javier Ortego, Javier Castillo-Olivares
African horse sickness (AHS) is a lethal equine disease transmitted by Culicoides biting midges and caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV). AHS is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, but devastating outbreaks have been recorded periodically outside this region. The perceived risk of an AHS outbreak occurring in Europe has increased following the frequent epidemics caused in ruminants by bluetongue virus, closely related to AHSV. Attenuated vaccines for AHS are considered unsuitable for use in non-endemic countries due bio-safety concerns...
April 17, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667575/a-cluster-of-two-human-cases-of-tick-borne-encephalitis-tbe-transmitted-by-unpasteurised-goat-milk-and-cheese-in-germany-may-2016
#8
S O Brockmann, R Oehme, T Buckenmaier, M Beer, A Jeffery-Smith, M Spannenkrebs, S Haag-Milz, C Wagner-Wiening, C Schlegel, J Fritz, S Zange, M Bestehorn, A Lindau, D Hoffmann, S Tiberi, U Mackenstedt, G Dobler
In May 2016, two cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were confirmed by serology (positive IgM and IgG antibodies against TBE virus (TBEV) in serum), with a possible link to raw milk and cheese from a goat farm in a region in Baden-Württemberg, Germany not previously known as TBE-endemic. The outbreak investigation identified 32 consumers of goat dairy products (29 consumers, one farm employee, two owners) of whom none had IgM antibodies against TBEV 3-8 weeks after consumption. Of the 27 notified TBE cases in the State, none reported consumption of raw goat milk or cheese from the suspected farm...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627147/determinants-of-antibody-persistence-across-doses-and-continents-after-single-dose-rvsv-zebov-vaccination-for-ebola-virus-disease-an-observational-cohort-study
#9
Angela Huttner, Selidji Todagbe Agnandji, Christophe Combescure, José F Fernandes, Emmanuel Bache Bache, Lumeka Kabwende, Francis Maina Ndungu, Jessica Brosnahan, Thomas P Monath, Barbara Lemaître, Stéphane Grillet, Miriam Botto, Olivier Engler, Jasmine Portmann, Denise Siegrist, Philip Bejon, Peter Silvera, Peter Kremsner, Claire-Anne Siegrist
BACKGROUND: The recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine expressing the Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein is efficacious in the weeks following single-dose injection, but duration of immunity is unknown. We aimed to assess antibody persistence at 1 and 2 years in volunteers who received single-dose rVSV-ZEBOV in three previous trials. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we prospectively followed-up participants from the African and European phase 1 rVSV-ZEBOV trials, who were vaccinated once in 2014-15 with 300 000 (low dose) or 10-50 million (high dose) plaque-forming units (pfu) of rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine to assess ZEBOV glycoprotein (IgG) antibody persistence...
April 4, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627146/ebola-virus-vaccination-and-the-longevity-of-total-versus-neutralising-antibody-response-is-it-enough
#10
Zachary A Bornholdt, Steven B Bradfute
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593045/degradation-of-a-novel-dna-damage-response-protein-tankyrase-1-binding-protein-1-tab182-following-adenovirus-infection
#11
Nafiseh Chalabi Hagkarim, Ellis L Ryan, Philip J Byrd, Robert Hollingworth, Neil J Shimwell, Angelo Agathanggelou, Manon Vavasseur, Viktoria Kolbe, Thomas Speiseder, Thomas Dobner, Grant S Stewart, Roger J Grand
Infection by most DNA viruses activates a cellular DNA damage response (DDR), which may be to the detriment or advantage of the virus. In the case of adenoviruses, they neutralise anti-viral effects of DDR activation by targeting a number of proteins for rapid proteasome-mediated degradation. We have now identified a novel DDR protein, tankyrase 1 binding protein 1 (TNKS1BP1 also known as Tab182), which is degraded during infection by adenovirus 5 and adenovirus 12. In both cases, degradation requires the action of E1B55K and E4orf6 viral proteins and is mediated through the proteasome by the action of cullin-based cellular E3 ligases...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543715/utilisation-of-chimeric-lyssaviruses-to-assess-vaccine-protection-against-highly-divergent-lyssaviruses
#12
Jennifer S Evans, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Hubert Buczkowski, Leigh Thorne, Anthony R Fooks, Ashley C Banyard
Lyssaviruses constitute a diverse range of viruses with the ability to cause fatal encephalitis known as rabies. Existing human rabies vaccines and post exposure prophylaxes (PEP) are based on inactivated preparations of, and neutralising antibody preparations directed against, classical rabies viruses, respectively. Whilst these prophylaxes are highly efficient at neutralising and preventing a productive infection with rabies virus, their ability to neutralise other lyssaviruses is thought to be limited. The remaining 15 virus species within the lyssavirus genus have been divided into at least three phylogroups that generally predict vaccine protection...
March 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523449/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-a-single-chain-antibody-fragment-generated-in-planta-with-potent-rabies-neutralisation-activity
#13
Waranyoo Phoolcharoen, Ashley C Banyard, Christophe Prehaud, David Selden, Guanghui Wu, Colin P D Birch, Tim H Szeto, Monique Lafon, Anthony R Fooks, Julian K-C Ma
Rabies causes more than 60,000 human deaths annually in areas where the virus is endemic. Importantly, rabies is one of the few pathogens for which there is no treatment following the onset of clinical disease with the outcome of infection being death in almost 100% of cases. Whilst vaccination, and the combination of vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin treatment for post-exposure administration are available, no tools have been identified that can reduce or prevent rabies virus replication once clinical disease has initiated...
March 6, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510916/a-foot-and-mouth-disease-sat2-vaccine-protects-swine-against-experimental-challenge-with-a-homologous-virus-strain-irrespective-of-mild-pathogenicity-in-this-species
#14
Laure Mouton, Aldo Dekker, Meindert Bleijenberg, Michel Blanchet, Jose Coco-Martin, Pascal Hudelet, Sylvain Goutebroze
FMDV serotype SAT2 is most frequently associated with outbreaks in ruminants. However, the risk of it spreading from cattle to pigs cannot be excluded. To assess the efficacy of an SAT2-type FMD inactivated vaccine against homologous challenge in pigs, a suitable challenge strain adapted to pigs was produced. After two passages in two pigs each, a FMDV stock of SAT2 challenge strain was produced. This material was used to infect two groups of five pigs. The first group being vaccinated 28 days before challenge and the other one left as an unvaccinated control...
April 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472132/efficacy-of-a-high-quality-o-1-campos-foot-and-mouth-disease-vaccine-upon-challenge-with-a-heterologous-korean-o-mya98-lineage-virus-in-pigs
#15
S Galdo Novo, V Malirat, E D Maradei, A R Pedemonte, A M Espinoza, E Smitsaart, K N Lee, J H Park, I E Bergmann
In 2010 serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus of the Mya98 lineage/SEA topotype spread into most East Asian countries. During 2010-2011 it was responsible for major outbreaks in the Republic of Korea where a monovalent O/Manisa vaccine (belonging to the ME-SA topotype) was applied to help control the outbreaks. Subsequently, all susceptible animals were vaccinated every 6 months with a vaccine containing the O/Manisa antigen. Despite vaccination, the disease re-occurred in 2014 and afterwards almost annually...
March 14, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402272/molecular-analysis-of-carnivore-protoparvovirus-detected-in-white-blood-cells-of-naturally-infected-cats
#16
Andrea Balboni, Francesca Bassi, Stefano De Arcangeli, Rosanna Zobba, Carla Dedola, Alberto Alberti, Mara Battilani
BACKGROUND: Cats are susceptible to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) variants 2a, 2b and 2c. Detection of FPV and CPV variants in apparently healthy cats and their persistence in white blood cells (WBC) and other tissues when neutralising antibodies are simultaneously present, suggest that parvovirus may persist long-term in the tissues of cats post-infection without causing clinical signs. The aim of this study was to screen a population of 54 cats from Sardinia (Italy) for the presence of both FPV and CPV DNA within buffy coat samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
February 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386094/distinction-between-serological-responses-following-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-tbev-infection-vs-vaccination-sweden-2017
#17
Bo Albinsson, Sirkka Vene, Lars Rombo, Jonas Blomberg, Åke Lundkvist, Bengt Rönnberg
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important European vaccine-preventable pathogen. Discrimination of vaccine-induced antibodies from those elicited by infection is important. We studied anti-TBEV IgM/IgG responses, including avidity and neutralisation, by multiplex serology in 50 TBEV patients and 50 TBEV vaccinees. Infection induced antibodies reactive to both whole virus (WV) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in 48 clinical cases, whereas 47 TBEV vaccinees had WV, but not NS1 antibodies, enabling efficient discrimination of infection/vaccination...
January 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362406/epidemiological-and-serological-surveillance-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-shanghai-china-2012-2016
#18
Jiayu Wang, Zheng Teng, Xiaoqing Cui, Chongshan Li, Hao Pan, Yaxu Zheng, Shenghua Mao, Yuying Yang, Limeng Wu, Xiaokui Guo, Xi Zhang, Yongzhang Zhu
Aside from enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), viruses that are known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), epidemiological profiles of other enteroviruses that induce HFMD are limited. We collected 9949 laboratory surveillance HFMD cases and 1230 serum samples from infants and children in Shanghai from 2012-2016. Since 2013, CV-A6 has displaced EV71 and CV-A16 to become the predominant serotype. Interestingly, novel epidemiological patterns in EV71 and CV-A16 infections were observed, with one large peak in both 2012 and 2014, followed by two smaller peaks in the respective following years (2013 and 2015)...
January 24, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339794/hpv-16-virions-can-remain-infectious-for-2-weeks-on-senescent-cells-but-require-cell-cycle-re-activation-to-allow-virus-entry
#19
Justyna Broniarczyk, Nadja Ring, Paola Massimi, Mauro Giacca, Lawrence Banks
Successful infection with Human Papillomaviruses requires mitosis, when incoming viral genomes gain access to nuclear components. However, very little is known about how long HPV particles can remain infectious in non-dividing cells or in which cellular compartments these viruses may reside. To investigate these questions we have used BJ cells as a reversible model of senescence and show that HPV-16 can only infect early-passage proliferating cells. Late-passage senescent cells are resistant to HPV infection, but this can be reversed by inducing cell cycle re-entry with a p53 siRNA...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244615/risk-assessment-for-japanese-encephalitis-vaccination
#20
Lance Turtle, Carolyn Driver
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most commonly diagnosed viral encephalitis in Asia. JE is caused by a virus called JE virus (JEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Neutralising antibody to JEV protects against JE, and can be induced by vaccination. JE is a potential threat to travellers to endemic areas, which are most of South and Southeast Asia and some Pacific Islands. The risk of JE can be expected to increase with increasing mosquito exposure and time spent in regions and seasons of active transmission...
January 2, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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