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Ana Kowark, Rolf Rossaint, Friedrich Pühringer, András P Keszei, Harald Fritz, Gebhard Fröba, Christopher Rex, Hansjörg Haas, Volker Otto, Mark Coburn
BACKGROUND: Avoidance of airway complications and rapid emergence from anaesthesia are indispensable for the use of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). Evidence from adequately powered randomised studies with a low risk of bias for the optimal anaesthetic in this context is limited. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that when using remifentanil-based intra-operative analgesia, desflurane would be the most suitable anaesthetic: with noninferiority in the occurrence of upper airway complications and superiority in emergence times compared with sevoflurane or propofol...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Christopher J Schultz, Timothy J Lang, Eric C Bruning, Kristin M Calhoun, Sebastian Harkema, Nathan Curtis
This study examined 34 lightning flashes within four separate thundersnow events derived from lightning mapping arrays (LMAs) in northern Alabama, central Oklahoma, and Washington DC. The goals were to characterize the in-cloud component of each lightning flash, as well as the correspondence between the LMA observations and lightning data taken from national lightning networks like the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Individual flashes were examined in detail to highlight several observations within the dataset...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Wu Liu, Haosen Shi, Jiahua Cui, Chen Xie, Youjian Song, Chingyue Wang, Minglie Hu
The generation of high-power ultrashort pulses from a passively mode-locked fiber laser is reported based on the combination of a single-polarization large-mode-area (LMA) photonic crystal fiber with a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror design. The introduction of a non-reciprocal phase shift in the loop mirror enables self-starting of the mode-locked laser, while the polarizing LMA fiber supports environmentally stable high-power operation. Mode locking in the soliton-like, stretched-pulse, and all-normal-dispersion regime is characterized...
June 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Danny Regner, Peter Frykholm
BACKGROUND: Airway management is a critical skill that may be essential in the battlefield. The aim of this study was to determine if combat life savers and medics with no or limited clinical experience could provide airway control using the disposable laryngeal suction tube (LTS-D) and the Ambu® AuraOnce ™ disposable laryngeal mask (LMA). METHODS: Eight military medics with limited clinical experience and no airway management experience secured the airway on 19 intrahospital anesthetized patients using the LTS-D and the LMA...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Giulia Perugia, Roos van Berkel, Marta Díaz-Boladeras, Andreu Català-Mallofré, Matthias Rauterberg, Emilia Barakova
Engagement in activities is of crucial importance for people with dementia. State of the art assessment techniques rely exclusively on behavior observation to measure engagement in dementia. These techniques are either too general to grasp how engagement is naturally expressed through behavior or too complex to be traced back to an overall engagement state. We carried out a longitudinal study to develop a coding system of engagement-related behavior that could tackle these issues and to create an evidence-based model of engagement to make meaning of such a coding system...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Xin Yang, Ze-Hua Xu, Sheng-Ping Chen, Zong-Fu Jiang
High power LP11 mode supercontinuum is generated from 25/250 large mode area (LMA) fiber. A mechanical long period grating (LPG) is utilized to control the transverse modes in the LMA fiber to realize the LP11 mode supercontinuum generation in a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The generated LP11 mode supercontinuum covers the spectral range from ~900 nm to ~2100 nm with a -30-dB spectral width of ~1200 nm and 50% optical to optical conversion efficiency. The seed laser produces picosecond pulses with 1 MHz repetition rate at the wavelength of 1060 nm...
May 28, 2018: Optics Express
Meng Wang, Zhixian Li, Le Liu, Zefeng Wang, Xijia Gu, Xiaojun Xu
We demonstrate here the inscription of chirped and tilted fiber Bragg gratings (CTFBGs), to the best of our knowledge, for the first time in hydrogen-loaded large-mode-area (LMA) double-cladding fibers using UV pulses and linearly chirped phase masks. High reflectivity wideband adjustable band-rejection filters are achieved in fibers like LMA-GDF-10/130-M and PS-GDF-20/400-M, with a wavelength coverage of more than 10 nm and suppression ratio around 20 dB. The spectrum and temperature properties are investigated...
June 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Shadi Hamouri, Faisal Swesi, Nathan Michael Novotny
BACKGROUND: Headscarf use is becoming more common throughout the world. Many articles describe the problem of aspirated headscarf pins but few if any give technical details for retrieval or innovative methods of removal if traditional bronchoscopy fails particularly in the pediatric population. Herein, we describe our method of deep sedation with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and flexible bronchoscopy (FB) and retrieval with a stepwise algorithm if traditional FB fails. METHODS: A retrospective review of pediatric patients with aspirated headscarf pins was performed...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Giacomo Puglielli, Laura Varone
The covariation pattern among leaf functional traits involved in resource acquisition has been successfully provided by the leaf economic spectrum (LES). Nevertheless, some aspects such as how the leaf trait variation sources affect LES predictions are still little investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this paper was to test whether leaf trait variations within different leaf cohorts could alter LES. Improving this knowledge can extend the potential of trait-based approaches in simulating future climate effects on ecosystems...
June 2018: AoB Plants
S Hestehave, G Munro, T Brønnum-Pedersen, A M Heegaard, K S P Abelson
Aims Translating preclinical drug-efficacy of analgesics from animal models to humans has proven challenging with many failures. Reasons are likely multifaceted, but lack of sufficiently rigorous study design, and phenotypical relevant animal models may be part of the explanation. Chronic pain is often associated with substantial comorbid burden, consisting of changes in affective state and cognitive impairment amongst other behavioral disturbances. Accordingly, many preclinical pain research activities have started to include assessment of comorbidity as a possible experimental outcome measure, but surprisingly, little consideration has been paid to the influence of animal-related factors to pain models...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Nana Li, Linjia Zhu, Jie Sun, Yinbing Pan, Mei Gao
RATIONALE: Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) refers to the weakening trachea or the trachea loss of structural integrity of airway cartilaginous structures. It causes tracheal stenosis, resulting in significantly high rates of mortality. Bronchoplasty by high-pressure balloon dilation under general anesthesia is a simple but effective and safe method to treat tracheobronchial stenosis. However, recurrent postoperative dyspnea after extubation due to tracheal collapse is still a challenge for anesthetists...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Martin Scherr, Lorenzo Pasquini, Gloria Benson, Rachel Nuttall, Martin Gruber, Julia Neitzel, Felix Brandl, Christian Sorg
BACKGROUND: Both ongoing local metabolic activity (LMA) and corresponding functional connectivity (FC) with remote brain regions are progressively impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in the posterior default mode network (pDMN); however, it is unknown how these impairments interact. It is well known that decreasing mean synaptic activity of a region, i.e., decreasing LMA, reduces the region's sensitivity to afferent input from other regions, i.e., FC. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized progressive decoupling between LMA and FC in AD, which is linked to amyloid-β pathology (Aβ)...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Marcin Cierniak, Michał Maksymowicz, Natalia Borkowska, Tomasz Gaszyński
In a case of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in a health facility there is a procedure to summon a resuscitation team. Nurses are obliged to begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation with chest compressions and implement ventilation using the bag valve mask of 30:2 compressionventilation ratio. Nurses are not allowed to implement methods of advanced airway management. However, the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was designed for people inexperienced in intubation who would be able to provide advanced airway management quickly and effectively after a short training...
May 25, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Yan Qin, Huajun Yang, Ping Jiang, Fengji Gui, Weinan Caiyang, Biao Cao
In this paper, an asymmetric large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber (LMA-PCF) with low bending loss at a smaller bending radius is designed. The finite-element method with a perfectly matched layer boundary is used to analyze the performance of the PCF. To achieve LMA-PCF with low bending loss, the air holes with double lattice constants and different sizes at the core are designed. Numerical results show that this structure can achieve low bending loss and LMA with a smaller bending radius at the wavelength of 1...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Raymond Q Migrino, Seth Truran, Nina Karamanova, Geidy Serrano, Calvin Madrigal, Hannah A Davies, Jillian Madine, Peter Reaven, Thomas G Beach
Clinical and preclinical studies suggest a link between cardiovascular disease and dementia disorders but the role of collateral brain circulation in cognitive dysfunction remains unknown. We aim to test the hypothesis that leptomeningeal arteriole (LMA) function and response to metabolic stressors differ among dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and normal cognition (CN) subjects. Following rapid autopsy, LMA were isolated from CN (N=10), MCI (N=12) or dementia subjects (N=42, Alzheimer's disease [AD], vascular dementia [VaD], or Other Dementia) and endothelial and smooth muscle-dependent function were measured at baseline and following exposure to β-amyloid (Aβ42 2 μM), palmitic acid (PA 150 μM) or medin (5μM) and compared...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Erika García-Bonilla, Pedro F B Brandão, Thierry Pérez, Howard Junca
Sponges harbor characteristic microbiomes derived from symbiotic relationships shaping their lifestyle and survival. Haliclona fulva is encrusting marine sponge species dwelling in coralligenous accretions or semidark caves of the Mediterranean Sea and the near Atlantic Ocean. In this work, we characterized the abundance and core microbial community composition found in specimens of H. fulva by means of electron microscopy and 16S amplicon Illumina sequencing. We provide evidence of its low microbial abundance (LMA) nature...
May 15, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Jonathan M Behar, Peter Mountney, Daniel Toth, Sabrina Reiml, Maria Panayiotou, Alexander Brost, Bernhard Fahn, Rashed Karim, Simon Claridge, Tom Jackson, Ben Sieniewicz, Nik Patel, Mark O'Neill, Reza Razavi, Kawal Rhode, Christopher Aldo Rinaldi
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to test the feasibility of a purpose-built, integrated software platform to process, analyze, and overlay cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) data in real time within a combined cardiac catheter laboratory and magnetic resonance imaging scanner suite (X-MRI) to guide left ventricular (LV) lead implantation. BACKGROUND: Suboptimal LV lead position is a major determinant of poor cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response, and the optimal site is highly patient specific...
August 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
David M Corda, Christopher B Robards, Mark J Rice, Timothy E Morey, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Sorin J Brull
Background: Overinflation of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) cuff may cause many of the complications associated with the use of the LMA. There is no clinically acceptable (cost effective and practical) method to ensure cuff pressure is maintained below the manufacturer's recommended maximum value of 60 cm H2 O (44 mmHg). We studied the use of the intrinsic recoil of the LMA inflating syringe as an effective and practical way to limit cuff pressures at or below the manufacturer's recommended values...
April 2018: Romanian Journal of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Edmondo M Benetti, Chengjun Kang, Joydeb Mandal, Mohammad Divandari, Nicholas D Spencer
The mechanism of surface-initiated atom transfer polymerization (SI-ATRP) of methacrylates in confined volumes is systematically investigated by finely tuning the distance between a grafting surface and an inert plane by means of nanosized patterns and micrometer thick foils. The polymers were synthesized from monolayers of photocleavable initiators, which allow the analysis of detached brushes by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Compared to brushes synthesized under "open" polymerization mixtures, nearly a 4-fold increase in brush molar mass was recorded when SI-ATRP was performed within highly confined reaction volumes...
August 8, 2017: Macromolecules
James Liu, John Scira, Simone Donaldson, Nina Kajiji, Gordon H Dash, S Tiffany Donaldson
Evidence-based research has revealed how physiological and emotional responses to acute stress are adaptive. However, under conditions of unpredictable or protracted stress, health and drug vulnerability can be compromised. In this study, we examined anxiety-like behavioral responses of 4th generation adolescent male and female Long Evans rats selectively bred for high (HAn) and low (LAn) anxiety-like behavior when housed in an isolated environment (IE) versus a social environment (SE). After 35 days in IE or SE, animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM), injected with amphetamine (AMPH: 0...
May 8, 2018: Neuroscience
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