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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922129/sex-differences-in-psychiatric-disease-a-focus-on-the-glutamate-system
#1
REVIEW
Megan M Wickens, Debra A Bangasser, Lisa A Briand
Alterations in glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, are implicated in several psychiatric diseases. Many of these psychiatric diseases display epidemiological sex differences, with either males or females exhibiting different symptoms or disease prevalence. However, little work has considered the interaction of disrupted glutamatergic transmission and sex on disease states. This review describes the clinical and preclinical evidence for these sex differences with a focus on two conditions that are more prevalent in women: Alzheimer's disease and major depressive disorder, and three conditions that are more prevalent in men: schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902186/no-relationship-between-autistic-traits-and-salivary-testosterone-concentrations-in-men-from-the-general-population
#2
Diana Weiting Tan, Murray T Maybery, Michael W Clarke, Renata Di Lorenzo, Melissa O Evans, Michael Mancinone, Christina Panos, Andrew J O Whitehouse
It is suggested that testosterone may play a part in the higher prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in males compared to females. Previous studies have reported elevated postnatal testosterone levels in children and women with ASD but not in men. We compared levels of salivary testosterone across 67 undergraduate males (Mage 19.5 yrs, SD 1.92) selected for low, mid-range and high levels of autistic traits assessed using the Autism-spectrum Quotient. Analyses revealed no significant differences in testosterone concentrations across the three groups...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873961/valproate-in-pregnancy-recent-research-and-regulatory-responses
#3
Chittaranjan Andrade
Valproate and formulations thereof are approved for the management of seizure disorders, bipolar disorder, and migraine. Valproate is also used for many off-label indications. Unfortunately, data from observational studies indicate that valproate is perhaps the most teratogenic drug in the neuropsychiatric pharmacopeia. It is significantly more teratogenic than many other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). In observational studies, gestational exposure to valproate is also associated with higher risks of cognitive, language, and psychomotor delay during early childhood and possibly with an increased risk of autism, as well...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859881/is-post-exposure-prevention-of-teratogenic-damage-possible-studies-on-diabetes-valproic-acid-alcohol-and-anti-folates-in-pregnancy-animal-studies-with-reflection-to-human
#4
REVIEW
Asher Ornoy, Gideon Koren, Joseph Yanai
We discuss the possibilities to prevent the post-exposure teratogenic effects of several teratogens: valproic acid (VPA), diabetes and alcohol. Co-administration of folic acid with VPA reduced the rate of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) and other anomalies in rodents, but apparently not in pregnant women. Antioxidants or the methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine prevented Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) like behavior in mice and rats. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that antioxidants, arachidonic acid, myoinositol and nutritional agents may prevent diabetes-embryopathy...
May 31, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796237/self-reported-sex-differences-in-high-functioning-adults-with-autism-a-meta-analysis
#5
R L Moseley, R Hitchiner, J A Kirkby
Background: Sex differences in autistic symptomatology are believed to contribute to the mis- and missed diagnosis of many girls and women with an autism spectrum condition (ASC). Whilst recent years have seen the emergence of clinical and empirical reports delineating the profile of young autistic girls, recognition of sex differences in symptomatology in adulthood is far more limited. Methods: We chose here to focus on symptomatology as reported using a screening instrument, the Ritvo Autism Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R)...
2018: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773950/could-autism-be-associated-with-nutritional-status-in-the-palestinian-population-the-outcomes-of-the-palestinian-micronutrient-survey
#6
Mohammad Altamimi
Background: Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder. It is believed that the cause of autism is multifactorial, where genetic predispositions interact with environmental factors. In this context, micronutrients play a crucial role. Objective: To present evidence on current micronutrient status in Palestine and highlight its possible role in increasing problems of neurodevelopment disorders in general and autism in particular. Method: Analytical review of results...
2018: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727503/gender-differences-in-mental-rotation-strategy-depend-on-degree-of-autistic-traits
#7
Jennifer L Stevenson, Mary B Nonack
Participants with low, medium, and high autistic traits completed a mental rotation task while their eye movements were recorded. Men were more accurate than women (F(1, 102) = 4.36, P = 0.04, η2 p  = 0.04), but there were no group differences in reaction time. In terms of eye movements, all participants tended to rely on top corners of cube figures for most angles of rotation, and bottom corners of cube figures for 0 and 90 degree rotations (duration: F(8, 816) = 21.70, P < 0.001, η2 p  = 0...
May 4, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709497/reduced-cortical-excitability-neuroplasticity-and-salivary-cortisol-in-11-13-year-old-children-born-to-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Jago M Van Dam, Amy J Garrett, Luke A Schneider, Nicolette A Hodyl, Mitchell R Goldsworthy, Suzette Coat, Janet A Rowan, William M Hague, Julia B Pitcher
BACKGROUND: Children exposed to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in utero are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental difficulties, including autism and impaired motor control. However, the underlying neurophysiology is unknown. METHODS: Using transcranial magnetic stimulation, we assessed cortical excitability, long-term depression (LTD)-like neuroplasticity in 45 GDM-exposed and 12 control children aged 11-13 years. Data were analysed against salivary cortisol and maternal diabetes severity and treatment (insulin [N = 22] or metformin [N = 23]) during pregnancy...
May 2018: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706451/in-search-of-decoding-the-syntax-of-the-bioelements-in-human-hair-a-critical-overview
#9
Berislav Momčilović, Juraj Prejac, Anatoly Viktorovich Skalny, Ninoslav Mimica
The principles and practice of assessing the human body nutritional status or its environmental exposure through hair bioelement analysis are presented; herein the term "bioelements" is used as a common denominator for the major elements, trace elements and ultra-trace elements that are found in the human body. The accumulation of bioelements in the hair followed the statistical Power Law and the resulting sigmoid curve can be zoned into five regions in the ascending order of abundance (Low, Marginal, Adequate, High, and Excessive)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681245/pregnancy-risk-factors-related-to-autism-an-italian-case-control-study-in-mothers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-asd-their-siblings-and-of-typically-developing-children
#10
E Grossi, L Migliore, F Muratori
This study, carried out in two Italian Institutions, assesses the frequency of 27 potential autism risk factors related to pregnancy and peri- and postnatal periods by interviewing mothers who had children with autism, children with autism and one or two typically developing siblings, or only typically developing children. The clinical sample included three case groups: 73 children and adolescents with autism (Group A), 35 children and adolescents with autism (Group A1) having 45 siblings (Group B) and 96 typically developing children (Group C) matched for gender and age...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584590/maternal-thyroid-function-in-early-pregnancy-and-child-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-danish-nationwide-case-cohort-study
#11
Stine Linding Andersen, Stig Andersen, Peter Vestergaard, Jørn Olsen
BACKGROUND: Maternal thyroid dysfunction may adversely affect fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine this hypothesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential fetal programming by abnormal maternal thyroid function on child neurodevelopmental disorders. METHODS: The design was a case-cohort study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003). From the eligible cohort of 71,706 women, a random 12% sub-cohort (n = 7624) was selected, and all women (n = 2276) whose child was diagnosed with seizures, specific developmental disorder (SDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) up to December 31, 2010, were identified...
April 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566458/chronic-stress-and-impulsive-risk-taking-predict-increases-in-visceral-fat-over-18-months
#12
Ashley E Mason, Samantha Schleicher, Michael Coccia, Elissa S Epel, Kirstin Aschbacher
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline chronic stress and impulsive risk-taking synergistically predict changes in visceral fat among healthy mothers in an observational, longitudinal, 18-month study. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 113 adult women (age, mean ± SD: 42.83 ± 4.70; BMI, mean ± SD: 24.86 ± 4.32; 74%, n = 84 white) completed assessments at baseline and 18-month follow-up. Chronically stressed mothers caring for a child with an autism spectrum disorder ("caregivers"; n = 72 participants) were compared with lower stress mothers caring for a neurotypical child ("controls"; n = 41)...
May 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562607/a-cohort-study-comparing-women-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-with-and-without-generalized-joint-hypermobility
#13
Emily L Casanova, Julia L Sharp, Stephen M Edelson, Desmond P Kelly, Manuel F Casanova
Reports suggest comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the connective tissue disorder, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). People with EDS and the broader spectrum of Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) often present with immune- and endocrine-mediated conditions. Meanwhile, immune/endocrine dysregulation is a popular theme in autism research. We surveyed a group of ASD women with/without GJH to determine differences in immune/endocrine exophenotypes. ASD women 25 years or older were invited to participate in an online survey...
March 17, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558816/prenatal-primary-prevention-of-mental-illness-by-micronutrient-supplements-in-pregnancy
#14
Robert Freedman, Sharon K Hunter, M Camille Hoffman
Genes, infection, malnutrition, and other factors affecting fetal brain development are a major component of risk for a child's emotional development and later mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism. Prenatal interventions to ameliorate that risk have yet to be established for clinical use. A systematic review of prenatal nutrients and childhood emotional development and later mental illness was performed. Randomized trials of folic acid, phosphatidylcholine, and omega-3 fatty acid supplements assess effects of doses beyond those adequate to remedy deficiencies to promote normal fetal development despite genetic and environmental risks...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520885/maternal-cytomegalovirus-sero-positivity-and-autism-symptoms-in-children
#15
Brooke L Slawinski, Nicole Talge, Brooke Ingersoll, Arianna Smith, Alicynne Glazier, Jean Kerver, Nigel Paneth, Karen Racicot
PROBLEM: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders in the United States. While ASD can be significantly influenced by genetics, prenatal exposure to maternal infections has also been implicated in conferring risk. Despite this, the effects of several important maternal pathogens, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), remain unknown. METHOD OF STUDY: We tested whether maternal CMV and/or HSV2 sero-positivity was associated with ASD symptoms in children...
May 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504790/training-clinicians-to-deliver-group-cbt-to-manage-anxiety-in-youth-with-asd-results-of-a-multisite-trial
#16
Judy Reaven, Eric J Moody, Laura Grofer Klinger, Amy Keefer, Amie Duncan, Sarah O'Kelley, Allison Meyer, Susan Hepburn, Audrey Blakeley-Smith
OBJECTIVE: Few guidelines are available regarding optimal training models for practitioners delivering cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study systematically compared 3 instructional conditions for delivering the Facing Your Fears program (FYF) to children with ASD and anxiety. METHOD: Thirty-four clinicians (Mage = 34 years; 94% women, 88% Caucasian) and an intent-to-treat sample of 91 children with ASD and anxiety (Mage = 11; 84% male 53% Caucasian) met eligibility criteria across 4 sites...
March 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481315/grey-matter-correlates-of-autistic-traits-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#17
Malin Björnsdotter, Monika Davidovic, Louise Karjalainen, Göran Starck, Håkan Olausson, Elisabet Wentz
BACKGROUND: Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher levels of behaviours typically associated with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but the neural basis is unclear. We sought to determine whether elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa may be reflected in cortical morphology. METHODS: We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional grey matter volumes in high-resolution MRI structural brain scans in women with anorexia nervosa and matched healthy controls...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479324/can-robotic-systems-promote-self-disclosure-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-pilot-study
#18
Hirokazu Kumazaki, Zachary Warren, Amy Swanson, Yuichiro Yoshikawa, Yoshio Matsumoto, Hideyuki Takahashi, Nilanjan Sarkar, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Masaru Mimura, Yoshio Minabe, Mitsuru Kikuchi
Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often demonstrate challenges providing appropriate levels of information during conversational interchanges. Considering the preference of individuals with ASD, and recent rapid technological advances, robotic systems may yield promise in promoting certain aspects of conversation and interaction such as self-disclosure of appropriate personal information. In the current work, we evaluated personal disclosures of events with specific emotional content across two differing robotic systems (android and simplistic humanoid) and human interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453023/implications-of-altered-maternal-cytokine-concentrations-on-infant-outcomes-in-children-with-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#19
K D Sowell, J Y Uriu-Adams, J Van de Water, C D Chambers, C D Coles, J A Kable, L Yevtushok, N Zymak-Zakutnya, W Wertelecki, C L Keen
Excessive alcohol consumption has been shown to increase serum plasma levels of numerous immune cytokines. Maternal immune activation and elevated cytokines have been implicated in certain neurological disorders (e.g., autism and schizophrenia) in the offspring. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated cytokines during pregnancy are a risk factor in women who gave birth to a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) or a child with neurobehavioral impairment, regardless of prenatal alcohol exposure...
May 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436313/pre-eclampsia-and-the-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-offspring-meta-analysis
#20
Berihun Assefa Dachew, Abdullah Mamun, Joemer Calderon Maravilla, Rosa Alati
BACKGROUND: Evidence about the effect of intrauterine exposure to pre-eclampsia on offspring autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) is not well established. Aims To examine the association between pre-eclampsia and ASD. METHOD: PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched. Pooled relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q- and the I 2-test. The presence of publication bias was evaluated by Egger's test and visual inspection of the symmetry in funnel plots...
March 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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