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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927372/ecology-and-diversity-in-upper-respiratory-tract-microbial-population-structures-from-a-cross-sectional-community-swabbing-study
#1
Abigail L Coughtrie, Denise E Morris, Rebecca Anderson, Nelupha Begum, David W Cleary, Saul N Faust, Johanna M Jefferies, Alex R Kraaijeveld, Michael V Moore, Mark A Mullee, Paul J Roderick, Andrew Tuck, Robert N Whittaker, Ho Ming Yuen, C Patrick Doncaster, Stuart C Clarke
PURPOSE: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are responsible for over 2.8 million deaths per year worldwide with pathobiont carriage a required precursor to infection. We sought to determine carriage epidemiology for both bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens as part of a large population-based cross-sectional carriage study. METHODOLOGY: Nose self-swab samples were collected in two separate time-points, May to August 2012 (late spring/summer) and February to April 2013 (winter/early spring)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927346/the-effect-of-medical-technology-innovations-on-patient-outcomes-1990-2015-results-of-a-physician-survey
#2
David E Wamble, Michael Ciarametaro, Robert Dubois
BACKGROUND: Developments in diagnostics, medical devices, procedures, and prescription drugs have increased life expectancy and quality of life after diagnosis for many diseases. Previous research has shown that, overall, increased investment in medical technology has led to increased health outcomes. In addition, the value of investment in specific innovations, particularly in new pharmaceuticals or biopharmaceuticals, has frequently been shown through an evaluation of the associated health outcomes and costs...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922194/response-to-intervention-in-finland-and-the-united-states-mathematics-learning-support-as-an-example
#3
Piia M Björn, Mikko Aro, Tuire Koponen, Lynn S Fuchs, Douglas Fuchs
Response to Intervention (RTI) was accepted in the early 2000s as a new framework for identifying learning difficulties (LD) in the U.S. In Finland, a similar multi-tiered framework has existed since 2010. In the present study, these frameworks are presented from the viewpoint of the role of assessment and instruction as expressed in documents that describe the frameworks, as it seems that these two components of RTI are the most disparate between the U.S. and Finland. We present a suggestion for the Finnish framework as an example of support in mathematics learning that incorporates principles of RTI (such as systematized assessment and instruction, cyclic support, and modifiable instruction)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912351/patients-with-respiratory-tract-infections-who-do-not-want-antibiotics-direct-observational-study-of-primary-care-in-poland
#4
Slawomir Chlabicz, Dorota Rogowska-Szadkowska, Barbara Pytel-Krolczuk, Ludmila Marcinowicz, Anna Justyna Milewska, Julia Strumilo
Background: Requests by patients for antibiotics are known to strongly affect doctors' decisions to prescribe them. Objective. The aim of this study was to establish how frequently patients presenting with respiratory tract infections (RTIs) express their expectation not to be treated with antibiotics, which symptoms and physical findings are related to their perception of antibiotics not being helpful, and to what degree their expectations influence doctors' decisions. Methods: This was a direct observational study set in primary care practices in Bialystok, Poland...
June 15, 2018: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897430/post-consultation-illness-trajectories-in-children-with-acute-cough-and-respiratory-tract-infection-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Knut-Arne Wensaas, Jon Heron, Niamh Redmond, Sophie Turnbull, Hannah Christensen, Hannah Thornton, Tim J Peters, Peter S Blair, Alastair D Hay
Background: Little is known about respiratory tract infection (RTI) severity in children following consultation. Objectives: To investigate post-consultation symptom trajectories in children with acute cough and RTI and whether baseline characteristics predict trajectory group. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 2296 children (3 months-16 years) whose parents were invited to report cough severity and duration using a 7-point Likert scale...
April 20, 2018: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890712/prevalence-and-determinants-of-antibiotic-self-medication-among-adult-patients-with-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-mboppi-baptist-hospital-douala-cameroon-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Roland Cheofor Ngu, Vitalis Fambombi Feteh, Belmond Tse Kika, Emade Ketchemen Nerice F, Chia Mark Ayeah, Theresia Chifor, Tsi Njim, Alvine Manuela Fankem, Franklin Kwenti Fai Yengo
Antibiotic self-medication in patients with respiratory tract infections (RTI) is increasing globally and has been reported to be one of the prime contributors to antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Our study aims to provide data on the prevalence of antibiotic self-medication and identify the factors contributing to self-medication in adult patients with respiratory tract infection in an urban setting in Cameroon. This was cross-sectional study carried out at Mboppi Baptist Hospital, Douala, Cameroon. A validated structured questionnaire was administered to 308 consenting participants with diagnosed RTIs, to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics and history of antibiotic self-medication...
June 8, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29861024/an-examination-of-student-reading-outcomes-following-tier-ii-exit-decisions
#7
Peter M Nelson, Ethan R Van Norman, David C Parker
The current study examined reading skills at two distal time-points for 6828 students who received support from a tier II reading intervention program in the 2015 and 2016 school years. The first follow-up assessment occurred at the end of the year in which intervention was provided and the second assessment occurred at the beginning of the next year. Multilevel models were fit to the data to predict the log odds that a student would meet spring and fall reading benchmarks depending on a variety of student- and school-level predictors...
June 2018: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800806/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-as-a-biomarker-for-acute-testicular-degeneration-caused-by-toxic-insults-to-stallion-testes
#8
Malgorzata Pozor, Alan J Conley, Janet F Roser, Maggie Nolin, Gina L Zambrano, Scott P Runyon, Audrey A Kelleman, Margo L Macpherson
Recently, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) was validated as a reliable marker of testicular damage caused by various chemotherapy drugs in humans and in mice. In horses, the reference values of AMH concentrations in normal stallions, during different seasons of a year, have been recently reported. However, this hormone was not evaluated in subfertile or infertile stallions with testicular damage. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of experimentally induced testicular degeneration on the concentration of AMH in stallions...
May 17, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799750/a-dinuclear-tricyclic-transition-state-model-for-carbonyl-addition-of-organotitanium-reagents-dft-study-on-the-activity-and-enantioselectivity-of-binolate-titanium-catalysts
#9
Toshiro Harada
In the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral BINOL derivatives (or BINOLs) a mixture of various organometallic compounds with Ti(OiPr)4 undergoes enantioselective addition to aldehydes and ketones. Although the catalyst and reacting nucleophile of the reaction have been elucidated to be (BINOLate)Ti2(OiPr)6 and RTi(OiPr)3, respectively, little is known about the properties of short-lived intermediates and transition structures. In this work, the mechanism of this reaction is investigated with the aid of DFT (M06) calculations...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799327/budget-impact-analysis-of-afatinib-for-first-line-treatment-of-patients-with-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-with-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-exon-19-deletions-or-exon-21-substitution-mutations-in-a-u-s-health-plan
#10
Jonathan Graham, Stephanie Earnshaw, Kate Burslem, Jonathan Lim
BACKGROUND: Afatinib is 1 of 3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors approved in the United States for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose tumors have epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletions (del19) or exon 21 (L858R) substitution mutations. In clinical trials, afatinib has demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival versus standard chemotherapy and gefitinib. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of increases in afatinib treatment share on the cost and health outcomes in a commercial health plan in the United States...
June 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788337/improving-the-timeliness-and-accuracy-of-injury-severity-data-in-road-traffic-accidents-in-an-emerging-economy-setting
#11
Carlos Lam, Chang-I Chen, Chia-Chang Chuang, Chia-Chieh Wu, Shih-Hsiang Yu, Kai-Kuo Chang, Wen-Ta Chiu
Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are among the leading causes of injury and fatality worldwide. RTI casualties are continually increasing in Taiwan; however, because of a lack of an advanced method for classifying RTI severity data, as well as the fragmentation of data sources, road traffic safety and health agencies encounter difficulties in analyzing RTIs and their burden on the healthcare system and national resources. These difficulties lead to blind spots during policy-making for RTI prevention and control...
May 18, 2018: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787406/effect-of-patient-and-provider-education-on-antibiotic-overuse-for-respiratory-tract-infections
#12
Erin Chiswell, Debra Hampton, Chizimuzo T C Okoli
Antibiotic overuse for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in primary care (PC) is a known important contributor to the serious health threat of antibiotic resistance, yet remains a difficult problem to improve. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of a combination patient and provider education program on antibiotic prescribing in RTIs in a rural primary care clinic. Utilizing a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design, a retrospective electronic medical record review was conducted to determine if a patient and provider education program changed the rates of antibiotics being prescribed (immediate or delayed) during a visit for RTI for 207 randomly selected patients during the established evaluation time periods...
May 18, 2018: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785101/exacerbation-recovery-patterns-in-newly-diagnosed-or-maintenance-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-copd-secondary-analyses-of-ticari-1-trial-data
#13
David M Mannino, Emmanuelle M Clerisme-Beaty, Joanne Franceschina, Naitee Ting, Nancy K Leidy
Background: Little is known about the recovery patterns from acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) in newly diagnosed or maintenance treatment-naïve patients with COPD. This study describes the course of AECOPD in these patients at the time of treatment for the symptoms of acute respiratory tract infection (RTI). Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of data from a 12-week, randomized clinical trial (TICARI 1) testing the efficacy and safety of once-daily tiotropium 18 µg maintenance therapy versus placebo in newly diagnosed or maintenance treatment-naïve COPD patients with acute RTI symptoms for ≤7 days...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778992/school-area-road-safety-assessment-and-improvements-sarsai-programme-reduces-road-traffic-injuries-among-children-in-tanzania
#14
Ayikai Poswayo, Simon Kalolo, Katheryn Rabonovitz, Jeffrey Witte, Alejandro Guerrero
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of a paediatric road traffic injury (RTI) prevention programme in urban Sub-Saharan Africa. SETTING: Dares Salaam, Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Household surveys were conducted in catchment areas around 18 primary schools in Dar es Salaam, Republic of Tanzania; the catchment areas were divided into control and intervention groups. Collected data included basic demographic information on all school-aged household members and whether or not they had been involved in an RTI in the previous 12 months, and, if so, what the characteristics of that RTI were...
May 19, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731106/discrete-wavelet-transform-and-energy-eigen-value-for-rotor-bars-fault-detection-in-variable-speed-field-oriented-control-of-induction-motor-drive
#15
Tarek Ameid, Arezki Menacer, Hicham Talhaoui, Youness Azzoug
This paper presents a methodology for the broken rotor bars fault detection is considered when the rotor speed varies continuously and the induction machine is controlled by Field-Oriented Control (FOC). The rotor fault detection is obtained by analyzing a several mechanical and electrical quantities (i.e., rotor speed, stator phase current and output signal of the speed regulator) by the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) in variable speed drives. The severity of the fault is obtained by stored energy calculation for active power signal...
May 3, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719846/epidemiology-of-road-traffic-injury-fatalities-among-car-users-a-study-based-on-forensic-medicine-data-in-east-azerbaijan-of-iran
#16
Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Bahram Samadirad, Nasrin Shahedifar, Mina Golestani
Objective: To study the epidemiology of car user road traffic fatalities (CURTFs) during eight years, in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: A total of 3051 CURTFs registered in East Azerbaijan forensic medicine organization database, Iran, during 2006-2014, were analyzed using Stata 13 statistical software package. Descriptive statistics ( p <0.05) and inferential statistical methods such as Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression with p <0.1 were applied...
April 2018: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719311/registry-data-coordinator-rdc-a-proper-accessible-strategy-for-improving-road-traffic-injury-rti-hospital-based-trauma-registry-systems-in-developing-countries-and-low-income-countries
#17
Zahra Meidani, Mehrdad Mahdian, Atefe Ayan, Mahdi Mohammadzade, Alimohammad Nickfarjam, Gholam Abbas Moosavi
Introduction: Evidence suggested that a significant level of trauma mortality can be prevented using registry system. Aim: This study aimed to improve Kashan Hospital Based Trauma Registry System (KHBTRS) for Road Traffic Injury (RTI). Material and methods: After conducting focus group discussion absence of minimum data set (MDS) and poor data collection process (DCP) were identified as main problems for KHBTRS- RTI. Proposed MDS were surveyed by 20 experts of trauma research center of throughout the Iran...
2018: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719037/provider-variation-in-antibiotic-prescribing-and-outcomes-of-respiratory-tract-infections
#18
Mahesh Manne, Abhishek Deshpande, Bo Hu, Aditi Patel, Glen B Taksler, Anita D Misra-Hebert, Stacey E Jolly, Andrei Brateanu, Robert W Bales, Michael B Rothberg
OBJECTIVES: Inappropriate antibiotic use for respiratory tract infection (RTI) is an ongoing problem linked to the emergence of drug resistance and other adverse effects. Less is known about the prescribing practices of individual physicians or the impact of physician prescribing habits on patient outcomes. We studied the prescribing practices of providers for acute RTIs in an integrated health system, identified patient factors associated with receipt of an antibiotic and assessed the relation between providers' adjusted prescribing rates and a number of patient outcomes...
April 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707393/the-association-between-obesity-and-cognitive-function-in-otherwise-healthy-premenopausal-arab-women
#19
Abdulaziz Farooq, Ann-Marie Gibson, John J Reilly, Nadia Gaoua
Objective: To examine the association between obesity and cognitive function in healthy premenopausal women. Methods: From a cohort of 220 women, 98 were randomly selected that provided complete data. Body composition was examined by dual-energy X-ray scan. All participants completed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to assess cognitive performance in three domains: attention, memory, and planning executive function. The Reaction Time (RTI) test was used to assess motor and mental response speeds; the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) test was used to assess planning executive function...
2018: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701556/estimating-the-global-incidence-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Michael C Dewan, Abbas Rattani, Saksham Gupta, Ronnie E Baticulon, Ya-Ching Hung, Maria Punchak, Amit Agrawal, Amos O Adeleye, Mark G Shrime, Andrés M Rubiano, Jeffrey V Rosenfeld, Kee B Park
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-the "silent epidemic"-contributes to worldwide death and disability more than any other traumatic insult. Yet, TBI incidence and distribution across regions and socioeconomic divides remain unknown. In an effort to promote advocacy, understanding, and targeted intervention, the authors sought to quantify the case burden of TBI across World Health Organization (WHO) regions and World Bank (WB) income groups. METHODS Open-source epidemiological data on road traffic injuries (RTIs) were used to model the incidence of TBI using literature-derived ratios...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
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