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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650085/immunogenicity-of-plant-produced-african-horse-sickness-virus-like-particles-implications-for-a-novel-vaccine
#1
Susan J Dennis, Ann E Meyers, Alan J Guthrie, Inga I Hitzeroth, Edward P Rybicki
African horse sickness (AHS) is a debilitating and often fatal viral disease affecting horses in much of Africa, caused by the dsRNA orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV). Vaccination remains the single most effective weapon in combatting AHS, as there is no treatment for the disease apart from good animal husbandry. However, the only commercially available vaccine is a live attenuated version of the virus (LAV). The threat of outbreaks of the disease outside its endemic region and the fact that the LAV is not licensed for use elsewhere in the world, have spurred attempts to develop an alternative safer, yet cost-effective recombinant vaccine...
June 26, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606591/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-rvsv%C3%A2-g-zebov-gp-ebola-virus-vaccine-candidate-in-healthy-adults-a-phase-1b-randomised-multicentre-double-blind-placebo-controlled-dose-response-study
#2
D Gray Heppner, Tracy L Kemp, Brian K Martin, William J Ramsey, Richard Nichols, Emily J Dasen, Charles J Link, Rituparna Das, Zhi Jin Xu, Eric A Sheldon, Teresa A Nowak, Thomas P Monath
BACKGROUND: The 2014 Zaire Ebola virus outbreak highlighted the need for a safe, effective vaccine with a rapid onset of protection. We report the safety and immunogenicity of the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein vaccine (rVSV∆G-ZEBOV-GP) across a 6 log10 dose range in two sequential cohorts. METHODS: In this phase 1b double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response study we enrolled and randomly assigned healthy adults (aged 18-61 years) at eight study sites in the USA to receive a single injection of vaccine or placebo, administered by intramuscular injection...
June 9, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579232/chadox1-and-mva-based-vaccine-candidates-against-mers-cov-elicit-neutralising-antibodies-and-cellular-immune-responses-in-mice
#3
Naif Khalaf Alharbi, Eriko Padron-Regalado, Craig P Thompson, Alexandra Kupke, Daniel Wells, Megan A Sloan, Keith Grehan, Nigel Temperton, Teresa Lambe, George Warimwe, Stephan Becker, Adrian V S Hill, Sarah C Gilbert
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has infected more than 1900 humans, since 2012. The syndrome ranges from asymptomatic and mild cases to severe pneumonia and death. The virus is believed to be circulating in dromedary camels without notable symptoms since the 1980s. Therefore, dromedary camels are considered the only animal source of infection. Neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are approved for veterinary or medical use despite active research on this area. Here, we developed four vaccine candidates against MERS-CoV based on ChAdOx1 and MVA viral vectors, two candidates per vector...
June 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571760/a-bivalent-dendrimeric-peptide-bearing-a-t-cell-epitope-from-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-protein-3a-improves-humoral-response-against-classical-swine-fever-virus
#4
José Alejandro Bohórquez, Sira Defaus, Sara Muñoz-González, Marta Perez-Simó, Rosa Rosell, Lorenzo Fraile, Francisco Sobrino, David Andreu, Llilianne Ganges
Three dendrimeric peptides were synthesized in order to evaluate their immunogenicity and their potential protection against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in domestic pigs. Construct 1, an optimized version of a previously used dendrimer, had four copies of a B-cell epitope derived from CSFV E2 glycoprotein connected to an also CSFV-derived T-cell epitope through maleimide instead of thioether linkages. Construct 2 was similarly built but included only two copies of the B-cell epitope, and in also bivalent construct 3 the CSFV T-cell epitope was replaced by a previously described one from the 3A protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)...
May 30, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558001/reverse-epitope-mapping-of-the-e2-glycoprotein-in-antibody-associated-hepatitis-c-virus
#5
Amruta S Naik, Ania Owsianka, Brendan A Palmer, Ciaran J O'Halloran, Nicole Walsh, Orla Crosbie, Elizabeth Kenny-Walsh, Arvind H Patel, Liam J Fanning
The humoral immune system responds to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by producing neutralising antibodies (nAb). In this study we generated three HCV pseudoparticles in which E1E2 glycoprotein sequence was targeted by the host humoral immune system. We used patient derived virus free Fabs (VF-Fabs) obtained from HCV genotype 1a (n = 3), genotype 1b (n = 7) and genotype 3a (n = 1) for neutralisation of HCVpp produced in this study both individually and in combination. Based on the available anti-HCV monoclonal nAb mapping information we selected amino acid region 384-619 for conformational epitope mapping...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533093/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-a-live-attenuated-influenza-h5-candidate-vaccine-strain-a-17-turkey-turkey-05-133-h5n2-and-its-priming-effects-for-potential-pre-pandemic-use-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Punnee Pitisuttithum, Kobporn Boonnak, Supat Chamnanchanunt, Pilaipan Puthavathana, Viravarn Luvira, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Vipa Thanachartwet, Udomsak Silachamroon, Wanibtisam Masamae, Alexandra Schuetz, Ponthip Wirachwong, Sit Thirapakpoomanunt, Larisa Rudenko, Erin Sparrow, Martin Friede, Marie-Paule Kieny
BACKGROUND: The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses has raised concerns about their pandemic potential. Vaccination is the most effective way of preventing influenza. In this study, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of an avian H5N2 live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV H5N2) in healthy Thai adults and its priming immune responses with an H5N1 inactivated vaccine boost. METHODS: This study was done at the Vaccine Trial Centre at Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand and was divided into two parts...
May 19, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507200/effects-of-microvirin-mono-and-oligomers-on-hepatitis-c-virus
#7
Yuan Qin Min, Xu Chu Duan, Yi Dan Zhou, Anna Kulinich, Meng Wang, Zhi-Peng Cai, Hong Yu Ma, Li Liu, Xiao Lian Zhang, Josef Voglmeir
Microvirin is a carbohydrate binding protein which shows high specificity for high-mannose type N-glycan structures. In this study we tried to identify whether microvirin could bind to high-mannose containing Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) envelope glycoproteins, which are heavily decorated decorated high-mannose glycans. In addition, recombinantly expressed microvirin oligomers in di-, tri-, and tetrameric form were evaluated for their viral inhibition. Microvirin oligomers bound more efficiently to HCV virions, and displayed in comparison to the microvirin monomer a higher neutralisation potency against HCV infection...
May 15, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475122/harnessing-local-immunity-for-an-effective-universal-swine-influenza-vaccine
#8
REVIEW
Elma Tchilian, Barbara Holzer
Influenza A virus infections are a global health threat to humans and are endemic in pigs, contributing to decreased weight gain and suboptimal reproductive performance. Pigs are also a source of new viruses of mixed swine, avian, and human origin, potentially capable of initiating human pandemics. Current inactivated vaccines induce neutralising antibody against the immunising strain but rapid escape occurs through antigenic drift of the surface glycoproteins. However, it is known that prior infection provides a degree of cross-protective immunity mediated by cellular immune mechanisms directed at the more conserved internal viral proteins...
May 5, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446669/salivary-blockade-protects-the-lower-respiratory-tract-of-mice-from-lethal-influenza-virus-infection
#9
Karen Ivinson, Georgia Deliyannis, Leanne McNabb, Lara Grollo, Brad Gilbertson, David Jackson, Lorena E Brown
It is possible to model the progression of influenza virus from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract in the mouse using viral inoculum delivered in a restricted manner to the nose. In this model, infection with the A/Udorn/307/72 (Udorn) strain of virus results ultimately in high viral titers in both the trachea and lungs. In contrast, the A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) strain causes an infection that is almost entirely limited to the nasal passages. The factors that govern the progression of virus down the respiratory tract are not well understood...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438410/vaccination-with-recombinant-modified-vaccinia-ankara-mva-viruses-expressing-single-african-horse-sickness-virus-vp2-antigens-induced-cross-reactive-virus-neutralising-antibodies-vnab-in-horses-when-administered-in-combination
#10
Nicola Mary Manning, Katarzyna Bachanek-Bankowska, Peter Paul Clement Mertens, Javier Castillo-Olivares
African horse sickness is a lethal viral disease of equids transmitted by biting midges of the Genus Culicoides. The disease is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa but outbreaks of high mortality and economic impact have occurred in the past in non-endemic regions of Africa, Asia and Southern Europe. Vaccination is critical for the control of this disease but only live attenuated vaccines are currently available. However, there are bio-safety concerns over the use of this type of vaccines, especially in non-endemic countries, and live attenuated vaccines do not have DIVA (Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals) capacity...
April 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434129/phage-displayed-peptides-that-mimic-epitopes-of-hepatitis-e-virus-capsid
#11
Osmany Larralde, Juraj Petrik
Hepatitis E is an emerging zoonotic infection of increasing public health threat for the UK, especially for immunosuppressed individuals. A human recombinant vaccine has been licensed only in China and is not clear whether it protects against hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3, the most prevalent in Europe. The aim of this study was to use phage display technology as a tool to identify peptides that mimic epitopes of HEV capsid (mimotopes). We identified putative linear and conformational mimotopes using sera from Scottish blood donors that have the immunological imprint of past HEV infection...
August 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421694/molecular-engineering-and-plant-expression-of-an-immunoglobulin-heavy-chain-scaffold-for-delivery-of-a-dengue-vaccine-candidate
#12
Mi-Young Kim, Craig Van Dolleweerd, Alastair Copland, Matthew John Paul, Sven Hofmann, Gina R Webster, Emily Julik, Ivonne Ceballos-Olvera, Jorge Reyes-Del Valle, Moon-Sik Yang, Yong-Suk Jang, Rajko Reljic, Julian K Ma
In order to enhance vaccine uptake by the immune cells in vivo, molecular engineering approach was employed to construct a polymeric immunoglobulin G scaffold (PIGS) that incorporates multiple copies of an antigen and targets the Fc gamma receptors on antigen-presenting cells. These self-adjuvanting immunogens were tested in the context of dengue infection, for which there is currently no globally licensed vaccine yet. Thus, the consensus domain III sequence (cEDIII) of dengue glycoprotein E was incorporated into PIGS and expressed in both tobacco plants and Chinese Ovary Hamster cells...
April 19, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406752/comparison-of-the-immunogenicity-and-safety-of-the-purified-chick-embryo-cell-rabies-vaccine-manufactured-in-india-and-germany-a-randomized-single-blind-multicentre-phase-iv-clinical-study
#13
Gadey Sampath, Angelika Banzhoff, Alaka Deshpande, Claudius Malerczyk, Ashwani Kumar Arora, Hoshang Vakil, Scott Preiss
This phase IV, single blind study assessed the immunogenicity and safety of India-manufactured purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (PCECV), compared with a German-manufactured batch obtained by the same production process. A total of 340 participants enrolled at 2 study sites in India were randomized (1:1:1:1) in 4 groups to receive a 5-dose Essen regimen with either 1 of the 3 Indian batches (PCECV-I) or the German batch (PCECV-G), administered on Days (D) 0, 3, 7, 14 and 30. The lot-to-lot consistency of PCECV-I batches in terms of induced immune response at D14 was demonstrated...
July 3, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399176/pathological-findings-in-the-red-fox-vulpes-vulpes-stone-marten-martes-foina-and-raccoon-dog-nyctereutes-procyonoides-with-special-emphasis-on-infectious-and-zoonotic-agents-in-northern-germany
#14
Charlotte Lempp, Nicole Jungwirth, Miguel L Grilo, Anja Reckendorf, Arlena Ulrich, Abbo van Neer, Rogier Bodewes, Vanessa M Pfankuche, Christian Bauer, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Ursula Siebert
Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397863/structure-of-the-ebola-virus-glycoprotein-spike-within-the-virion-envelope-at-11%C3%A2-%C3%A3-resolution
#15
Daniel R Beniac, Timothy F Booth
We present the structure of the surface Ebola virus (EBOV) trimeric glycoprotein (GP) spike at 11 Å resolution, in situ within the viral plasma membrane of purified virus particles. GP functions in cellular attachment, endosomal entry, and membrane fusion to initiate infection, and is a key therapeutic target. Nevertheless, only about half of the GP molecule has yet been solved to atomic resolution, excluding the mucin-like and transmembrane domains, and some of the glycans. Fitting of the atomic resolution X-ray data from expressed, truncated deletion constructs within our 11 Å structure of the entire molecule demonstrates the relationship between the GP1-GP2 domains, the mucin-like and transmembrane domains, and the bilaminar lipid envelope...
April 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397519/emerging-vector-borne-diseases-in-dromedaries-in-tunisia-west-nile-bluetongue-epizootic-haemorrhagic-disease-and-rift-valley-fever
#16
Thameur B Hassine, Jihane Amdouni, Federica Monaco, Giovanni Savini, Soufien Sghaier, Imed B Selimen, Walid Chandoul, Khaled B Hamida, Salah Hammami
A total of 118 sera were collected during 2016 from two groups of dromedaries from Kebili and Medenine governorates in the south of Tunisia. The aim of this study was to provide the first serological investigation of four emerging vector-borne diseases in two groups of dromedaries in Tunisia. Sera were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation test to identify West Nile virus (WNV), bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). In the first group, the seroprevalence for BTV was 4...
March 31, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397517/lumpy-skin-disease-in-cattle-frequency-of-occurrence-in-a-dairy-farm-and-a-preliminary-assessment-of-its-possible-impact-on-egyptian-buffaloes
#17
Mahmoud M Elhaig, Abdelfattah Selim, Mohamed Mahmoud
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an endemic infectious disease of cattle in Egypt. This survey aimed to define the prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical LSD virus (LSDV) infection among cattle and investigate their contact with water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in order to improve the understanding of LSD epidemiology. Cattle and buffalo were examined owing to the appearance of skin lesions. Because clinical signs were consistent with LSDV infection, samples from cattle in a non-grazing dairy farm (n = 450) were submitted for LSDV testing together with those from the in-contact buffaloes (n = 100)...
March 28, 2017: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396205/entry-inhibition-of-hsv-1-and-2-protects-mice-from-viral-lethal-challenge
#18
Nicola Clementi, Elena Criscuolo, Francesca Cappelletti, Paola Quaranta, Mauro Pistello, Roberta A Diotti, Giuseppe A Sautto, Alexander W Tarr, Federico Mailland, Daniela Concas, Roberto Burioni, Massimo Clementi, Nicasio Mancini
The present study focused on inhibition of HSV-1 and -2 replication and pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo, through the selective targeting of the envelope glycoprotein D. Firstly, a human monoclonal antibody (Hu-mAb#33) was identified that could neutralise both HSV-1 and -2 at nM concentrations, including clinical isolates from patients affected by different clinical manifestations and featuring different susceptibility to acyclovir in vitro. Secondly, the potency of inhibition of both infection by cell-free viruses and cell-to-cell virus transmission was also assessed...
April 8, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389099/a-multi-national-european-cross-sectional-study-of-feline-calicivirus-epidemiology-diversity-and-vaccine-cross-reactivity
#19
Maria M Afonso, Gina L Pinchbeck, Shirley L Smith, Janet M Daly, Rosalind M Gaskell, Susan Dawson, Alan D Radford
BACKGROUND: Feline calicivirus (FCV) is an important pathogen of cats for which vaccination is regularly practised. Long-term use of established vaccine antigens raises the theoretical possibility that field viruses could become resistant. This study aimed to assess the current ability of the FCV-F9 vaccine strain to neutralise a randomly collected contemporary panel of FCV field strains collected prospectively in six European countries. METHODS: Veterinary practices (64) were randomly selected from six countries (UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Germany, France and Italy)...
May 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369886/efficacy-of-feline-anti-parvovirus-antibodies-in-the-treatment-of-canine-parvovirus-infection
#20
M Gerlach, A L Proksch, S Unterer, S Speck, U Truyen, K Hartmann
OBJECTIVE: This prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study aimed to evaluate efficacy of commercially available feline anti-parvovirus antibodies in dogs with canine parvovirus infection. METHODS: First, cross-protection of feline panleukopenia virus antibodies against canine parvovirus was evaluated in vitro. In the subsequent prospective clinical trial, 31 dogs with clinical signs of canine parvovirus infection and a positive faecal canine parvovirus polymerase chain reaction were randomly assigned to a group receiving feline panleukopenia virus antibodies (n=15) or placebo (n=16)...
July 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
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