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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049464/clustering-of-neuropsychiatric-disease-in-first-degree-and-second-degree-relatives-of-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
Margaret O'Brien, Tom Burke, Mark Heverin, Alice Vajda, Russell McLaughlin, John Gibbons, Susan Byrne, Marta Pinto-Grau, Marwa Elamin, Niall Pender, Orla Hardiman
Importance: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition primarily involving the motor system. There is increasing epidemiologic evidence of an association between ALS and a wider spectrum of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders among family members, including schizophrenia and psychotic illness and suicidal behavior. Objective: To examine the frequency and range of neuropsychiatric conditions that occur within individual first-degree and second-degree relatives of patients with ALS...
October 16, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026508/the-association-between-maternal-use-of-folic-acid-supplements-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-children-a-meta-analysis
#2
Meiyun Wang, Kaiqin Li, Dongmei Zhao, Ling Li
Previous reviews have been conducted to evaluate the association between maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children, with no definitive conclusion. We therefore conducted a more comprehensive meta-analysis to reassess the relationship between folic acid and the risk of ASD. The electronic databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Wanfang Data were carefully searched to find eligible studies as recent as March 2017. A random effects model was used to combine the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021889/linguistic-camouflage-in-girls-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Julia Parish-Morris, Mark Y Liberman, Christopher Cieri, John D Herrington, Benjamin E Yerys, Leila Bateman, Joseph Donaher, Emily Ferguson, Juhi Pandey, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more frequently in boys than girls, even when girls are equally symptomatic. Cutting-edge behavioral imaging has detected "camouflaging" in girls with ASD, wherein social behaviors appear superficially typical, complicating diagnosis. The present study explores a new kind of camouflage based on language differences. Pauses during conversation can be filled with words like UM or UH, but research suggests that these two words are pragmatically distinct (e...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994820/sexual-dimorphism-of-ambra1-related-autistic-features-in-human-and-mouse
#4
M Mitjans, M Begemann, A Ju, E Dere, L Wüstefeld, S Hofer, I Hassouna, J Balkenhol, B Oliveira, S van der Auwera, R Tammer, K Hammerschmidt, H Völzke, G Homuth, F Cecconi, K Chowdhury, H Grabe, J Frahm, S Boretius, T Dandekar, H Ehrenreich
Ambra1 is linked to autophagy and neurodevelopment. Heterozygous Ambra1 deficiency induces autism-like behavior in a sexually dimorphic manner. Extraordinarily, autistic features are seen in female mice only, combined with stronger Ambra1 protein reduction in brain compared to males. However, significance of AMBRA1 for autistic phenotypes in humans and, apart from behavior, for other autism-typical features, namely early brain enlargement or increased seizure propensity, has remained unexplored. Here we show in two independent human samples that a single normal AMBRA1 genotype, the intronic SNP rs3802890-AA, is associated with autistic features in women, who also display lower AMBRA1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells relative to female GG carriers...
October 10, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975539/exposure-to-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-increases-the-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-affected-offspring
#5
Eileen A Curran, Gerard W O'Keeffe, Ann Marie Looney, Gerard Moloney, Shane V Hegarty, Deirdre M Murray, Ali S Khashan, Louise C Kenny
There is growing awareness that prenatal adversity may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we examined the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and ASD risk at 7 years of age using the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), a representative cohort of 13,192 children born in the UK from 2000 to 2001. We also sought to examine cytokine expression in the serum of women with pre-eclampsia, which is the most common HDP, and whether exposure of foetal neurons to this serum could change patterns of neuronal growth...
October 3, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972453/impaired-eye-contact-in-the-fmr1-premutation-is-not-associated-with-social-anxiety-or-the-broad-autism-phenotype
#6
Jessica Klusek, Alexis Ruber, Jane E Roberts
OBJECTIVE: The Fragile X Mental Retardation-1 (FMR1) premutation is a common genetic abnormality, affecting ~1:150 women in the United States. Clinical neuropsychologists are becoming increasingly aware of their role in the clinical management of the FMR1 premutation, which is associated with risk for a range of cognitive, executive, neuromotor, and psychological impairments, including neurodegenerative disease. This study investigated atypical eye contact as a critical neuropsychological phenotype associated with the FMR1 premutation...
October 3, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968035/-model-of-social-exclusion-of-the-elderly-people-in-siberian-regions
#7
S G Maximova, O E Noyanzina, D A Omelchenko
An article presents results of the construction and approbation of a theoretical model of social exclusion of population of elderly age groups in Siberian regions. It bases on the results of sociological research (2016) in three Russian regions: Altai region, Trans-Baikal region and Kemerovo oblast (n=779 age of respondents from 55 (women) and 60 (men) years and older). In theory, the model lays on the following: in is determined by economic (material) deprivation, deprivation of social rights (access to social institutes and services) and deprivation of security (safe environment), deprivation of social participation, cultural (normative) disintegration and social autism; the above named components are specific for the group of elderly people, that is a priori a high risk of exclusion; social exclusion, as a condition and situation of exclusion can be estimated straightly through the manifestation of its dimensions; the model has a one-way causality, i...
2017: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955201/fragile-x-associated-diminished-ovarian-reserve-and-primary-ovarian-insufficiency-from-molecular-mechanisms-to-clinical-manifestations
#8
REVIEW
Limor Man, Jovana Lekovich, Zev Rosenwaks, Jeannine Gerhardt
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), is caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the FMR1 gene located on the X-chromosome, which leads to the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability in males and the leading single-gene defect associated with autism. A full mutation (FM) is represented by more than 200 CGG repeats within the FMR1 gene, resulting in FXS. A FM is inherited from women carrying a FM or a premutation (PM; 55-200 CGG repeats) allele. PM is associated with phenotypes distinct from those associated with FM...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948883/the-maternal-body-as-environment-in-autism-science
#9
Martine Lappé
Research on autism and environmental risk factors has expanded substantially in recent years. My analysis draws attention to the regimes of perceptibility that shape how the environment is materialized in post-genomic science. I focus on how more complex narratives of autism's causes and social anxieties surrounding child development have helped situate autism risk in women's bodies before and during pregnancy. This has resulted in what I call the maternal body as environment in autism science. I show that this figure involves three characteristics: the molecularization of the environment, an individualization of risk, and the internalization of responsibility...
October 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926775/geographic-and-demographic-correlates-of-autism-related-anti-vaccine-beliefs-on-twitter-2009-15
#10
Theodore S Tomeny, Christopher J Vargo, Sherine El-Toukhy
This study examines temporal trends, geographic distribution, and demographic correlates of anti-vaccine beliefs on Twitter, 2009-2015. A total of 549,972 tweets were downloaded and coded for the presence of anti-vaccine beliefs through a machine learning algorithm. Tweets with self-disclosed geographic information were resolved and United States Census data were collected for corresponding areas at the micropolitan/metropolitan level. Trends in number of anti-vaccine tweets were examined at the national and state levels over time...
October 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919554/revisiting-the-wandering-womb-oxytocin-in-endometriosis-and-bipolar-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Natalie L Dinsdale, Bernard J Crespi
Hippocrates attributed women's high emotionality - hysteria - to a 'wandering womb'. Although hysteria diagnoses were abandoned along with the notion that displaced wombs cause emotional disturbance, recent research suggests that elevated levels of oxytocin occur in both bipolar disorder and endometriosis, a gynecological condition involving migration of endometrial tissue beyond the uterus. We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that elevated oxytocinergic system activity jointly contributes to bipolar disorder and endometriosis...
September 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914071/a-qualitative-study-of-the-service-experiences-of-women-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Ami Tint, Jonathan A Weiss
It is recognized that the experiences of women with autism spectrum disorder are often underrepresented in the literature. In this study, 20 women with autism spectrum disorder participated in five focus groups with discussions centered on their service use, unmet service needs, and barriers to care. Overall, women emphasized high unmet service needs, particularly with respect to mental health concerns, residential supports, and vocational and employment services. Participants also perceived many service providers as disregarding or misunderstanding women's service needs...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901163/distribution-of-autistic-traits-and-their-association-with-sociodemographic-characteristics-in-japanese-workers
#13
Tomoko Suzuki, Koichi Miyaki, Hisashi Eguchi, Akizumi Tsutsumi
This study aimed to confirm whether autistic traits are normally distributed across a population and to describe their association with the sociodemographic characteristics of Japanese workers. The participants were 2075 workers aged 23-65 years from various parts of Japan. Autistic traits were measured using an abridged Japanese version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ-Short). The AQ-Short comprises five subcomponents assessing a fascination for numbers and patterns (numbers/patterns), difficulties with imagination, a preference for routine, difficulties with social skills, and difficulties with switching attention...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881390/prenatal-alcohol-exposure-in-relation-to-autism-spectrum-disorder-findings-from-the-study-to-explore-early-development-seed
#14
Alison B Singer, Arthur S Aylsworth, Christina Cordero, Lisa A Croen, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, M Daniele Fallin, Amy H Herring, Stephen R Hooper, Rebecca E Pretzel, Laura A Schieve, Gayle C Windham, Julie L Daniels
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure can affect neurodevelopment, but few studies have examined associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: We assessed the association between maternal alcohol use and ASD in the Study to Explore Early Development, a multi-site case-control study of children born between September 2003 and August 2006 in the US Regression analyses included 684 children with research clinician-confirmed ASD, 869 children with non-ASD developmental delays or disorders (DDs), and 962 controls ascertained from the general population (POP)...
September 7, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877047/autism-spectrum-disorders-in-adolescence-and-adulthood-focus-on-sexuality
#15
Daniel Turner, Peer Briken, Daniel Schöttle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The combination of the core symptoms, characterizing individuals with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), can lead to problems in romantic relationships and sexual functioning. The purpose of this article is to review studies on sexuality in individuals with ASD published since January 2016. RECENT FINDINGS: Individuals with ASD and especially women show a higher diversity in sexual orientation in comparison with the non-ASD population. Furthermore, ASD women are more frequently in a relationship and usually report more previous sexual experiences...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855147/consent-processes-for-mobile-app-mediated-research-systematic-review
#16
Sarah Moore, Anne-Marie Tassé, Adrian Thorogood, Ingrid Winship, Ma'n Zawati, Megan Doerr
BACKGROUND: Since the launch of ResearchKit on the iOS platform in March 2015 and ResearchStack on the Android platform in June 2016, many academic and commercial institutions around the world have adapted these frameworks to develop mobile app-based research studies. These studies cover a wide variety of subject areas including melanoma, cardiomyopathy, and autism. Additionally, these app-based studies target a variety of participant populations, including children and pregnant women...
August 30, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811173/prenatal-exposure-to-pyrethroid-pesticides-and-childhood-behavior-and-executive-functioning
#17
Melissa A Furlong, Dana Boyd Barr, Mary S Wolff, Stephanie M Engel
Several previous studies of pyrethroid biomarkers and behavior have reported associations between concurrent pyrethroid levels and adverse behavioral problems in children. One geospatial study reported associations between prenatal exposure to pyrethroids and autism. However, the association between prenatal pyrethroid biomarkers and childhood behavior is unknown. The Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Center is a prospective birth cohort with urinary pyrethroid biomarkers during pregnancy and behavioral measurements at 4, 6, and 7-9 years of age...
September 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804650/the-2d%C3%A2-%C3%A2-4d-digit-ratio-as-a-biomarker-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
M Mackus, D de Kruijff, L S Otten, A D Kraneveld, J Garssen, J C Verster
It has been suggested that the second (2D, index finger) to fourth (4D, ring finger) digit ratio, 2D : 4D, may be a biomarker for the risk of developing autism. The aim of the current study was to determine the usefulness of the 2D : 4D digit ratio as biomarker for autistic traits. N = 401 healthy young volunteers participated in the study. For both hands, digit lengths were measured using digital Vernier calipers. In addition to demographics, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire was completed, comprised of five subscales, assessing "social insights and behavior," "attention switching," "communication," "imagination," and "attention to detail...
2017: Autism Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749237/towards-understanding-the-under-recognition-of-girls-and-women-on-the-autism-spectrum
#19
Judith Gould
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749234/the-importance-of-critical-life-moments-an-explorative-study-of-successful-women-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Amanda A Webster, Susanne Garvis
Ten women with autism spectrum disorder participated in oral interviews in order to share their experiences since their diagnosis and to discuss the factors that had enabled them to achieve success in different aspects of their life. Participants were encouraged to share their perspectives on their success and to discuss the challenges they encountered in their daily lives and how they overcame these. Interviews were analysed using a narrative-themed approach. Participants indicated that both internal and external factors enabled them to achieve success in different aspects of their lives...
August 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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