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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344163/characterization-of-antibody-response-in-neuroinvasive-infection-caused-by-toscana-virus
#1
Anna Pierro, Sabrina Ficarelli, Nazli Ayhan, Silvia Morini, Luigi Raumer, Michele Bartoletti, Antonio Mastroianni, Francesca Prati, Simona Schivazappa, Patrizia Cenni, Caterina Vocale, Giada Rossini, Paolo Gaibani, Vittorio Sambri, Maria Paola Landini, Russel Edward Lewis, Remi N Charrel, Stefania Varani
OBJECTIVES: Among sandfly-borne pathogens, Toscana virus (TOSV) is a prominent cause of summer meningitis in Mediterranean Europe. Here, we assessed the kinetics of anti-TOSV antibodies over time in 41 patients diagnosed with TOSV-meningitis or meningoencephalitis in North-eastern Italy. METHODS: Acute and follow-up serum samples were collected up to 20 months after diagnosis of TOSV infection and tested for the presence of specific antibody using immunoenzymatic and indirect immunofluorescence assays...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341113/dynamics-of-african-horse-sickness-virus-nucleic-acid-and-antibody-in-horses-following-immunization-with-a-commercial-polyvalent-live-attenuated-vaccine
#2
C T Weyer, J D Grewar, P Burger, C Joone, C Lourens, N J MacLachlan, A J Guthrie
African horse sickness (AHS) is a fatal disease of equids relevant to the global equine industry. Detection of AHS virus (AHSV) during outbreaks has become more rapid and efficient with the advent of group specific reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (GS RT-qPCR) assays to detect AHSV nucleic acid. Use of GS RT-qPCR together with recently described type specific (TS RT-qPCR) assays cannot only expedite diagnosis of AHS but also facilitate further evaluation of the dynamics of AHSV infection in the equine host...
March 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333616/cross-sectional-surveillance-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-mers-cov-in-dromedary-camels-and-other-mammals-in-egypt-august-2015-to-january-2016
#3
Mohamed Ali, Rabeh El-Shesheny, Ahmed Kandeil, Mahmoud Shehata, Basma Elsokary, Mokhtar Gomaa, Naglaa Hassan, Ahmed El Sayed, Ahmed El-Taweel, Heba Sobhy, Folorunso Oludayo Fasina, Gwenaelle Dauphin, Ihab El Masry, Abebe Wossene Wolde, Peter Daszak, Maureen Miller, Sophie VonDobschuetz, Emma Gardner, Subhash Morzaria, Juan Lubroth, Yilma Jobre Makonnen
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Egypt to determine the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in imported and resident camels and bats, as well as to assess possible transmission of the virus to domestic ruminants and equines. A total of 1,031 sera, 1,078 nasal swabs, 13 rectal swabs, and 38 milk samples were collected from 1,078 camels in different types of sites. In addition, 145 domestic animals and 109 bats were sampled. Overall, of 1,031 serologically-tested camels, 871 (84...
March 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332643/virus-mutations-and-their-impact-on-vaccination-against-infectious-bursal-disease-gumboro-disease
#4
A Boudaoud, B Mamache, W Tombari, A Ghram
Infectious bursal disease (also known as Gumboro disease) is an immunosuppressive viral disease specific to chickens. In spite of all the information amassed on the antigenic and immunological characteristics of the virus, the disease has not yet been brought fully under control. It is still prevalent in properly vaccinated flocks carrying specific antibodies at levels normally high enough to prevent the disease. Common causes apart, failure of vaccination against infectious bursal disease is associated mainly with early vaccination in flocks of unknown immune status and with the evolution of viruses circulating in the field, leading to antigenic drift and a sharp rise in pathogenicity...
December 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301280/panblok-h1-advax-h1n1-2009pdm-vaccine-insights-into-rapid-development-of-an-delta-inulin-adjuvanted-recombinant-pandemic-influenza-vaccine
#5
Yoshikazu Honda-Okubo, Harinda Rajapaksha, Dimitar Sajkov, David Gordon, Manon M J Cox, Nikolai Petrovsky
Timely vaccine supply is critical during influenza pandemics but is impeded by current virus-based manufacturing methods. The 2009 H1N1/2009pdm 'swine flu' pandemic reinforced the need for innovation in pandemic vaccine design. We report on insights gained during rapid development of a pandemic vaccine based on recombinant haemagglutinin (rHA) formulated with Advax™ delta inulin adjuvant (Panblok-H1/Advax). Panblok-H1/Advax was designed and manufactured within 1 month of the pandemic declaration by WHO and successfully entered human clinical testing in under 3 months from first isolation and sequencing of the novel pandemic virus, requiring several major challenges to be overcome...
February 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288206/an-in-vivo-system-for-directed-experimental-evolution-of-rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-virus
#6
Robyn N Hall, Lorenzo Capucci, Markus Matthaei, Simona Esposito, Peter J Kerr, Michael Frese, Tanja Strive
The calicivirus Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is widely used in Australia as a biocontrol agent to manage wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. However, widespread herd immunity limits the effectiveness of the currently used strain, CAPM V-351. To overcome this, we developed an experimental platform for the selection and characterisation of novel RHDV strains. As RHDV does not replicate in cell culture, variant viruses were selected by serially passaging a highly virulent RHDV field isolate in immunologically naïve laboratory rabbits that were passively immunised 18-24 hours post-challenge with a neutralising monoclonal antibody...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284595/novel-poly-uridine-insertion-in-the-3-utr-and-e2-amino-acid-substitutions-in-a-low-virulent-classical-swine-fever-virus
#7
Liani Coronado, Matthias Liniger, Sara Muñoz-González, Alexander Postel, Lester Josue Pérez, Marta Pérez-Simó, Carmen Laura Perera, Maria Teresa Frías-Lepoureau, Rosa Rosell, Adam Grundhoff, Daniela Indenbirken, Malik Alawi, Nicole Fischer, Paul Becher, Nicolas Ruggli, Llilianne Ganges
In this study, we compared the virulence in weaner pigs of the Pinar del Rio isolate and the virulent Margarita strain. The latter caused the Cuban classical swine fever (CSF) outbreak of 1993. Our results showed that the Pinar del Rio virus isolated during an endemic phase is clearly of low virulence. We analysed the complete nucleotide sequence of the Pinar del Rio virus isolated after persistence in newborn piglets, as well as the genome sequence of the inoculum. The consensus genome sequence of the Pinar del Rio virus remained completely unchanged after 28days of persistent infection in swine...
March 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282446/antigenic-and-immunosuppressive-properties-of-a-trimeric-recombinant-transmembrane-envelope-protein-gp41-of-hiv-1
#8
Michael Mühle, Melissa Lehmann, Kerstin Hoffmann, Daniel Stern, Tobias Kroniger, Werner Luttmann, Joachim Denner
The transmembrane envelope (TM) protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) plays an important role during virus infection inducing the fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. In addition, there are indications that the TM protein plays a role in the immunopathogenesis leading to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Inactivated virus particles and recombinant gp41 have been reported to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation, as well as to alter cytokine release and gene expression. The same was shown for a peptide corresponding to a highly conserved domain of all retroviral TM proteins, the immunosuppressive domain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273388/enhanced-transport-of-plant-produced-rabies-single-chain-antibody-rvg-peptide-fusion-protein-across-an-in-cellulo-blood-brain-barrier-device
#9
Waranyoo Phoolcharoen, Christophe Prehaud, Craig J van Dolleweerd, Leonard Both, Anaelle da Costa, Monique Lafon, Julian K-C Ma
The biomedical applications of antibody engineering are developing rapidly and have been expanded to plant expression platforms. In the present study, we have generated a novel antibody molecule in planta for targeted delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus for which there is no effective treatment after entry into the central nervous system (CNS). This study investigated the use of a RABV glycoprotein peptide sequence to assist delivery of a rabies neutralising single-chain antibody (ScFv) across an in cellulo model of human BBB...
March 8, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250124/immunization-with-dna-plasmids-coding-for-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus-capsid-and-envelope-proteins-and-or-virus-like-particles-induces-protection-and-survival-in-challenged-mice
#10
Jorma Hinkula, Stéphanie Devignot, Sara Åkerström, Helen Karlberg, Eva Wattrang, Sándor Bereczky, Mehrdad Mousavi-Jazi, Christian Risinger, Gunnel Lindegren, Caroline Vernersson, Janusz Paweska, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Ola Blixt, Alejandro Brun, Friedemann Weber, Ali Mirazimi
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a bunyavirus causing severe hemorrhagic fever disease in humans, with high mortality rates. The requirement of high-containment laboratory and the lack of animal model hampered the study of the immune response and protection of vaccine candidates.Using the recently developed interferon-alpha-receptor knock-out (IFNAR -/-) mouse model, which replicates human disease, we investigated the immunogenicity and protection of two novel CCHFV vaccine candidates: a DNA vaccine encoding an ubiquitin-linked version of CCHFV Gc, Gn, and N, and transcriptionally-competent virus-like particles (tc-VLPs)...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228336/evaluation-of-hydrophobic-chitosan-based-particulate-formulations-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-vaccine-candidate-t-cell-antigens
#11
Helen Mokhtar, Lucia Biffar, Satyanarayana Somavarapu, Jean-Pierre Frossard, Sarah McGowan, Miriam Pedrera, Rebecca Strong, Jane C Edwards, Margarita Garcia-Durán, Maria Jose Rodriguez, Graham R Stewart, Falko Steinbach, Simon P Graham
PRRS control is hampered by the inadequacies of existing vaccines to combat the extreme diversity of circulating viruses. Since immune clearance of PRRSV infection may not be dependent on the development of neutralising antibodies and the identification of broadly-neutralising antibody epitopes have proven elusive, we hypothesised that conserved T cell antigens represent potential candidates for development of a novel PRRS vaccine. Previously we had identified the M and NSP5 proteins as well-conserved targets of polyfunctional CD8 and CD4 T cells...
February 3, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164446/the-characteristics-and-antigenic-properties-of-recently-emerged-subclade-3c-3a-and-3c-2a-human-influenza-a-h3n2-viruses-passaged-in-mdck-cells
#12
Yipu Lin, Stephen A Wharton, Lynne Whittaker, Mian Dai, Burcu Ermetal, Janice Lo, Andrea Pontoriero, Elsa Baumeister, Rodney S Daniels, John W McCauley
BACKGROUND: Two new subclades of influenza A(H3N2) viruses became prominent during the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. The HA glycoproteins of these viruses showed sequence changes previously associated with alterations in receptor-binding properties. To address how these changes influence virus propagation, viruses were isolated and propagated in conventional MDCK cells and MDCK-SIAT1 cells, cells with enhanced expression of the human receptor for the virus, and analysed at each passage...
February 5, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161420/comparison-of-platform-technologies-for-assaying-antibody-to-ebola-virus
#13
Dianna E Wilkinson, Mark Page, Giada Mattiuzzo, Mark Hassall, Thomas Dougall, Peter Rigsby, Lindsay Stone, Philip Minor
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa led to the use of a variety of different platform technologies for assaying antibodies because of the difficulties of handling the live virus. The same types of method could be applied rapidly to other infections when they emerge. There is a need to compare quantitative results of different assays, which means that the assays must measure similar parameters and give comparable results. METHODS: A collaborative study was carried out to establish an International Reference Reagent through WHO...
March 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135273/cellular-immune-responses-to-live-attenuated-japanese-encephalitis-je-vaccine-sa14-14-2-in-adults-in-a-je-dengue-co-endemic-area
#14
Lance Turtle, Filippo Tatullo, Tanushka Bali, Vasanthapuram Ravi, Mohammed Soni, Sajesh Chan, Savita Chib, Manjunatha M Venkataswamy, Prachi Fadnis, Mansour Yaïch, Stefan Fernandez, Paul Klenerman, Vijaya Satchidanandam, Tom Solomon
BACKGROUND: Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus (JEV) causes severe epidemic encephalitis across Asia, for which the live attenuated vaccine SA14-14-2 is being used increasingly. JEV is a flavivirus, and is closely related to dengue virus (DENV), which is co-endemic in many parts of Asia, with clinically relevant interactions. There is no information on the human T cell response to SA14-14-2, or whether responses to SA14-14-2 cross-react with DENV. We used live attenuated JE vaccine SA14-14-2 as a model for studying T cell responses to JEV infection in adults, and to determine whether these T cell responses are cross-reactive with DENV, and other flaviviruses...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124415/experimental-hendra-virus-infection-of-dogs-virus-replication-shedding-and-potential-for-transmission
#15
D J Middleton, S Riddell, R Klein, R Arkinstall, J Haining, L Frazer, C Mottley, R Evans, D Johnson, J Pallister
OBJECTIVE: Characterisation of experimental Hendra virus (HeV) infection in dogs and assessment of associated transmission risk. METHODS: Beagle dogs were exposed oronasally to Hendra virus/Australia/Horse/2008/Redlands or to blood collected from HeV-infected ferrets. Ferrets were exposed to oral fluids collected from dogs after canine exposure to HeV. Observations made and samples tested post-exposure were used to assess the clinical course and replication sites of HeV in dogs, the infectivity for ferrets of canine oral fluids and features of HeV infection in dogs following contact with infective blood...
January 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100620/overexpression-of-interleukin-7-extends-the-humoral-immune-response-induced-by-rabies-vaccination
#16
Yingying Li, Ming Zhou, Zhaochen Luo, Yachun Zhang, Min Cui, Huanchun Chen, Zhen F Fu, Ling Zhao
Rabies continues to present a public health threat in most countries of the world. The most efficient way to prevent and control rabies is to implement vaccination programs for domestic animals. However, traditional inactivated vaccines used in animals are costly and have relatively low efficiency, which impedes their extensive use in developing countries. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop single-dose and long-lasting rabies vaccines. However, little information is available regarding the mechanisms underlying immunological memory, which can broaden humoral responses following rabies vaccination...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086880/influence-of-border-disease-virus-bdv-on-serological-surveillance-within-the-bovine-virus-diarrhea-bvd-eradication-program-in-switzerland
#17
V Kaiser, L Nebel, G Schüpbach-Regula, R G Zanoni, M Schweizer
BACKGROUND: In 2008, a program to eradicate bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) in cattle in Switzerland was initiated. After targeted elimination of persistently infected animals that represent the main virus reservoir, the absence of BVD is surveilled serologically since 2012. In view of steadily decreasing pestivirus seroprevalence in the cattle population, the susceptibility for (re-) infection by border disease (BD) virus mainly from small ruminants increases. Due to serological cross-reactivity of pestiviruses, serological surveillance of BVD by ELISA does not distinguish between BVD and BD virus as source of infection...
January 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071799/seroepidemiological-and-phylogenetic-characterisation-of-neurotropic-enteroviruses-in-ireland-2005-2014
#18
Jorge Abboud Guerra, Allison Waters, Alison Kelly, Ursula Morley, Paul O'Reilly, Edwin O'Kelly, Jonathan Dean, Robert Cunney, Piaras O'Lorcain, Suzanne Cotter, Jeff Connell, Joanne O'Gorman, William W Hall, Michael Carr, Cillian F De Gascun
Enteroviruses (EVs) are associated with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, including aseptic meningitis (AM), encephalitis, hand, foot and mouth disease, acute flaccid paralysis and acute flaccid myelitis. Epidemics occur sporadically and are associated with increased cases of AM in children. The present study describes the seroepidemiological analysis of circulating EVs in Ireland from 2005-2014 and phylogenetic characterisation of echovirus 30 (E-30), enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063471/comparison-of-assays-for-the-detection-of-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-equine-serum-after-natural-infection-or-vaccination
#19
REVIEW
Kinga Joó, Tamás Bakonyi, Ottó Szenci, Sára Sárdi, Emőke Ferenczi, Mónika Barna, Péter Malik, Zdenek Hubalek, Orsolya Fehér, Orsolya Kutasi
West Nile virus (WNV) mainly infects birds, horses and humans. Outcomes of the infection range from mild uncharacteristic signs to fatal neurologic disease. The main objectives of the present study were to measure serum IgG and IgM antibodies in naturally exposed and vaccinated horses and to compare results of haemagglutination inhibition test (HIT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT). Altogether 224 animals were tested by HIT for WNV antibodies and 41 horses were simultaneously examined by ELISA and PRNT...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004837/the-de-and-fg-loops-of-the-hpv-major-capsid-protein-contribute-to-the-epitopes-of-vaccine-induced-cross-neutralising-antibodies
#20
Sara L Bissett, Anna Godi, Simon Beddows
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines consist of major capsid protein (L1) virus-like particles (VLP) and are highly efficacious against the development of cervical cancer precursors attributable to oncogenic genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18. A degree of vaccine-induced cross-protection has also been demonstrated against genetically-related genotypes in the Alpha-7 (HPV18-like) and Alpha-9 (HPV16-like) species groups which is coincident with the detection of L1 cross-neutralising antibodies. In this study the L1 domains recognised by inter-genotype cross-neutralising antibodies were delineated...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
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