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Fulvic acid

Lilian V Tose, Paolo Benigni, Dennys Leyva, Abigail Sundberg, César E Ramírez, Mark E Ridgeway, Melvin A Park, Wanderson Romão, Rudolf Jaffé, Francisco Fernandez-Lima
RATIONALE: There is a need for fast, post-ionization separation during the analysis of complex mixtures. In this study, we evaluate the use of a high-resolution mobility analyzer with high resolution and ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry for unsupervised molecular feature detection. Goals include the study of the reproducibility of TIMS across platforms, applicability range and potential challenges during routine analysis. METHODS: A TIMS analyzer was coupled to TOF-MS and to an FT-ICR MS for the analysis of single charge species in the m/z 150-800 range of a complex mixture (Suwannee River Fulvic Acid Standard)...
May 14, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Harshad V Kulkarni, Natalie Mladenov, Diane M McKnight, Yan Zheng, Matthew F Kirk, Diana R Nemergut
It was demonstrated more than two decades ago that microorganisms use humic substances, including fulvic acid (FA), as electron shuttles during iron (Fe) reduction in anaerobic soils and sediments. The relevance of this mechanism for the acceleration of Fe(III) reduction in arsenic-laden groundwater environments is gaining wider attention. Here we provide new evidence that dissolved FAs isolated from sediment-influenced surface water and groundwater in the Bengal Basin were capable of electron shuttling between Geobacter metallireducens and Fe(III)...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Roman Vasilevich, Evgeny Lodygin, Vasily Beznosikov, Evgeny Abakumov
Humic substances (HSs) from the mire peat soils of the forest-tundra zone of the European northeast part of Russia have been characterized in terms of molecular composition. This was accomplished using solid-state 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (13 C NMR) techniques and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The composition depended on the intensity of cryogenic processes in the active layer, the quality of the humification precursors (the degree of peat material transformation), and the biochemical selection of aromatic fragments during humification...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Weiqin Zhu, Wu Yao, Xuyang Shen, Weiwen Zhang, Huiting Xu
In this work, a mixture of pig manure and 13 C-labeled rice straw was vermicomposted with Eisenia fetida for 40 days. The results showed that after they acclimated to the vermicomposting environment, the earthworms helped to degrade the substrate residues. After 40 days, the vermicomposting led to much higher pH, EC, C/N, available K, available P, available Zn, and CEC values but much lower available N and available Cu values in the substrate residues compared to the initial values. The earthworms accumulated 13 C, Cu, and Zn with a heavy metal enrichment capacity in the order of Cu > Zn...
May 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Baile Xu, Fei Liu, Philip C Brookes, Jianming Xu
Microplastics have a great potential to sorb organic pollutants from the adjacent environment. In this study, the sorption of tetracycline, a polar and ionizable antibiotic, on three types of microplastics (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS)) were investigated in batch sorption experiments. The sorption isotherms were well fitted by the Langmuir model, indicating that not only hydrophobic interactions but also other interactions (e.g. electrostatic interactions) played important roles in the sorption process...
May 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xiaobiao Zhu, Mengqi Li, Dehua Ma, Lujun Chen
The biotoxicity of industrial effluents has attracted much concern in the wastewater treatment process. This research performed the biological treatment of the wastewater generated from food waste fermentation by anaerobic/anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic-membrane bioreactor (A3 -MBR) system aiming at the meet of discharge standards and elimination of ecological risks to aquatic environment. The results showed that the A3 -MBR could effectively remove pollutants such as COD, TN, ammonia, and TP in the wastewater. The study of biotoxicity revealed that the acute toxicity was mainly contained in the polar and mid-polar fractions of the wastewater, and the remained acute toxicity was less than 0...
April 29, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zucheng Wang, Shasha Liu, Zhao-Jun Bu, Shengzhong Wang
The dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation in Sphagnum litters and the decomposition of the litters were investigated. PAH concentration decreased to approximately half of the initial concentration as Sphagnum litters decayed. The initial PAH concentration was 489.2 ± 72.2 ng g-1 , and the concentration after 120 days of incubation was 233.0 ± 5.8 ng g-1 . The different PAH compositions changed concentrations at different times. The low-molecular-weight (LMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs started to be degraded after incubation and after 40 days of incubation, respectively...
April 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Mrigendra Kumar Awasthi, Junchao Zhao, Hongyu Chen, Xiuna Ren, Meijing Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
This study was aimed to examine the response of Ca-bentonite (CB) amendment to improve the sewage sludge (SS) composting along with wheat straw (WS) as bulking agent. Five treatments (SS + WS) were mixed with or without blending of discrepant concentration of CB (2%, 4%, 6%, and 10%), respectively, and without CB added treatment applied as the control. The results showed that compared to control and 2%CB blended treatments, while the 6-10%CB -amended treatment indicated maximum enzymatic activities with the composting progress and highest organic matter degradation and loss...
April 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Xiaoyu Xu, Gary L Mills
The H-02 wetland was constructed to treat building process water and storm runoff water from the Tritium Processing Facility on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC). Monthly monitoring of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations and water quality parameters in surface waters continued from 2014 to 2016. Metal speciation was modeled at each sampling occasion. Total Cu and Zn concentrations released to the effluent stream were below the NPDES limit, and the average removal efficiency was 65...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Han Su, Rujun Yang, Yan Li, Xuchen Wang
The influence of humic substances (specifically humic and fulvic acids, referred to as HS-HA and HS-FA) as well as other factors, such as major nutrient concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), total dissolved phosphate (TDP) and hydrologic factors, on the distribution of total dissolved iron (DFe) and the chemical speciation of DFe was studied in the East China Sea (ECS) during a summer cruise in 2013. As the wide rage fraction of nature organic matter, the HS-HA, HS-FA in ESC contains most part of the organic ligand (Lt) of DFe...
April 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Chao Peng, Anneli Sundman, Casey Bryce, Charlotte Catrouillet, Thomas Borch, Andreas Kappler
Fe(II)-organic-matter (Fe(II)-OM) complexes are abundant in the environment and may play a key role for the behavior of Fe and pollutants. Mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (NRFeOx) reduce nitrate coupled to the oxidation of organic compounds and Fe(II). Fe(II) oxidation may occur enzymatically or abiotically by reaction with nitrite that forms during heterotrophic denitrification. However, it is unknown whether Fe(II)-OM complexes can be oxidized by NRFeOx. We used cell-suspension experiments with the mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium Acidovorax sp...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Minda Yu, Xiaosong He, Jiaomei Liu, Yuefeng Wang, Beidou Xi, Dan Li, Hui Zhang, Chao Yang
Understanding the heterogeneous evolution characteristics of dissolved organic matter fractions derived from compost is crucial to exploring the composting biodegradation process and the possible applications of compost products. Herein, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy integrated with reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography were utilized to obtain the molecular weight (MW) and polarity evolution characteristics of humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), and the hydrophilic (HyI) fractions during composting...
April 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Paulo R Dores-Silva, Maria D Landgraf, Maria O O Rezende
The organic matter existing in nature presents as a complex system of various substances. The humic fraction refers to the humic substances (HS) and consists of humic acids (HA), fulvic acids (FA), and humins, according to solubility in aqueous solution. The physical and chemical characteristics of HA, FA, and humins depend on many factors, among which is the type of original organic material. Two processes for the stabilization of organic materials are known worldwide: composting and vermicomposting. Cattle manure, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, and vegetable wastes from leaves were the organic residues chosen for the composting and vermicomposting processes...
April 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fengsong Zhang, Linsheng Yang, Xia Liu, Yanxia Li, Huajun Fang, Xingrun Wang, Njud S Alharbi, Jiaxing Li
Steroid estrogens, such as 17β-estradiol (E2), in animal manure pose a potential threat to the aquatic environment. The transport and estrogenicity of estrogens influence the sorption of estrogens to dissolved organic matter (DOM) in animal manure, and composting treatment alters the structure and composition of the manure. The objectives of the present study were to identify the contribution of the molecular composition of DOM of composted manure to the sorption of E2 and then elucidate the dominant mechanisms involved in the interaction of E2 with manure-derived DOM...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Imran Rashid, Ghulam Murtaza, Zahir Ahmad Zahir, Muhammad Farooq
The high nutrients and organic matter (OM) content of sewage sludge make it an excellent fertilizer to enhance soil fertility and crop production. However, the presence of adsorbed and precipitated forms of heavy metals, especially cadmium (Cd), can be a major problem for such a utilization of sludge. This pot study aims at producing safe food with minimal Cd concentrations from sewage sludge amended soils. Two wheat cultivars (NARC-11 and Shafaq-06) were sown in soil amended with sewage sludge with rates 0, 15 and 30 g kg-1 soil...
March 28, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
István Hullár, András Valentin Vucskits, Erzsébet Berta, Emese Andrásofszky, András Bersényi, József Szabó
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fulvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA), the two main compounds of humic substances (HSs), on copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) homeostasis. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into nine experimental groups. The control diet (AIN-93G formula) and the diets supplemented with 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% FA or HA were fed for 26 days. Cu and Zn concentrations of the large intestinal content (LIC), liver, kidney, femur and hair were determined. FA and HA did not influence significantly the Cu or Zn contents of the experimental diets, the rats' feed intake, weight gain and the feed to gain ratio...
March 2018: Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Junko Hara, Susumu Norota, Yoshishige Kawebe, Hajime Sugita, Ming Zhang
The stability and dispersion of naturally occurring As have been receiving increasing attention, because As is toxic and its contamination is a widespread problem in many countries. This study investigated As fractionation and speciation in organic sediments collected from different depositional settings to elucidate the existence of stable As in humic substances. Eleven organic sediment samples were collected from marine and terrestrial alluvial regions in Hokkaido prefecture, Japan, and the chemical fraction of As and species of humic substances were identified by sequential extraction...
March 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Nana Osei B Ackerson, Edward J Machek, Alexis H Killinger, Elizabeth A Crafton, Pushpita Kumkum, Hannah K Liberatore, Michael J Plewa, Susan D Richardson, Thomas A Ternes, Stephen E Duirk
Iopamidol is a known direct precursor to iodinated and chlorinated DBP formation; however, the influence of iopamidol on both iodo/chloro-DBP formation has yet to be fully investigated. This study investigated the effect of iopamidol on the formation and speciation of halogen-specific total organic halogen (TOX), as well as iodo/chloro-DBPs, in the presence of 3 source waters (SWs) from Northeast Ohio and chlorinated oxidants. Chlorination and chloramination of SWs were carried out at pH 6.5-9.0 and, different iopamidol and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations...
March 16, 2018: Chemosphere
Oh Sung Kwean, Su Yeon Cho, Jun Won Yang, Wooyoun Cho, Sungyoon Park, Yejee Lim, Min Chul Shin, Han-Suk Kim, Joonhong Park, Han S Kim
A biodegradation facilitator which catalyzes the initial steps of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) oxidation was prepared by immobilizing multiple enzymes (monooxygenase, CphC-I and dioxygenase, CphA-I) onto a natural inorganic support. The enzymes were obtained via overexpression and purification after cloning the corresponding genes (cphC-I and cphA-I) from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6. Then, the recombinant CphC-I was immobilized onto fulvic acid-activated montmorillonite. The immobilization yield was 60%, and the high enzyme activity (82...
March 16, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Rawa El Fallah, Régis Rouillon, Florence Vouvé
The fate of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous contaminant reported to be persistent in the environment, is largely controlled by its interactions with the soil organic matter. In the present study, the spectral characteristics of fluorophores present in the physical fractions of the soil organic matter were investigated in the presence of pure BaP solution. After extraction of humic substances (HSs), and their fractionation into fluvic acid (FA) and humic acid (HA), two fluorescent compounds (C1 and C2 ) were identified and characterized in each physical soil fraction, by means of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (FEEMs) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC)...
March 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
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