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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902354/humoral-immune-system-targets-clonotypic-antibody-associated-hepatitis-c-virus
#1
Amruta S Naik, Brendan A Palmer, Orla Crossbie, Elizabeth Kenny-Walsh, Liam J Fanning
Hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) is one of the potential neutralisation domains in the E2 glycoprotein of Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Point mutations of the HVR1 can lead to humoral immune escape in HCV infected patients. In this study we segregated the chronically infected viraemic sera from HCV infected patients into populations of antibody free virus (AFV) and antibody associated virus (AAV) and mapped potential epitopes within the E1E2 gene junction of AAV sequences (residues 364-430). Furthermore, we generated pseudotyped HCV particles (HCVpp) derived from AAV sequence to assess their infectivity...
November 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902347/the-conserved-n-terminus-of-human-rhinovirus-capsid-protein-vp4-contains-membrane-pore-forming-activity-and-is-a-target-for-neutralising-antibodies
#2
Anusha Panjwani, Amin S Asfor, Tobias J Tuthill
Human rhinovirus is the causative agent of the common cold and belongs to the non-enveloped picornavirus family. A trigger such as receptor binding or low pH initiates conformational changes in the capsid that allow the virus to attach to membranes and form a pore for the translocation of viral RNA into the cytoplasm. We previously showed that recombinant capsid protein VP4 was able to form membrane pores. In this study, we show the N-terminus but not C-terminus of VP4, formed pores with properties similar to full-length VP4 and consistent with the size required for transfer of RNA...
October 11, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889981/chimeric-trojan-protein-insertion-in-lentiviral-membranes-makes-lentiviruses-susceptible-to-neutralisation-by-anti-tetanus-serum-antibodies
#3
Anita Le-Heron, Steve Patterson, Rafael J Yáñez-Muñoz, George Dickson
This study describes the initial testing of a novel strategy for neutralisation of lentiviruses using the fundamental biology of enveloped viruses' assembly and budding. In the field of gene therapy, viral vector surface proteins have been manipulated in order to redirect host cell specificity by alteration of pseudo-types. We tested whether known viral pseudo-typing proteins or surface proteins known to be recruited to the HIV envelope could be engineered to carry neutralising epitopes from another microorganism onto the lentiviral surface...
November 27, 2016: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889255/antigenic-variation-of-lasota-and-genotype-vii-newcastle-disease-virus-ndv-and-their-efficacy-against-challenge-with-velogenic-ndv
#4
Hui-Ming Yang, Jing Zhao, Jia Xue, Yan-Ling Yang, Guo-Zhong Zhang
Continued monitoring and evaluation of vaccine efficacy against prevalent or newly isolated strains has great importance in advising Newcastle disease (ND) immunization strategy. In this study, we systematically analysed the antigenic variation between genotype VII NDV aSG10 and the commercial vaccine strain LaSota, and assessed their efficacy against challenge with velogenic NDV by serological analysis and animal testing. We show that these two viruses are antigenically distinguishable; anti-NDV aSG10 hyper-immune sera demonstrated higher haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titres (11...
November 23, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851799/absence-of-association-between-cord-specific-antibody-levels-and-severe-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-disease-in-early-infants-a-case-control-study-from-coastal-kenya
#5
Joyce Uchi Nyiro, Charles Jumba Sande, Martin Mutunga, Patience Kerubo Kiyuka, Patrick Kioo Munywoki, John Anthony G Scott, David James Nokes
BACKGROUND: The target group for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease prevention is infants under 6 months of age. Vaccine boosting of antibody titres in pregnant mothers could protect these young infants from severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated disease. Quantifying protective levels of RSV-specific maternal antibody at birth would inform vaccine development. METHODS: A case control study nested in a birth cohort (2002-07) was conducted in Kilifi, Kenya; where 30 hospitalised cases of RSV-associated severe disease were matched to 60 controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797937/induction-of-humoural-and-cellular-immunity-by-immunisation-with-hcv-particle-vaccine-in-a-non-human-primate-model
#6
Hiroshi Yokokawa, Atsunori Higashino, Saori Suzuki, Masaki Moriyama, Noriko Nakamura, Tomohiko Suzuki, Ryosuke Suzuki, Koji Ishii, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Takaji Wakita, Hirofumi Akari, Takanobu Kato
OBJECTIVE: Although HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, there is currently no prophylactic vaccine for this virus. Thus, the development of an HCV vaccine that can induce both humoural and cellular immunity is urgently needed. To create an effective HCV vaccine, we evaluated neutralising antibody induction and cellular immune responses following the immunisation of a non-human primate model with cell culture-generated HCV (HCVcc). DESIGN: To accomplish this, 10 common marmosets were immunised with purified, inactivated HCVcc in combination with two different adjuvants: the classically used aluminum hydroxide (Alum) and the recently established adjuvant: CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) wrapped by schizophyllan (K3-SPG)...
October 26, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795431/broadly-neutralising-antibodies-display-superior-potential-over-non-neutralising-antibodies-in-preventing-hiv-1-infection-of-mucosal-tissue
#7
Hannah M Cheeseman, Natalia J Olejniczak, Paul M Rogers, Abbey B Evans, Deborah F L King, Paul Ziprin, Hua-Xin Liao, Barton F Haynes, Robin J Shattock
: Definition of the key parameters mediating effective antibody blocking of HIV-1 acquisition within mucosal tissue may prove critical to effective vaccine development and the prophylactic use of monoclonal antibodies. Although direct antibody-mediated neutralisation is highly effective against cell-free virus, antibodies targeting different sites of envelope vulnerability may display differential activity against mucosal infection. Non-neutralising antibodies (nnAbs) may also impact on mucosal transmission events through Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR)-mediated inhibition...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793398/novel-expression-of-a-functional-trimeric-fragment-of-human-sp-a-with-efficacy-in-neutralisation-of-rsv
#8
Alastair Watson, Nina Kronqvist, C Mirella Spalluto, Mark Griffiths, Karl J Staples, Tom Wilkinson, Uffe Holmskov, Grith L Sorensen, Anna Rising, Jan Johansson, Jens Madsen, Howard Clark
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and hospitalisation of infants in developed countries. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an important innate immune molecule, localized in pulmonary surfactant. SP-A binds to carbohydrates on the surface of pathogens in a calcium-dependent manner to enable neutralisation, agglutination and clearance of pathogens including RSV. SP-A forms trimeric units and further oligomerises through interactions between its N-terminal domains. Whilst a recombinant trimeric fragment of the closely related molecule (surfactant protein D) has been shown to retain many of the native protein's functions, the importance of the SP-A oligomeric structure in its interaction with RSV has not been determined...
October 18, 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783676/seroprevalence-of-sandfly-borne-phleboviruses-belonging-to-three-serocomplexes-sandfly-fever-naples-sandfly-fever-sicilian-and-salehabad-in-dogs-from-greece-and-cyprus-using-neutralization-test
#9
Sulaf Alwassouf, Vasiliki Christodoulou, Laurence Bichaud, Pantelis Ntais, Apostolos Mazeris, Maria Antoniou, Remi N Charrel
Phleboviruses transmitted by sandflies are endemic in the Mediterranean area. The last decade has witnessed the description of an accumulating number of novel viruses. Although, the risk of exposure of vertebrates is globally assessed, detailed geographic knowledge is poor even in Greece and Cyprus where sandfly fever has been recognized for a long time and repeatedly. A total of 1,250 dogs from mainland Greece and Greek archipelago on one hand and 422 dogs from Cyprus on the other hand have been sampled and tested for neutralising antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV), Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV), Arbia virus, and Adana virus i...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742221/enhanced-immunosurveillance-for-animal-morbilliviruses-using-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-vsv-pseudotypes
#10
Nicola Logan, William G Dundon, Adama Diallo, Michael D Baron, M James Nyarobi, Sarah Cleaveland, Julius Keyyu, Robert Fyumagwa, Margaret J Hosie, Brian J Willett
The measurement of virus-specific neutralising antibodies represents the "gold-standard" for diagnostic serology. For animal morbilliviruses, such as peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) or rinderpest virus (RPV), live virus-based neutralisation tests require high-level biocontainment to prevent the accidental escape of the infectious agents. In this study, we describe the adaptation of a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG) based pseudotyping system for the measurement of neutralising antibodies against animal morbilliviruses...
November 11, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741319/cross-neutralising-nanobodies-bind-to-a-conserved-pocket-in-the-hemagglutinin-stem-region-identified-using-yeast-display-and-deep-mutational-scanning
#11
Tiziano Gaiotto, Simon E Hufton
Cross-neutralising monoclonal antibodies against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are of considerable interest as both therapeutics and diagnostic tools. We have recently described five different single domain antibodies (nanobodies) which share this cross-neutralising activity and suggest their small size, high stability, and cleft binding properties may present distinct advantages over equivalent conventional antibodies. We have used yeast display in combination with deep mutational scanning to give residue level resolution of positions in the antibody-HA interface which are crucial for binding...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737830/non-specific-immunological-effects-of-selected-routine-childhood-immunisations-systematic-review
#12
Rama Kandasamy, Merryn Voysey, Fiona McQuaid, Karlijn de Nie, Rebecca Ryan, Olivia Orr, Ulrike Uhlig, Charles Sande, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
OBJECTIVE:  To identify and characterise non-specific immunological effects after routine childhood vaccines against BCG, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. DESIGN:  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies. DATA SOURCES:  Embase, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Trip searched between 1947 and January 2014. Publications submitted by a panel of experts in the specialty were also included...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729590/a-freedom-from-disease-study-schmallenberg-virus-in-the-south-of-england-in-2015
#13
Jessica Eleanor Stokes, Matthew Baylis, Jennifer Sarah Duncan
In 2011-2012, northern European livestock faced a threat from a newly emerged virus, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), only a few years after a major outbreak of bluetongue serotype 8 (BTV-8). Like BTV-8, SBV is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges to ruminants and spread throughout Europe. SBV, however, spread faster, reaching the UK within three months of initial discovery. Adult ruminants show only mild, if any, clinical signs; however, infection of naive ruminants by SBV during the vulnerable period of gestation leads to abortions, stillbirths and fetal malformations...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684783/lack-of-virological-and-serological-evidence-for-continued-circulation-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n8-virus-in-wild-birds-in-the-netherlands-14-november-2014-to-31-january-2016
#14
Marjolein J Poen, Josanne H Verhagen, Ruth J Manvell, Ian Brown, Theo M Bestebroer, Stefan van der Vliet, Oanh Vuong, Rachel D Scheuer, Henk P van der Jeugd, Bart A Nolet, Erik Kleyheeg, Gerhard J D M Müskens, Frank A Majoor, Christian Grund, Ron A M Fouchier
In 2014, H5N8 clade 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage emerged in poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe and North America. Here, wild birds were extensively investigated in the Netherlands for HPAI H5N8 virus (real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the matrix and H5 gene) and antibody detection (haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation assays) before, during and after the first virus detection in Europe in late 2014. Between 21 February 2015 and 31 January 2016, 7,337 bird samples were tested for the virus...
September 22, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671080/viral-neurotropism-peripheral-neuropathy-and-other-morphological-abnormalities-in-bovine-ephemeral-fever-virus-infected-downer-cattle
#15
R Barigye, S Davis, R Hunt, N Hunt, S Walsh, N Elliott, C Burnup, S Aumann, C Day, K Dyrting, R Weir, L F Melville
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the neurotropism of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus (BEFV) and described histomorphological abnormalities of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that may causally contribute to paresis or paralysis in BEF. METHODS: Four paralysed and six asymptomatic but virus-infected cattle were monitored, and blood and serum samples screened by qRT-PCR, virus isolation and neutralisation tests. Fresh brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve and other tissues were qRT-PCR-tested for viral RNA, while formalin-fixed specimens were processed routinely and immunohistochemically evaluated for histomorphological abnormalities and viral antigen distribution, respectively...
October 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661614/development-and-evaluation-of-real-time-rt-pcr-assays-for-detection-and-typing-of-bluetongue-virus
#16
Sushila Maan, Narender Singh Maan, Manjunatha N Belaganahalli, Abraham C Potgieter, Vinay Kumar, Kanisht Batra, Isabel M Wright, Peter D Kirkland, Peter P C Mertens
Bluetongue virus is the type species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Bluetongue viruses (BTV) are transmitted between their vertebrate hosts primarily by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) in which they also replicate. Consequently BTV distribution is dependent on the activity, geographic distribution, and seasonal abundance of Culicoides spp. The virus can also be transmitted vertically in vertebrate hosts, and some strains/serotypes can be transmitted horizontally in the absence of insect vectors...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641777/association-between-zika-virus-infection-and-microcephaly-in-brazil-january-to-may-2016-preliminary-report-of-a-case-control-study
#17
Thalia Velho Barreto de Araújo, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Ana Paula Lopes de Melo, Sandra Valongueiro, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Wayner Vieira Souza, Cynthia Braga, Sinval Pinto Brandão Filho, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Enrique Vazquez, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Souza Cruz, Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha Henriques, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque Bezerra, Priscila Mayrelle da Silva Castanha, Rafael Dhalia, Ernesto Torres Azevedo Marques-Júnior, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli
BACKGROUND: The microcephaly epidemic, which started in Brazil in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO in 2016. We report the preliminary results of a case-control study investigating the association between microcephaly and Zika virus infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We did this case-control study in eight public hospitals in Recife, Brazil. Cases were neonates with microcephaly. Two controls (neonates without microcephaly), matched by expected date of delivery and area of residence, were selected for each case...
September 15, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638357/vaccine-induced-mucosal-immunity-to-poliovirus-analysis-of-cohorts-from-an-open-label-randomised-controlled-trial-in-latin-american-infants
#18
Peter F Wright, Ruth I Connor, Wendy F Wieland-Alter, Anne G Hoen, Austin W Boesch, Margaret E Ackerman, M Steven Oberste, Chris Gast, Elizabeth B Brickley, Edwin J Asturias, Ricardo Rüttimann, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Identification of mechanisms that limit poliovirus replication is crucial for informing decisions aimed at global polio eradication. Studies of mucosal immunity induced by oral poliovirus (OPV) or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) vaccines and mixed schedules thereof will determine the effectiveness of different vaccine strategies to block virus shedding. We used samples from a clinical trial of different vaccination schedules to measure intestinal immunity as judged by neutralisation of virus and virus-specific IgA in stools...
September 13, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589865/neutralization-based-seroprevalence-of-toscana-virus-and-sandfly-fever-sicilian-virus-in-dogs-and-cats-from-portugal
#19
Sulaf Alwassouf, Carla Maia, Nazli Ayhan, Monica Coimbra, Jose Manuel Cristovao, Herve Richet, Laurence Bichaud, Lenea Campino, Remi N Charrel
Sandfly-borne phleboviruses are endemic in the Mediterranean basin. However, levels of exposure of human and animal populations are inadequately researched. Toscana virus (TOSV) is present in Portugal where it causes human infection and disease; in contrast there are few data for sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) which has neither been isolated nor detected by molecular tests and for which there are only limited serological data. The sera collected from 1160 dogs and 189 cats in southern Portugal were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies against TOSV and SFSV, two viruses recognized as distinct serocomplexes in the Mediterranean region...
November 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571912/inadvertent-yellow-fever-vaccination-of-a-patient-with-crohn-s-disease-treated-with-infliximab-and-methotrexate
#20
Christina Ekenberg, Nina Friis-Møller, Thomas Ulstrup, Claus Aalykke
We present a case of a 56-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, treated with methotrexate and infliximab, who inadvertently received yellow fever vaccination (YFV) prior to a journey to Tanzania. She was not previously vaccinated against YF. YFV contains live-attenuated virus, and is contraindicated in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Following vaccination, the patient fell ill with influenza-like illness. Elevated transaminase levels and YF viremia were detected. Despite being immunocompromised, the patient did not develop more severe adverse effects...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
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