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virus neutralisation

Jennifer S Evans, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Hubert Buczkowski, Leigh Thorne, Anthony R Fooks, Ashley C Banyard
Lyssaviruses constitute a diverse range of viruses with the ability to cause fatal encephalitis known as rabies. Existing human rabies vaccines and post exposure prophylaxes (PEP) are based on inactivated preparations of, and neutralising antibody preparations directed against, classical rabies viruses, respectively. Whilst these prophylaxes are highly efficient at neutralising and preventing a productive infection with rabies virus, their ability to neutralise other lyssaviruses is thought to be limited. The remaining 15 virus species within the lyssavirus genus have been divided into at least three phylogroups that generally predict vaccine protection...
March 15, 2018: Viruses
Waranyoo Phoolcharoen, Ashley C Banyard, Christophe Prehaud, David Selden, Guanghui Wu, Colin P D Birch, Tim H Szeto, Monique Lafon, Anthony R Fooks, Julian K-C Ma
Rabies causes more than 60,000 human deaths annually in areas where the virus is endemic. Importantly, rabies is one of the few pathogens for which there is no treatment following the onset of clinical disease with the outcome of infection being death in almost 100% of cases. Whilst vaccination, and the combination of vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin treatment for post-exposure administration are available, no tools have been identified that can reduce or prevent rabies virus replication once clinical disease has initiated...
March 6, 2018: Vaccine
Laure Mouton, Aldo Dekker, Meindert Bleijenberg, Michel Blanchet, Jose Coco-Martin, Pascal Hudelet, Sylvain Goutebroze
FMDV serotype SAT2 is most frequently associated with outbreaks in ruminants. However, the risk of it spreading from cattle to pigs cannot be excluded. To assess the efficacy of an SAT2-type FMD inactivated vaccine against homologous challenge in pigs, a suitable challenge strain adapted to pigs was produced. After two passages in two pigs each, a FMDV stock of SAT2 challenge strain was produced. This material was used to infect two groups of five pigs. The first group being vaccinated 28 days before challenge and the other one left as an unvaccinated control...
March 3, 2018: Vaccine
S Galdo Novo, V Malirat, E D Maradei, A R Pedemonte, A M Espinoza, E Smitsaart, K N Lee, J H Park, I E Bergmann
In 2010 serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus of the Mya98 lineage/SEA topotype spread into most East Asian countries. During 2010-2011 it was responsible for major outbreaks in the Republic of Korea where a monovalent O/Manisa vaccine (belonging to the ME-SA topotype) was applied to help control the outbreaks. Subsequently, all susceptible animals were vaccinated every 6 months with a vaccine containing the O/Manisa antigen. Despite vaccination, the disease re-occurred in 2014 and afterwards almost annually...
February 19, 2018: Vaccine
Andrea Balboni, Francesca Bassi, Stefano De Arcangeli, Rosanna Zobba, Carla Dedola, Alberto Alberti, Mara Battilani
BACKGROUND: Cats are susceptible to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) variants 2a, 2b and 2c. Detection of FPV and CPV variants in apparently healthy cats and their persistence in white blood cells (WBC) and other tissues when neutralising antibodies are simultaneously present, suggest that parvovirus may persist long-term in the tissues of cats post-infection without causing clinical signs. The aim of this study was to screen a population of 54 cats from Sardinia (Italy) for the presence of both FPV and CPV DNA within buffy coat samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
February 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Bo Albinsson, Sirkka Vene, Lars Rombo, Jonas Blomberg, Åke Lundkvist, Bengt Rönnberg
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important European vaccine-preventable pathogen. Discrimination of vaccine-induced antibodies from those elicited by infection is important. We studied anti-TBEV IgM/IgG responses, including avidity and neutralisation, by multiplex serology in 50 TBEV patients and 50 TBEV vaccinees. Infection induced antibodies reactive to both whole virus (WV) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in 48 clinical cases, whereas 47 TBEV vaccinees had WV, but not NS1 antibodies, enabling efficient discrimination of infection/vaccination...
January 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Jiayu Wang, Zheng Teng, Xiaoqing Cui, Chongshan Li, Hao Pan, Yaxu Zheng, Shenghua Mao, Yuying Yang, Limeng Wu, Xiaokui Guo, Xi Zhang, Yongzhang Zhu
Aside from enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16), viruses that are known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), epidemiological profiles of other enteroviruses that induce HFMD are limited. We collected 9949 laboratory surveillance HFMD cases and 1230 serum samples from infants and children in Shanghai from 2012-2016. Since 2013, CV-A6 has displaced EV71 and CV-A16 to become the predominant serotype. Interestingly, novel epidemiological patterns in EV71 and CV-A16 infections were observed, with one large peak in both 2012 and 2014, followed by two smaller peaks in the respective following years (2013 and 2015)...
January 24, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Justyna Broniarczyk, Nadja Ring, Paola Massimi, Mauro Giacca, Lawrence Banks
Successful infection with Human Papillomaviruses requires mitosis, when incoming viral genomes gain access to nuclear components. However, very little is known about how long HPV particles can remain infectious in non-dividing cells or in which cellular compartments these viruses may reside. To investigate these questions we have used BJ cells as a reversible model of senescence and show that HPV-16 can only infect early-passage proliferating cells. Late-passage senescent cells are resistant to HPV infection, but this can be reversed by inducing cell cycle re-entry with a p53 siRNA...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lance Turtle, Carolyn Driver
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most commonly diagnosed viral encephalitis in Asia. JE is caused by a virus called JE virus (JEV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, and is transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. Neutralising antibody to JEV protects against JE, and can be induced by vaccination. JE is a potential threat to travellers to endemic areas, which are most of South and Southeast Asia and some Pacific Islands. The risk of JE can be expected to increase with increasing mosquito exposure and time spent in regions and seasons of active transmission...
January 2, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Thalia Velho Barreto de Araújo, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Wayner Vieira Souza, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Ana Paula Lopes de Melo, Sandra Valongueiro, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Cynthia Braga, Sinval Pinto Brandão Filho, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Enrique Vazquez, Danielle di Cavalcanti Souza Cruz, Claudio Maierovitch Pessanha Henriques, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque Bezerra, Priscila Mayrelle da Silva Castanha, Rafael Dhalia, Ernesto Torres Azevedo Marques-Júnior, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli, Laura Cunha Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: A Zika virus epidemic emerged in northeast Brazil in 2015 and was followed by a striking increase in congenital microcephaly cases, triggering a declaration of an international public health emergency. This is the final report of the first case-control study evaluating the potential causes of microcephaly: congenital Zika virus infection, vaccines, and larvicides. The published preliminary report suggested a strong association between microcephaly and congenital Zika virus infection...
December 11, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Alexandre Servat, Marine Wasniewski, Matthieu Gaillard, Christophe Borel, Florence Cliquet
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal viral encephalitic disease that is caused by lyssaviruses which can affect all mammals, including human and bats. In Europe, bat rabies cases are attributed to five different lyssavirus species, the majority of rabid bats being attributed to European bat 1 lyssavirus (EBLV-1), circulating mainly in serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus). In France, rabies in bats is under surveillance since 1989, with 77 positive cases reported between 1989 and 2016. CASE PRESENTATION: In the frame of the bat rabies surveillance, an unusual mortality of serotine bats was reported in 2009 in a village in North-East France...
December 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Kayvon Modjarrad, Leyi Lin, Sarah L George, Kathryn E Stephenson, Kenneth H Eckels, Rafael A De La Barrera, Richard G Jarman, Erica Sondergaard, Janice Tennant, Jessica L Ansel, Kristin Mills, Michael Koren, Merlin L Robb, Jill Barrett, Jason Thompson, Alison E Kosel, Peter Dawson, Andrew Hale, C Sabrina Tan, Stephen R Walsh, Keith E Meyer, James Brien, Trevor A Crowell, Azra Blazevic, Karla Mosby, Rafael A Larocca, Peter Abbink, Michael Boyd, Christine A Bricault, Michael S Seaman, Anne Basil, Melissa Walsh, Veronica Tonwe, Daniel F Hoft, Stephen J Thomas, Dan H Barouch, Nelson L Michael
BACKGROUND: A safe, effective, and rapidly scalable vaccine against Zika virus infection is needed. We developed a purified formalin-inactivated Zika virus vaccine (ZPIV) candidate that showed protection in mice and non-human primates against viraemia after Zika virus challenge. Here we present the preliminary results in human beings. METHODS: We did three phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials of ZPIV with aluminium hydroxide adjuvant. In all three studies, healthy adults were randomly assigned by a computer-generated list to receive 5 μg ZPIV or saline placebo, in a ratio of 4:1 at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA, or of 5:1 at Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO, USA, and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA...
December 4, 2017: Lancet
Kok Fei Chan, Louise A Carolan, Julian Druce, Keith Chappell, Daniel Watterson, Paul Young, Daniil Korenkov, Kanta Subbarao, Ian G Barr, Karen L Laurie, Patrick C Reading
Small animal models have been used to obtain many insights regarding the pathogenesis and immune responses induced following infection with human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Amongst those described to date, infections in cotton rats, mice, guinea pigs, chinchillas and Syrian hamsters with hRSV strains Long and/or A2 have been well characterised, although clinical isolates have also been examined. Ferrets are also susceptible to hRSV infection but the pathogenesis and immune responses elicited following infection have not been well characterised...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Virology
Anne-Sophie Brunel, Benoit Guery
For the last few decades, multidrug resistance has become an increasing concern for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The number of new molecules has dramatically decreased and antibiotic resistance is now a priority in the international community. Facing this new threat, a large number of new as well as "old" solutions are now being discussed in the medical community to propose an alternative to antibiotic treatments. A first option is to potentiate the effect of existing molecules through combinations to circumvent the individual molecule resistance...
November 29, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
Ming Chen, Chie Aoki-Utsubo, Masanori Kameoka, Lin Deng, Yutaka Terada, Wataru Kamitani, Kei Sato, Yoshio Koyanagi, Makoto Hijikata, Keiko Shindo, Takeshi Noda, Michinori Kohara, Hak Hotta
Hepatitis C virus (HCV), dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) belong to the family Flaviviridae. Their viral particles have the envelope composed of viral proteins and a lipid bilayer acquired from budding through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The phospholipid content of the ER membrane differs from that of the plasma membrane (PM). The phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) superfamily consists of a large number of members that specifically catalyse the hydrolysis of phospholipids at a particular position...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
M J Ankcorn, S Ijaz, B Haywood, J Neuberger, A M Elsharkawy, J Maggs, R S Tedder
Genotype 3 hepatitis E virus (HEV) can lead to persistent infections in immunocompromised hosts. A recently available commercial assay for the detection of HEV antigen (HEV-Ag ELISA, Wantai diagnostics) may enable the study of HEV-Ag dynamics in such persistent infections, however currently there is no confirmatory test available. We generated a putative neutralising reagent from a pool of four convalescent blood donor samples and explored neutralising activity against HEV antigens from clinical samples, HEV tissue-culture and virus-like particles...
February 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Mana Mahapatra, Sasmita Upadhyaya, Sharie Aviso, Aravindh Babu, Geoff Hutchings, Satya Parida
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Southeast Asia (SEA) and East Asia with circulation of multiple serotypes and multiple genotypes within each serotype of the virus. Although countries like Japan and South Korea in the Far East were free of FMD, in 2010 FMD serotype O (O/Mya-98) outbreaks were recorded and since then South Korea has experienced several FMD outbreaks despite regular vaccination. In this study a total of 85 serotype O FMD viruses (FMDV) isolated from 2007 to 2012 from SEA, East Asia and Far East were characterized by virus neutralisation tests using antisera to four existing (O/HKN/6/83, O/IND/R2/75, O/SKR/2010 and O/PanAsia-2) and one putative (O/MYA/2009) vaccine strains, and by full capsid sequencing...
December 18, 2017: Vaccine
Nicole Upfold, Caroline Ross, Özlem Tastan Bishop, Garry A Luke, Caroline Knox
The early stages of picornavirus capsid assembly and the host factors involved are poorly understood. Since the localisation of viral proteins in infected cells can provide information on their function, antibodies against purified Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) GDVII capsids were generated by immunisation of rabbits. The resultant anti-TMEV capsid antibodies recognised a C-terminal region of VP1 but not VP2 or VP3 by Western analysis. Examination of the sites of TMEV capsid assembly by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy showed that at 5h post infection, capsid signal was diffusely cytoplasmic with strong perinuclear staining and moved into large punctate structures from 6 to 8h post infection...
January 15, 2018: Virus Research
Virginia M Stone, Minna M Hankaniemi, Emma Svedin, Amirbabak Sioofy-Khojine, Sami Oikarinen, Heikki Hyöty, Olli H Laitinen, Vesa P Hytönen, Malin Flodström-Tullberg
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Epidemiological studies suggest a role for Coxsackievirus B (CVB) serotypes in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, but their actual contribution remains elusive. In the present study, we have produced a CVB1 vaccine to test whether vaccination against CVBs can prevent virus-induced diabetes in an experimental model. METHODS: NOD and SOCS1-tg mice were vaccinated three times with either a formalin-fixed non-adjuvanted CVB1 vaccine or a buffer control...
November 18, 2017: Diabetologia
Nicholas A Lyons, Anna B Ludi, Ginette Wilsden, Pip Hamblin, Ibrahim Ahmed Qasim, Simon Gubbins, Donald P King
In 2015, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses of the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage emerged from the Indian sub-continent to cause outbreaks in the Middle and Near East. A factor which has been proposed to have contributed to the rapid spread of this lineage is the poor in vitro vaccine-match of field isolates to vaccine strains that are commonly used in the region. This study used data from outbreaks on four large-scale dairy farms using routine vaccination in Saudi Arabia, to evaluate the impact of vaccination and learn how to manage outbreaks more effectively in this setting...
December 14, 2017: Vaccine
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