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Fulvic acid

Judith Schellekens, Peter Buurman, Karsten Kalbitz, Andre van Zomeren, Pablo Vidal-Torrado, Chiara Cerli, Rob N J Comans
Insight in the molecular structure of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) can contribute to identify relationships between their molecular properties, and further our quantitative abilities to model important organic matter functions such as metal complexation and association with mineral surfaces. Pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) is used to compare the molecular composition of HA and FA. A systematic comparison was obtained by using samples from different environmental sources, including solid and aqueous samples from both natural and waste sources...
January 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Tao Lin, Bingwei Hou, Jian Wang, Yaqun Xu, Wei Chen
Dissolved organic matter (DOM), as a very fine colloidal suspension, could inevitably affect the transformation process of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in drinking water treatment. Tryptophan and tyrosine were used as representatives of DON to investigate the interactions between amino acids and fulvic-like components of fluorescent DOM using titration experiments. The fluorescence intensity decreased significantly with the increasing fulvic acid (FA) concentration, suggesting that FA could greatly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of amino acids such as tryptophan and tyrosine...
January 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhuo Zeng, Ping Zheng, Aqiang Ding, Meng Zhang, Ghulam Abbas, Wei Li
Swine wastewater is one of the most serious pollution sources, and it has attracted a great public concern in China. Anaerobic digestion technology is extensively used in swine wastewater treatment. However, the anaerobic digestion effluents are difficult to meet the discharge standard. The results from batch experiments showed that plenty of refractory organic matter remained in the effluents after mesophilic anaerobic digestion for 30 days. The effluent total COD (tCOD) and soluble COD (sCOD) were 483 and 324 mg/L, respectively, with the sCOD/tCOD ratio of 0...
January 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yang Gao, Jie He, Zhuliu He, Zhiwei Li, Bo Zhao, Yi Mu, Jeong-Yeol Lee, Zhangjie Chu
A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to determine the effect of dietary fulvic acid supplements on intestinal digestive activity (enzymatic analysis), antioxidant activity, immune enzyme activity and microflora composition of juvenile loach (initial weight of 6.2 ± 0.1 g) reared in experimental aquaria. Five test diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2% fulvic acid were randomly assigned to three aquaria, respectively. Elevated growth performance including final weight, weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was observed in loaches that were fed fulvic acid...
January 9, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xin Zhong, Chongwei Cui, Shuili Yu
Ozonation of fulvic acid (FA) can result in diverse intermediate oxidation by-products, significantly affecting disinfection by-product (DBP) formation following chlorination. The objective of this study was to provide insight into ozone reaction intermediates and reveal the possible formation pathway of DBPs from ozonation of FA due to the formation of intermediate oxidation by-products. Aldehydes, aromatic acids, short-chain acids, chloroform, and dichloroacetic acid were detected at various ozone dosage additions...
January 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dong Ren, Bin Huang, Benqin Yang, Xuejun Pan, Dionysios D Dionysiou
Photodegradation is an important abiotic pathway transforming organic pollutants in natural waters. Humic substances (HS), including humic and fulvic acids, are capable of accelerating the photodegradation of steroid estrogens. However, how the photodegradtion of the emerging pollutants influenced by HS is not clear. Thus, we studied the roles and mechanisms of HS in inducing the photodegradation of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2). HS generally induces EE2 photodegradation through binding and reactive species generation...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
K Afshinnia, M Baalousha
The attachment efficiency (α) is an important parameter that can be used to characterize nanoparticle (NPs) aggregation behavior and has been a topic of discussion of several papers in the past few years. The importance of α is because it is one of the key parameters that can be used to model NP environmental fate and behavior. This study uses UV-vis and laser Doppler electrophoresis to monitor the aggregation behavior of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (cit-AgNPs) induced by Na(+) and Ca(2+) as counter ions in the presence and absence of Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) as a surrogate of natural organic matter and different concentrations of phosphate buffer (0-1mM)...
December 30, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Raoqiong Che, Li Huang, Jun-Wei Xu, Peng Zhao, Tao Li, Huixian Ma, Xuya Yu
Fulvic acid (FA) triggers lipid accumulation in Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10, which can produce biofuels. Therefore, the metabolism shift and gene expression changes influenced by fulvic acid should be investigated. In this study, lipid and protein contents increased rapidly from 44.6% to 54.3% and from 31.4% to 39.7% under FA treatment, respectively. By contrast, carbohydrate content sharply declined from 49.5% to 32.5%. The correlation between lipid content and gene expression was also analyzed. Results revealed that accD, ME, and GPAT genes were significantly correlated with lipid accumulation...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
Lixiao Ni, Lili Su, Shiyin Li, Peifang Wang, Dandan Li, Xiang Ye, Yi Li, Yong Li, Yiping Li, Chao Wang
This study examines the uptake of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) by Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) in the presence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from different origins. The DOM used in this study were extracted from soil, sediment taken from Meiliang Bay at Taihu Lake and from M. aeruginosa cultured in the laboratory. The three different DOM were characterized using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the interactions of DOM with Cd(2+) ...
January 2, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Dong Qing Zhang, Chin Yee Eng, David C Stuckey, Yan Zhou
The effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on the performance of an anoxic-aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR), and the characterization of the soluble microbial products (SMPs) produced in the presence of ZnO NPs was evaluated. Continuous operation over 144 days showed that ZnO NPs at concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L exerted a negative impact on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal, although ZnO NPs were efficiently removed in the MBR (>92%). 10 and 50 mg/L ZnO NPs decreased COD removal substantially from 93...
December 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Mostafa Zahmatkesh, Henri Spanjers, Jules B van Lier
Humic substances (HS) comprise the major content of hardly or non-biodegradable organic matters in the industrial wastewaters. Although the application of fungi has been reported before as a novel and sustainable technology for the treatment of humics, yet most of the previous studies have been performed using synthetic wastewaters. This paper presents the results of fungal treatment of a real industrial wastewater, providing insight into the main mechanisms involved and clarifying some ambiguities and uncertainties in the previous reports...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Technology
Fu-Xiang Tian, Xiao-Jun Hu, Bin Xu, Tian-Yang Zhang, Yu-Qiong Gao
The photodegradation of IO3(-) at 254nm and the formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) during subsequent chlorination or chloramination in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) were investigated in this study. The thermodynamically stable IO3(-) can be degraded by UV irradiation with pseudo-first order kinetics and the quantum yield was calculated as 0.0591moleinstein(-1). Solution pH posed no remarkable influence on the photolysis rate of IO3(-). The UV phototransformation of IO3(-) was evidenced by the determination of iodide (I(-)) and hypoiodous acid (HOI) in solution...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Junting Liang, Xuanyu Wang, Luzhi Li, Shengmin Xu, Jiang Jiang, Lijun Wu, Guoping Zhao, Shaopeng Chen
With the expanding use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs), development of a high-throughput, sensitive method for evaluating NP safety is important. In this study, we developed cell-based biosensors to efficiently and conveniently monitor NP toxicity. The biosensor cells were obtained by transiently transfecting human cells with biosensor plasmids containing a mCherry gene regulated by an inducible promoter [an activator protein 1 (AP-1) promoter, an interleukin 8 (IL8) promoter, or a B cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2) promoter], with an enhanced green-fluorescent protein gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter as the internal control...
December 18, 2016: Chemosphere
Tiantian Shao, Kaishan Song, Pierre-Andre Jacinthe, Jia Du, Ying Zhao, Zhi Ding, Ying Guan, Zhang Bai
Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in riverine systems can be affected by environmental conditions and land-use, and thus could provide important information regarding human activities in surrounding landscapes. The optical properties of water samples collected at 42 locations across the Liaohe River (LHR, China) watershed were examined using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy to determine CDOM characteristics, composition and sources. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations at all sampling sites exceeded the GB3838-2002 (national quality standards for surface waters, China) standard for Class V waters of 2...
December 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Mehrnoosh Azodi, Yasir Sultan, Subhasis Ghoshal
Ag nanoparticles (nAg) are used in various consumer products and a significant fraction is eventually discharged with municipal wastewater (WW). In this study we assessed the release of Ag from polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)- and citrate-coated 80 nm nAg in aerobic WW effluent and mixed liquor and the related changes in nAg size, using single particle ICP-MS (spICP-MS). The concentration of dissolved (nonparticulate) Ag in WW effluent was 0.89 ± 0.05 ppb at 168 h and was 71% lower than in deionized (DI) water, in batch reactors spiked with 5 × 10(6) PVP-nAg particles/mL (10 μg/L), an environmentally relevant concentration...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Meixiang Sun, Man Wu, Wen Liu, Huiying Liu, Yezhong Zhang, Jie Dai
A hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) with biological band carriers (Reactor A) and an HMBR with suspended honeycomb carriers (Reactor B) were conducted in parallel to investigate the effects of different carriers on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Composition and concentration of EPS were examined by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectra and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). 3DEEM spectra demonstrated that the main organic substances of the EPS in two reactors were protein-like, humic acid-like and fulvic acid-like substances...
December 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Feng Shen, Yanxia Li, Min Zhang, Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Amjad Ali, Ronghua Li, Quan Wang, Zengqiang Zhang
In this study, we investigated the influence of heavy metals (HM) on total soil bacterial population and its diversity pattern from 10 km distance of a Zinc smelter in Feng County, Qinling Mountain, China. We characterized and identified the bacterial community in a HM polluted soil using 16S rDNA technology. Out results indicated that the maximum soil HM concentration and the minimum bacterial population were observed in S2 soil, whereas bacterial diversity raised with the sampling distance increased. The bacterial communities were dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria in cornfield soils, except Fimicutes phylum which dominated in hilly area soil...
December 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Guixue Song, Etelvino H Novotny, Jing-Dong Mao, Michael H B Hayes
An awareness of the transformation of plant residues returned to cultivated soils is vital for a better understanding of carbon cycles, the maintenance of soil fertility and the practice of a sustainable agriculture. The transformation of maize (Zea mays L) straw residues into soil organic matter (SOM) in a one year incubation experiment was studied in a soil that had been under long term cultivation with wheat (Triticum aestivum L) for >30years. A novel sequential exhaustive extraction and fractionation procedure isolated a series of fractions of SOM...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Nathan A Conroy, Mavrik Zavarin, Annie B Kersting, Brian A Powell
The effect of citric acid (CA), desferrioxamine B (DFOB), fulvic acid (FA), and humic acid (HA) on plutonium (Pu) sorption to goethite was studied as a function of organic carbon concentration and pH using batch sorption experiments at 5 mgC·L(-1) and 50 mgC·L(-1) natural organic matter (NOM), 10(-9)-10(-10) M (238)Pu, and 0.1 g·L(-1) goethite concentrations, at pH 3, 5, 7, and 9. Low sorption of ligands coupled with strong Pu complexation decreased Pu sorption at pH 5 and 7, relative to a ligand-free system...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Yaling Su, En Hu, Muhua Feng, Yongdong Zhang, Feizhou Chen, Zhengwen Liu
Terrestrial chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) could subsidize lake food webs. Trophic state and altitude have a pronounced influence on the CDOM concentration and composition of a lake. The impact of future changes in solar radiation on high-altitude lakes is particularly alarming because these aquatic ecosystems experience the most pronounced radiation variation worldwide. Photodegradation experiments were conducted on terrestrial CDOM samples from oligotrophic alpine Lake Tiancai and low-altitude eutrophic Lake Xiaohu to investigate the response of bacterial growth to photodegraded CDOM...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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