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Fulvic acid

Syeed Md Iskander, John T Novak, Brian Brazil, Zhen He
The presence of UV quenching compounds in landfill leachate can negatively affect UV disinfection in a wastewater treatment plant when leachate is co-treated. Herein, a microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated to remove UV quenchers from a landfill leachate with simultaneous bioelectricity generation. The key operating parameters including hydraulic retention time (HRT), anolyte recirculation rate, and external resistance were systematically studied to maximize energy recovery and UV absorbance reduction...
September 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lei Luo, Jitao Lv, Zien Chen, Rixiang Huang, Shuzhen Zhang
Sorption of organic compounds on fresh black carbons (BCs) can be greatly attenuated in soil over time. We examined herein the changes in surface properties of maize straw-derived BCs (biochars) after aged in a black soil and their effects on the sorptive behaviors of naphthalene, phenanthrene and 1,3-dinitrobenzene. Dissolved fulvic and humic acids extracted from the soil were used to explore the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the aging of biochars. Chromatography analysis indicated that DOC molecules with relatively large molecular weight were preferentially adsorbed on the biochars during the aging processes...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Lei Li, Guangxia Qi, Bangda Wang, Dongbei Yue, Yi Wang, Tsutomu Sato
A novel multifunctional composite adsorbent which possesses the ability for anion exchange and toxic metal complexation has been synthesized by the hybridization of layered double hydroxides (LDH) and fulvic acid (FA) in this study. The results show that FA with lots of functional groups can be effectively and stably anchored on the surface of LDH through coagulation process without occupying the interlayer of LDH. Therefore, the anion exchange ability remains and the adsorption capacity of Orange II can reach 1...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Xinyu Zhao, Xiaosong He, Beidou Xi, Rutai Gao, Wenbing Tan, Hui Zhang, Caihong Huang, Dan Li, Meng Li
Humic substance (HS) could be utilized by humus-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) as the terminal acceptors. Meanwhile, the reduction of HS can support the microbial growth. This process would greatly affect the redox conversion of inorganic and organic pollutants. However, whether the redox properties of HS lined with HRMs community during composting still remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the relationships between the redox capability of HS [i.e. humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA)] and HRMs during composting...
September 16, 2017: Waste Management
Stephanie M Riley, Danika C Ahoor, Julia Regnery, Tzahi Y Cath
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in oil and gas (O&G) produced water and fracturing flowback was characterized and quantified by multiple analytical techniques throughout a hybrid biological-physical treatment process. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of DOM by liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy, demonstrated increasing removal of all groups of DOM throughout the treatment train, with most removal occurring during biological pretreatment and some subsequent removal achieved during membrane treatment...
September 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Philip Patrick Anthony Malley, Jarod Nathaniel Grossman, Tara F Kahan
We have measured photolysis kinetics of the PAH anthracene in aqueous solution, in bulk ice, and at ice surfaces in the presence and absence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Self-association, which occurs readily at ice surfaces, may be responsible for the faster anthracene photolysis observed there. Photolysis rate constants in liquid water increased significantly under conditions where significant anthracene self-association was observed. Concomitantly, kinetics changed from first order to second order, indicating that the photolysis mechanism at ice surfaces might be different than that in aqueous solution...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Shuyan Li, Danyang Li, Jijin Li, Guoxue Li, Bangxi Zhang
Sewage sludge and corn stalk were co-composted under different aeration rates 0.12 (AR0.12), 0.24 (AR0.24), 0.36 (AR0.36)L·kg(-1)DMmin(-1), respectively. Transformation of humic substance was evaluated by a series of chemical and spectroscopic methods to reveal compost humification. Results showed that aeration rate could significantly affect compost stability and humification process. Humic acid contents in AR0.24 were significantly higher than those in the other two treatments. The final humic acid/fulvic acid ratios in AR0...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Hui Wang, Yunhai Wang, Ziyang Lou, Nanwen Zhu, Haiping Yuan
Concentrated leachate (CL) is the byproduct of leachate treated by the membrane separation unit after bio-treatment processes, and contains many humic-like substances. Ozonation processes were applied and optimized for the further removal of those refractory matters in this work. Micro-bubble ozonation (MB-O3) possessed the best performance, and 76.0% and 69.9% of COD and TOC were found to be removed under the optimum conditions with ozone dosage of 2.4g/L, initial pH of 9 and reaction time of 120min. The reaction rate k in MB-O3 was 0...
September 5, 2017: Waste Management
Yong Chen, Jing Su, Lu Liu, Yiling Zhou, Jiaolan Zuo, Zongping Wang, Tao Tao
The degradation of aromatic amino acids including L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine and L-phenylalanine by δ-MnO2 was investigated. L-tryptophan and L-tyrosine underwent rapid oxidative degradation in the δ-MnO2 suspension solution. In contrast, L-phenylalanine was not oxidized by δ-MnO2. The degradation of L-tryptophan was faster than that of L-tyrosine. The oxidation rates of amino acids increased with increasing concentration of δ-MnO2. The increase of concentrations of substrates and pH disfavored the degradation...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Technology
Kuen-Lin Chen, Li-Chun Liu, Wan-Ru Chen
Many antibiotics, including sulfonamides, are being frequently detected in soil and groundwater. Livestock waste is an important source of antibiotic pollution, and sulfonamides may be present along with organic-rich substances. This study aims to investigate the sorption reaction of two sulfonamides, sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) and sulfapyridine (SPY) in two organic-rich sorbents: a commercial peat soil (38.41% carbon content) and a composted manure (24.33% carbon content). Batch reactions were conducted to evaluate the impacts of pH (4...
August 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Afeng Zhang, Xu Zhou, Ming Li, Haiming Wu
Biochar amendment in soil has the potential to sequester carbon, improve soil quality and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in agriculture, but the impact of biochar amendments on dissolved organic matter (DOM) properties of soils in the fertilized agro-ecosystem has received little research attention. This study performed a long-term field experiment to assess the influence of biochar amendments (different addition rate: 4 t ha(-1) and 8 t ha(-1)) on DOM characteristics in soils in wheat-maize rotation system in Loess Plateau of China by exploiting fluorescence excitation-emission spectrophotometry and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC)...
November 2017: Chemosphere
Zhujian Huang, Qin Lu, Jun Wang, Xian Chen, Xiaoyun Mao, Zhenli He
Agricultural application of sewage sludge (SS) after carbonization is a plausible way for disposal. Despite its benefits of improving soil fertility and C sequestration, heavy metals contained in sewage sludge biochars (SSB) are still a concern. In this study, two types of heavy metal stabilizers were chosen: fulvic acid (FA) and phosphogypsum (with CaSO4, CS, as the main component). The two stabilizers were incorporated into SS prior to 350°C carbonization for 1 h at the rates of 1%, 2%, or 4%. The obtained SSBs were then analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
2017: PloS One
Yun Xiang, Man Cheng, Yimei Huang, Shaoshan An, Frédéric Darboux
Afforestation plays an important role in soil protection and ecological restoration. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of afforestation on soil carbon and soil microbial communities in the Loess Plateau of China. We measured two chemically-separated carbon fractions (i.e., humic acid, HA, and fulvic acid, FA) and soil microbial communities within shrublands (18-year-old Caragana korshinskii Kom (shrubland I) and 28-year-old Caragana korshinskii Kom (shrubland II)) and cropland. The size and structure of the soil microbial community was measured by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis...
August 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Martina Di Gianfilippo, Jiri Hyks, Iason Verginelli, Giulia Costa, Ole Hjelmar, Francesco Lombardi
Several types of standardized laboratory leaching tests have been developed during the past few decades to evaluate the leaching behaviour of waste materials as a function of different parameters, such as the pH of the eluate and the liquid to solid ratio. However, the link between the results of these tests and leaching data collected from the field (e.g. in disposal or reuse scenarios) is not always straightforward. In this work, we compare data obtained from an on-going large scale field trial, in which municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash is being tested as road sub-base material, with the results obtained from percolation column and pH-dependence laboratory leaching tests carried out on the bottom ash at the beginning of the test...
August 16, 2017: Waste Management
Enxiang Shang, Yang Li, Junfeng Niu, Yijing Zhou, Tianyu Wang, John Charles Crittenden
In this study, the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) composition (humic acid (HA) or fulvic acid (FA)) on dissolution, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and toxicity of sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated under UV irradiation. NOM acted as a UV filter or antioxidant, decreasing ROS (O2(-), OH, and (1)O2) generation by WS2 and MoS2 NPs. The higher light-absorbing fractions of HA in NP/HA mixtures and the faster reaction rate of HA with ROS resulted in higher inhibition effect of HA than FA on O2(-) and OH generation by WS2 and MoS2 NPs...
August 3, 2017: Water Research
Shui-Wen Chang Chien, Shou-Hung Chen, Chi-Jui Li
Various properties of soil affect the partition of organic contaminants within, and conversely, the properties of the organic contaminants also directly affect their partition behavior in soil. Therefore, understanding the effects of various properties of soil on the partition of organic contaminants favors subsequent assessment and provides soil remediation methods for policymakers. This study selected pentachlorophenol (PCP), a common hydrophobic ionizable organic compound in contaminated sites worldwide, as the target contaminant...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chao Jiang, Shikha Garg, T David Waite
The effects of calcium on iron redox transformations in acidic non-irradiated and irradiated Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) solutions are investigated in this study. Our results reveal that, even though calcium is redox-inert, it affects the redox transformations of iron with increased Fe(III) reduction rates under irradiated conditions and decreased Fe(II) oxidation rates in the dark in the presence compared to the absence of calcium. While the exact mechanism via which the Fe(III) reduction rate under irradiated conditions is impacted by calcium addition is not clear, the formation of more photo-labile weakly complexed Fe(III)SRFA is most consistent with our experimental results...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Chunli Kang, Siqi Bao, Baiyan Chen, Yubo Zhong, Dongmei Huang, Yuhan Wang, Honghai Xue, Tao Tian
The photoconversion of 2-chloronaphthalene (CN-2) in water in a simulated sunlight system was investigated. The photoconversion efficiency, photoproducts and mechanisms were inspected, and the effects of inorganic ions (NO3(-), NO2(-)) and fulvic acid (FA) were discussed. The results showed that CN-2 could be transformed in water under the irradiation. NO3(-) and NO2(-) promoted the photoconversion of CN-2 owing to ·OH generated by the photolysis of NO3(-) and NO2(-); FA at a lower concentration promoted the photoconversion, but it had an inhibition effect at a higher concentration...
August 5, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Liangliang Wei, Xiaoyan An, Sheng Wang, Chonghua Xue, Junqiu Jiang, Qingliang Zhao, Felix Tetteh Kabutey, Kun Wang
In this study, the transformation of the sludge-related extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) during mesophilic anaerobic digestion was characterized to assess the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on reactor deterioration/restarting. Experimental HRT variations from 20 to 15 and 10d was implemented for deterioration, and from 10 to 20d for restarting. Long-term digestion at the lowest HRT (10d) resulted in significant accumulation of hydrolyzed hydrophobic materials and volatile fatty acids in the supernatants...
November 2017: Bioresource Technology
Pinjing He, Qinfang Yu, Hua Zhang, Liming Shao, Fan Lü
The effects of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) on Cu(2+) adsorption on biochar were investigated, with mechanisms confirmed by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. HA loading enhanced Cu(2+) adsorption on biochar, with the maximum enhancement of 55.0% occurring at an HA loading of 100 mg-C/L. The adsorbed HA introduced many additional functional groups to biochar, thus enhancing Cu(2+) adsorption, which decreased at HA concentrations >100 mg-C/L due to self-association of HA at high loading concentrations...
August 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
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