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Lipids and dyslipidemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802120/discovery-of-pentacyclic-triterpene-3%C3%AE-ester-derivatives-as-a-new-class-of-cholesterol-ester-transfer-protein-inhibitors
#1
Dongyin Chen, Xin Huang, Hongwen Zhou, Hanqiong Luo, Pengfei Wang, Yongzhi Chang, Xinyi He, Suiying Ni, Qingqing Shen, Guoshen Cao, Hongbin Sun, Xiaoan Wen, Jun Liu
A series of pentacyclic triterpene 3β-ester derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated as a new class of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors for the treatment of dyslipidemia. In vitro screening assay showed that 5 out of 30 compounds displayed moderate inhibiting human CETP activity with IC50s less than 10 μM. Among them, compound 20 (IC50 = 2.3 μM) had the most potent biological activity, and effectively ameliorated plasma lipid levels of human adipose tissue specific CETP transgenic (ap2-CETPTg) mice and guinea pigs...
August 4, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801239/salsalate-activates-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-and-protects-mice-from-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-dysfunction
#2
Li Nie, Xin-Lu Yuan, Ke-Tao Jiang, Yu-Hui Jiang, Jin Yuan, Lan Luo, Shi-Wei Cui, Cheng Sun
Salsalate plays beneficial roles for ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, by administering salsalate to mice fed with high fat diet and examining how salsalate rectifies metabolic dysfunction in these obese mice, we found that salsalate stimulated body temperature and attenuated body weight gain without affecting food intake. Our results showed that salsalate application decreased lipid accumulation in liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and improved insulin signaling transduction in eWAT...
August 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800751/prevalence-awareness-treatment-and-control-of-dyslipidemia-in-older-persons-in-urban-and-rural-population-in-the-astana-region-kazakhstan
#3
Adil Supiyev, Talgat Nurgozhin, Zhaxybay Zhumadilov, Anne Peasey, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Martin Bobak
BACKGROUND: Despite high cardiovascular mortality in Central Asian republics of the former Soviet Union, there is limited information about major risk factors, including blood lipids. We investigated the prevalence of impaired concentrations of blood lipids, the awareness, treatment and control of hypercholesterolemia, and factors associated with these indicators in urban and rural populations in Kazakhstan. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of random urban and rural population samples (the state capital Astana and Akmol village)...
August 11, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797406/ct-detected-growth-of-coronary-artery%C3%A2-calcification-in-asymptomatic-middle-aged-subjects-and-association-with-15-biomarkers
#4
Søren Zöga Diederichsen, Mette Hjortdal Grønhøj, Hans Mickley, Oke Gerke, Flemming Hald Steffensen, Jess Lambrechtsen, Niels Peter Rønnow Sand, Lars Melholt Rasmussen, Michael Hecht Olsen, Axel Diederichsen
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the incidence and progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC) in asymptomatic middle-aged subjects and to evaluate the value of a broad panel of biomarkers in the prediction of CAC growth. BACKGROUND: CAC continues to be a major risk factor, but the value of biochemical markers in predicting CAC incidence and progression remains unresolved. METHODS: At baseline, 1,227 men and women underwent traditional risk assessment and a computed tomography (CT) scan to determine the CAC score...
August 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795592/semi-synthetic-thymoquinone-analogs-new-prototypes-as-potential-antihyperlipidemics-in-irradiated-rats
#5
Nashwa H Zaher, Engy R Rashed, Mona A El-Ghazaly
AIM: Thymoquinone (TQ), has been reported to possess strong antihyperlipidemic properties. However, a variety of serious side effects has been reported for TQ. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential antihyperlipidemic activity of newly synthesized TQ analogs. METHODS & RESULTS: first, novel TQ derivatives were studied against radiation-induced dyslipidemia in male rats. Second, the most promising sulfur derivatives (4-7), were further tested to elucidate their possible mechanism(s) of actions...
August 10, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793863/cardiovascular-risk-and-dyslipidemia-among-persons-living-with-hiv-a-review
#6
REVIEW
Paolo Maggi, Antonio Di Biagio, Stefano Rusconi, Stefania Cicalini, Maurizio D'Abbraccio, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Canio Martinelli, Giuseppe Nunnari, Laura Sighinolfi, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Nicola Squillace
BACKGROUND: Aim of this review is to focus the attention on people living with HIV infection at risk of developing a cardiovascular event. What is or what would be the most suitable antiretroviral therapy? Which statin or fibrate to reduce the risk? How to influence behavior and lifestyles? DISCUSSION: Prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains the first and essential step in a medical intervention on these patients. The lifestyle modification, including smoking cessation, increased physical activity, weight reduction, and the education on healthy dietary practices are the main instruments...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793282/increased-risk-of-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-sarcoidosis
#7
Elena Bargagli, Elisabetta Rosi, Massimo Pistolesi, Federico Lavorini, Luca Voltolini, Paola Rottoli
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Recent studies demonstrated that its pathogenesis is related with enhanced oxidative stress (protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation) and alterations in the circulating lipid profile. Alterations of lipid metabolism (including the reduction in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and apolipoprotein A1 concentrations) induce plasma membrane, bronchial and lung capillary endothelial cell damage in sarcoidosis patients. Dyslipidemia is associated with increased oxidative stress, diminished overall antioxidative protection and increased risk for atherosclerosis...
August 10, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792545/contribution-of-independent-and-pleiotropic-genetic-effects-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-hypertensive-rat
#8
Man Chun John Ma, Janette M Pettus, Jessica A Jakoubek, Matthew G Traxler, Karen C Clark, Amanda K Mennie, Anne E Kwitek
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and end organ failure, and is often found concomitant with disorders characteristic of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), including obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. While the associated features often occur together, the pathway(s) or mechanism(s) linking hypertension in MetS are not well understood. Previous work determined that genetic variation on rat chromosome 17 (RNO17) contributes to several MetS-defining traits (including hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia) in the Lyon Hypertensive (LH) rat, a genetically determined MetS model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791432/-dyslipidemias-diagnostics-and-management
#9
D Sinning, U Landmesser
For disorders of lipid metabolism the risk-adapted adjustment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol remains the primary treatment target, as a causal role in minimizing the progression of ACVD has been shown. Because of their efficacy in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, statins are recommended as first-line pharmacological treatment in dyslipidemias. Additionally, ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition have been shown to significantly reduce cardiovascular events in high-risk patients...
August 8, 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790859/dyslipidemia-and-associated-factors-among-diabetic-patients-attending-durame-general-hospital-in-southern-nations-nationalities-and-people-s-region
#10
Shiferaw Bekele, Tagesech Yohannes, Abdurehman Eshete Mohammed
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders that are caused by deficiency in insulin secretion or the decreased ability of insulin to act effectively on target tissues, particularly muscle, liver, and fat. As a result of insulin resistance in the target tissues, particularly in the adipocytes, free fatty acid flux is increased, leading to increased lipid synthesis in hepatocytes, which is responsible for diabetic dyslipidemia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of dyslipidemia among diabetic patients in Durame General Hospital in Kembata Tembaro zone...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783690/cross-talk-between-inkt-cells-and-monocytes-triggers-an-atheroprotective-immune-response-in-sle-patients-with-asymptomatic-plaque
#11
Edward Smith, Sara Croca, Kirsty E Waddington, Reecha Sofat, Maura Griffin, Andrew Nicolaides, David A Isenberg, Ines Pineda Torra, Anisur Rahman, Elizabeth C Jury
Accelerated atherosclerosis is a complication of the autoimmune rheumatic disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We questioned the role played by invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells in this process because they not only are defective in autoimmunity but also promote atherosclerosis in response to CD1d-mediated lipid antigen presentation. iNKT cells from SLE patients with asymptomatic plaque (SLE-P) had increased proliferation and interleukin-4 production compared with those from SLE patients with no plaque...
December 2, 2016: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782313/lipid-profile-in-childhood-and-youth-onset-type-2-diabetes-and-their-association-with-microvascular-complications
#12
A Amutha, R Pradeepa, K S Chella, R M Anjana, R Unnikrishnan, V Mohan
AIM: To assess the lipid profiles in childhood and youth onset type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and study their association with microvascular complications. METHODS: Clinical details of individuals with childhood and youth onset T2DM, age at diagnosis between 10 and 25 yrs (n=1340) were retrieved from electronic medical records. Lipid abnormalities were classified based on the NCEP (ATP III) guidelines and management of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents with diabetes...
June 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782128/serum-lipid-levels-in-patients-with-periodontal-disease-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#13
REVIEW
Rafael Nepomuceno, Suzane C Pigossi, Livia S Finoti, Silvana R P Orrico, Joni A Cirelli, Silvana P Barros, Steven Offenbacher, Raquel M Scarel-Caminaga
AIM: Several papers have considered the potential relationship between periodontitis and lipid parameters. The present systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression study focused on investigating whether serum lipid parameter levels were elevated in patients with periodontal disease (PD) (without altered systemic conditions) in comparison with periodontally healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible studies were those with data about serum lipid parameter levels in non-smoking subjects with and without chronic periodontitis, who are generally healthy and not taking any medication for dyslipidemia...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780399/urbanization-mainly-rurality-but-not-altitude-is-associated-with-dyslipidemia-profiles
#14
Maria Lazo-Porras, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, Renato Quispe, German Málaga, Liam Smeeth, Robert H Gilman, William Checkley, J Jaime Miranda
BACKGROUND: Geographical and environmental features such as urbanization and altitude may influence individual's lipid profiles because of the diversity of human-environment interactions including lifestyles. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the association between altitude and urbanization and lipid profile among Peruvian adults aged ≥35 years. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study. The outcomes of interest were 6 dyslipidemia traits: hypertriglyceridemia, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), nonisolated low HDL-c, isolated low HDL-c, and high non-HDL-c...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777810/green-tea-polyphenol-treatment-attenuates-atherosclerosis-in-high-fat-diet-fed-apolipoprotein-e-knockout-mice-via-alleviating-dyslipidemia-and-up-regulating-autophagy
#15
Shibin Ding, Jinjin Jiang, Pengxin Yu, Guofu Zhang, Guanghui Zhang, Xiaoting Liu
BACKGROUND: Green tea polyphenol (GTP) is a polyphenol source from green tea that has drawn wide attention owing to epidemiological evidence of its beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular disease; the underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the effects of GTP treatment on autophagy regulation in the vessel wall and lipid metabolism of HFD-fed male ApoE-knockout mice. METHODS: Adult male ApoE-knockout mice (n = 30) fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with either vehicle or GTP (3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777256/the-p-407-induced-mouse-model-of-dose-controlled-hyperlipidemia-and-atherosclerosis-twenty-five-years-later
#16
Thomas P Johnston, Tatyana A Korolenko, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The poloxamer 407 (P-407) non-genetic, non-diet-induced mouse model of dose-controlled hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis was first introduced in 1992. Dyslipidemia is produced in C57BL/6 mice of either sex following the intraperitoneal administration of P-407, which is a polyether-based nonionic surface-active-agent. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions begin to form after 1 month of repeated P-407 administration and obtain maximum size, numerical density, and human-like pathological features by 4 months. Our laboratory published a review of this model in 2004, although an update would seem both appropriate and timely based on new findings since 2004...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775078/tlr2-plays-a-key-role-in-platelet-hyperreactivity-and-accelerated-thrombosis-associated-with-hyperlipidemia
#17
Sudipta Biswas, Alejandro Zimman, Detao Gao, Tatiana Byzova, Eugene Podrez
Rationale: Platelet hyperreactivity, which is common in many pathological conditions, is associated with increased atherothrombotic risk. The mechanisms leading to platelet hyperreactivity are complex and not yet fully understood. Objective: Platelet hyperreactivity and accelerated thrombosis, specifically in dyslipidemia, have been mechanistically linked to accumulation in the circulation of a specific group of oxidized phospholipids (oxPCCD36) that are ligands for the platelet pattern-recognition receptor CD36...
August 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774737/the-mechanism-of-diabetic-retinopathy-pathogenesis-unifying-key-lipid-regulators-sirtuin-1-and-liver-x-receptor
#18
Sandra S Hammer, Eleni Beli, Nermin Kady, Qi Wang, Kiana Wood, Todd A Lydic, Goldis Malek, Daniel R Saban, Xiaoxin X Wang, Sugata Hazra, Moshe Levi, Julia V Busik, Maria B Grant
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication secondary to diabetes and is the number one cause of blindness among working age individuals worldwide. Despite recent therapeutic breakthroughs using pharmacotherapy, a cure for DR has yet to be realized. Several clinical trials have highlighted the vital role dyslipidemia plays in the progression of DR. Additionally, it has recently been shown that activation of Liver X receptor (LXRα/LXRβ) prevents DR in diabetic animal models. LXRs are nuclear receptors that play key roles in regulating cholesterol metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and inflammation...
August 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772107/family-specific-aggregation-of-lipid-gwas-variants-confers-the-susceptibility-to-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-a-large-austrian-family
#19
Elina Nikkola, Arthur Ko, Marcus Alvarez, Rita M Cantor, Kristina Garske, Elliot Kim, Stephanie Gee, Alejandra Rodriguez, Reinhard Muxel, Niina Matikainen, Sanni Söderlund, Mahdi M Motazacker, Jan Borén, Claudia Lamina, Florian Kronenberg, Wolfgang J Schneider, Aarno Palotie, Markku Laakso, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Päivi Pajukanta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypercholesterolemia confers susceptibility to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both serum total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) exhibit a strong genetic component (heritability estimates 0.41-0.50). However, a large part of this heritability cannot be explained by the variants identified in recent extensive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on lipids. Our aim was to find genetic causes leading to high LDL-C levels and ultimately CVD in a large Austrian family presenting with what appears to be autosomal dominant inheritance for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)...
July 22, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770225/pegylated-curcumin-derivative-attenuates-hepatic-steatosis-via-creb-ppar-%C3%AE-cd36-pathway
#20
Yu Liu, Fei Cheng, Yuxuan Luo, Zhu Zhan, Peng Hu, Hong Ren, Huadong Tang, Mingli Peng
Curcumin has the potential to cure dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, its therapeutic effects are curbed by poor bioavailability. Our previous work has shown that modification of curcumin with polyethylene glycol (PEG) improves blood concentration and tissue distribution. This study sought to investigate the role of a novel PEGylated curcumin derivative (Curc-mPEG454) in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in a high-fat-diet- (HFD-) fed C57BL/6J mouse model...
2017: BioMed Research International
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