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virus neutralisation

Nicola Logan, William G Dundon, Adama Diallo, Michael D Baron, M James Nyarobi, Sarah Cleaveland, Julius Keyyu, Robert Fyumagwa, Margaret J Hosie, Brian J Willett
The measurement of virus-specific neutralising antibodies represents the "gold-standard" for diagnostic serology. For animal morbilliviruses, such as peste des petits ruminants (PPRV) or rinderpest virus (RPV), live virus-based neutralisation tests require high-level biocontainment to prevent the accidental escape of the infectious agents. In this study, we describe the adaptation of a replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSVΔG) based pseudotyping system for the measurement of neutralising antibodies against animal morbilliviruses...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Tiziano Gaiotto, Simon E Hufton
Cross-neutralising monoclonal antibodies against influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are of considerable interest as both therapeutics and diagnostic tools. We have recently described five different single domain antibodies (nanobodies) which share this cross-neutralising activity and suggest their small size, high stability, and cleft binding properties may present distinct advantages over equivalent conventional antibodies. We have used yeast display in combination with deep mutational scanning to give residue level resolution of positions in the antibody-HA interface which are crucial for binding...
2016: PloS One
Rama Kandasamy, Merryn Voysey, Fiona McQuaid, Karlijn de Nie, Rebecca Ryan, Olivia Orr, Ulrike Uhlig, Charles Sande, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
OBJECTIVE:  To identify and characterise non-specific immunological effects after routine childhood vaccines against BCG, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. DESIGN:  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies. DATA SOURCES:  Embase, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Trip searched between 1947 and January 2014. Publications submitted by a panel of experts in the specialty were also included...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Jessica Eleanor Stokes, Matthew Baylis, Jennifer Sarah Duncan
In 2011-2012, northern European livestock faced a threat from a newly emerged virus, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), only a few years after a major outbreak of bluetongue serotype 8 (BTV-8). Like BTV-8, SBV is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges to ruminants and spread throughout Europe. SBV, however, spread faster, reaching the UK within three months of initial discovery. Adult ruminants show only mild, if any, clinical signs; however, infection of naive ruminants by SBV during the vulnerable period of gestation leads to abortions, stillbirths and fetal malformations...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Record
Marjolein J Poen, Josanne H Verhagen, Ruth J Manvell, Ian Brown, Theo M Bestebroer, Stefan van der Vliet, Oanh Vuong, Rachel D Scheuer, Henk P van der Jeugd, Bart A Nolet, Erik Kleyheeg, Gerhard J D M Müskens, Frank A Majoor, Christian Grund, Ron A M Fouchier
In 2014, H5N8 clade highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage emerged in poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe and North America. Here, wild birds were extensively investigated in the Netherlands for HPAI H5N8 virus (real-time polymerase chain reaction targeting the matrix and H5 gene) and antibody detection (haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralisation assays) before, during and after the first virus detection in Europe in late 2014. Between 21 February 2015 and 31 January 2016, 7,337 bird samples were tested for the virus...
September 22, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
R Barigye, S Davis, R Hunt, N Hunt, S Walsh, N Elliott, C Burnup, S Aumann, C Day, K Dyrting, R Weir, L F Melville
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the neurotropism of bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) virus (BEFV) and described histomorphological abnormalities of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that may causally contribute to paresis or paralysis in BEF. METHODS: Four paralysed and six asymptomatic but virus-infected cattle were monitored, and blood and serum samples screened by qRT-PCR, virus isolation and neutralisation tests. Fresh brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve and other tissues were qRT-PCR-tested for viral RNA, while formalin-fixed specimens were processed routinely and immunohistochemically evaluated for histomorphological abnormalities and viral antigen distribution, respectively...
October 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
Sushila Maan, Narender Singh Maan, Manjunatha N Belaganahalli, Abraham C Potgieter, Vinay Kumar, Kanisht Batra, Isabel M Wright, Peter D Kirkland, Peter P C Mertens
Bluetongue virus is the type species of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Bluetongue viruses (BTV) are transmitted between their vertebrate hosts primarily by biting midges (Culicoides spp.) in which they also replicate. Consequently BTV distribution is dependent on the activity, geographic distribution, and seasonal abundance of Culicoides spp. The virus can also be transmitted vertically in vertebrate hosts, and some strains/serotypes can be transmitted horizontally in the absence of insect vectors...
2016: PloS One
Thalia Velho Barreto de Araújo, Laura Cunha Rodrigues, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Ana Paula Lopes de Melo, Sandra Valongueiro, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Wayner Vieira Souza, Cynthia Braga, Sinval Pinto Brandão Filho, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Enrique Vazquez, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Souza Cruz, Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha Henriques, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque Bezerra, Priscila Mayrelle da Silva Castanha, Rafael Dhalia, Ernesto Torres Azevedo Marques-Júnior, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli
BACKGROUND: The microcephaly epidemic, which started in Brazil in 2015, was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by WHO in 2016. We report the preliminary results of a case-control study investigating the association between microcephaly and Zika virus infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We did this case-control study in eight public hospitals in Recife, Brazil. Cases were neonates with microcephaly. Two controls (neonates without microcephaly), matched by expected date of delivery and area of residence, were selected for each case...
September 15, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Peter F Wright, Ruth I Connor, Wendy F Wieland-Alter, Anne G Hoen, Austin W Boesch, Margaret E Ackerman, M Steven Oberste, Chris Gast, Elizabeth B Brickley, Edwin J Asturias, Ricardo Rüttimann, Ananda S Bandyopadhyay
BACKGROUND: Identification of mechanisms that limit poliovirus replication is crucial for informing decisions aimed at global polio eradication. Studies of mucosal immunity induced by oral poliovirus (OPV) or inactivated poliovirus (IPV) vaccines and mixed schedules thereof will determine the effectiveness of different vaccine strategies to block virus shedding. We used samples from a clinical trial of different vaccination schedules to measure intestinal immunity as judged by neutralisation of virus and virus-specific IgA in stools...
September 13, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Sulaf Alwassouf, Carla Maia, Nazli Ayhan, Monica Coimbra, Jose Manuel Cristovao, Herve Richet, Laurence Bichaud, Lenea Campino, Remi N Charrel
Sandfly-borne phleboviruses are endemic in the Mediterranean basin. However, levels of exposure of human and animal populations are poorly known. Recent data from Portugal indicate that Toscana virus (Sandfly fever Naples species) is present and causes human infection and diseases; in contrast there is scarce data for Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV) which has neither been isolated nor detected by molecular tests and for which there is only limited serological data. A total of 1,160 dogs and 189 cats of southern Portugal were tested for neutralising antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV) and Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV),two viruses belonging to distinct serocomplexes in the Mediterranean area...
September 2, 2016: Journal of General Virology
Christina Ekenberg, Nina Friis-Møller, Thomas Ulstrup, Claus Aalykke
We present a case of a 56-year-old woman with Crohn's disease, treated with methotrexate and infliximab, who inadvertently received yellow fever vaccination (YFV) prior to a journey to Tanzania. She was not previously vaccinated against YF. YFV contains live-attenuated virus, and is contraindicated in patients treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Following vaccination, the patient fell ill with influenza-like illness. Elevated transaminase levels and YF viremia were detected. Despite being immunocompromised, the patient did not develop more severe adverse effects...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
C Fablet, P Renson, F Eono, S Mahé, E Eveno, M Le Dimna, V Normand, A Lebret, N Rose, O Bourry
The influence of maternally-derived antibodies (MDAs) on the post-vaccination humoral and cellular immune responses in piglets vaccinated against PRRS was studied. The piglets came from a vaccinated breeding herd. Thirty piglets with a low (A-) or high level (A+) of PRRSV-neutralizing MDAs were vaccinated (V+) with a modified live vaccine at 3 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected before vaccination and then at 2, 4, 8 and 14 weeks post-vaccination (WPV). The samples were analysed to detect the vaccine viraemia (RT-PCR) and quantify the post-vaccination humoral (ELISA and virus neutralisation test) and cellular (ELISPOT IFNγ) immune responses...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Sanne Terryn, Aurélie Francart, Heidi Rommelaere, Catelijne Stortelers, Steven Van Gucht
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michael C Pearce, Marietjie Venter, Tjitske Schouwstra, Charmaine Van Eeden, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Janusz Paweska, Bo Liu, Arrie Du Plessis
Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strains are endemic in South Africa and cause severe neurological disease in horses. An inactivated lineage 1 vaccine, Duvaxyn WNV, protects mice against challenge with a neuroinvasive South African lineage 2 strain of WNV. To evaluate the potential of Duvaxyn WNV to protect horses against lineage 2 strains of WNV, serum neutralising antibody responses of horses against lineage 1 WNV strain NY385/99 and lineage 2 WNV strain SPU93/01, isolated from a human with meningo-encephalitis in South Africa, were compared following vaccination with two doses of Duvaxyn WNV, 28 days apart, and a third dose one year later...
2013: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
A K Praharaj, K Angadi, A T Kalghatgi, S Tripathy, Mps Sawhney, A Nagendra
p24 antigen was estimated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sero-negative individuals attending various sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics and also in sero-negative voluntary blood donors. A total of 300 STD cases and 500 voluntary blood donors, who also acted as controls, were included in this study. Antibody to HIV was detected by ELISA and was confirmed by western blot. In sero-negative individuals, p24 antigen detection was carried out by standard assay and immune-complex dissociation assay (ICD assay) using ELISA method and confirmation was done by neutralisation assay...
October 2003: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Nicola Di Girolamo, Paolo Selleri, Annapia Di Gennaro, Marco Maldera, Giordano Nardini, Benedetto Morandi, Marco Muzzeddu, Francesco Origgi, Giovanni Savini
In 2011, several outbreaks of West Nile disease occurred in Sardinia (Italy). The region hosts several chelonian species. Because of the increasing concern on the potential role that ectotherms may play in the ecology of West Nile virus (WNV), in October 2011 blood samples were collected from 41 endemic Sardinian chelonians and tested for the presence of active WNV infection or neutralizing antibodies by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and serumneutralisation, respectively. Neither WNV neutralising antibodies (0%; 95% CI: 0‑8...
June 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Pei Xuan Lee, Li Ching Ong, Eshele Anak Libau, Sylvie Alonso
Dengue virus (DENV) causes a spectrum of diseases ranging from self-limiting dengue fever to severe conditions such as haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is thought to explain the occurrence of severe dengue whereby pre-existing binding but non-neutralising antibodies enhance DENV infection. The ADE phenomenon is supported by epidemiological findings that infants that born to dengue immune mothers are at greater risk to develop severe dengue upon primary infection...
June 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
David A Sheridan, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Fiona I Fenwick, Gail V Matthews, Tanya Applegate, Mark Douglas, Dermot Neely, Bev Askew, Gregory J Dore, Andrew R Lloyd, Jacob George, Margaret F Bassendine, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is bound to plasma lipoproteins and circulates as an infectious lipoviral particle (LVP). Experimental evidence indicates that LVPs have decreased susceptibility to antibody mediated neutralisation and higher infectivity. This study tested the hypothesis that LVPs are required to establish persistent infection, and conversely, low levels of LVP in recent HCV infection increase the probability of spontaneous HCV clearance. METHODS: LVP in non-fasting plasma was measured using the concentration of HCV RNA bound to large >100 nM sized lipoproteins after ex vivo addition of a lipid emulsion, that represented the maximum concentration of LVP (maxi-LVP)...
May 25, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Babu Ramanathan, Chit Laa Poh, Kristin Kirk, William John Hannan McBride, John Aaskov, Lara Grollo
Dengue virus (DENV) is a major public health threat worldwide. A key element in protection from dengue fever is the neutralising antibody response. Anti-dengue IgG purified from DENV-2 infected human sera showed reactivity against several peptides when evaluated by ELISA and epitope extraction techniques. A multi-step computational approach predicted six antigenic regions within the E protein of DENV-2 that concur with the 6 epitopes identified by the combined ELISA and epitope extraction approach. The selected peptides representing B-cell epitopes were attached to a known dengue T-helper epitope and evaluated for their vaccine potency...
2016: PloS One
Stacy Robertson, Alan L Parker, Carolyn Clarke, Margaret R Duffy, Raul Alba, Stuart A Nicklin, Andrew H Baker
Recent studies have generated interest in the function of human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5) hexon:  factor X (FX) binding and subsequent hepatocyte transduction and interaction with the immune system. Here, we retargeted adenovirus serotype 5 vectors, ablated for FX interaction, by replacing amino acids in hexon HVR7 with RGD-4C or inserting the peptide into the fibre HI loop. These genetic modifications in the capsid were compatible with virus assembly, and could efficiently retarget transduction of the vector via the αvβ3/5 integrin-mediated pathway, but did not alter immune recognition by pre-existing human neutralizing anti-HAdV-5 antibodies or by natural antibodies in mouse serum...
August 2016: Journal of General Virology
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