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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338906/vertical-leaf-mass-per-area-gradient-of-mature-sugar-maple-reflects-both-height-driven-increases-in-vascular-tissue-and-light-driven-increases-in-palisade-layer-thickness
#1
Adam P Coble, Molly A Cavaleri
A key trait used in canopy and ecosystem function modeling, leaf mass per area (LMA), is influenced by changes in both leaf thickness and leaf density (LMA = Thickness × Density). In tall trees, LMA is understood to increase with height through two primary mechanisms: (i) increasing palisade layer thickness (and thus leaf thickness) in response to light and/or (ii) reduced cell expansion and intercellular air space in response to hydrostatic constraints, leading to increased leaf density. Our objective was to investigate within-canopy gradients in leaf anatomical traits in order to understand environmental factors that influence leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest canopy...
March 3, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338803/vertical-and-seasonal-variations-in-temperature-responses-of-leaf-respiration-in-a-chamaecyparis-obtusa-canopy
#2
Masatake G Araki, Koichiro Gyokusen, Takuya Kajimoto
Leaf respiration (R) is a major component of carbon balance in forest ecosystems. Clarifying the variability of leaf R within a canopy is essential for predicting the impact of global warming on forest productivity and the potential future function of the forest ecosystem as a carbon sink. We examined vertical and seasonal variations in short-term temperature responses of leaf R as well as environmental factors (light and mean air temperature) and physiological factors [leaf nitrogen (N), leaf mass per area (LMA), and shoot growth] in the canopy of a 10-year-old stand of hinoki cypress [Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb...
February 23, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302228/anaesthetic-management-in-a-child-with-goldenhar-syndrome
#3
Waqas Ahmed Khan, Bushra Salim, Ausaf Ahmed Khan, Shakaib Chughtai
Goldenhar syndrome is a congenital disorder involving deformities of the face. It usually affects one side of the face only and poses significant challenges in the airway management. We herein, report an 8-year boy, known case of Goldenhar syndrome, who presented to our radiology suite for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain, followed by a computed tomography (CT) scan brain. The boy had various features of Goldenhar syndrome, e.g. cleft palate, absent right eye and ear, right mandibular hypoplasia, micrognathia, and preauricular tags...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298784/ventilation-of-nonparalyzed-patients-under-anesthesia-with-laryngeal-mask-airway-comparison-of-three-modes-of-ventilation-volume-controlled-ventilation-pressure-controlled-ventilation-and-pressure-controlled-ventilation-volume-guarantee
#4
Maroun Badwi Ghabach, Elie M El Hajj, Rouba D El Dib, Jeanette M Rkaiby, May S Matta, May R Helou
BACKGROUND: Pressure controlled ventilation (PCV) is the preferable mode of ventilation of nonparalyzed patients undergoing anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) as compared to volume controlled ventilation (VCV) and spontaneously breathing patient. In this study, we compared the PC-volume guarantee (PC-VG) mode of ventilation with VCV and PCV modes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status Classes I and II, scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia with a classic LMA were ventilated, subsequently, with the three modes of ventilation: VCV, PCV, and PC-VG for 10 min each mode...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298751/comparative-study-of-two-laryngeal-mask-airways-proseal-laryngeal-mask-airway-and-supreme-laryngeal-mask-airway-in-anesthetized-paralyzed-adults-undergoing-elective-surgery
#5
Ravneet Kaur Gill, Abhijit Tarat, Debagopal Pathak, Suneeta Dutta
CONTEXT: Supraglottic airway devices can act as an alternative to endotracheal intubation in both normal and difficult airway. LMA Proseal (P-LMA) and LMA Supreme (S-LMA) alongwith acting as effective ventilating device, provide port for gastric drainage. AIM: The objective of this study was to compare the two devices for effective ventilation and complications. SETTING AND DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital...
January 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295374/physiological-and-structural-tradeoffs-underlying-the-leaf-economics-spectrum
#6
Yusuke Onoda, Ian J Wright, John R Evans, Kouki Hikosaka, Kaoru Kitajima, Ülo Niinemets, Hendrik Poorter, Tiina Tosens, Mark Westoby
The leaf economics spectrum (LES) represents a suite of intercorrelated leaf traits concerning construction costs per unit leaf area, nutrient concentrations, and rates of carbon fixation and tissue turnover. Although broad trade-offs among leaf structural and physiological traits have been demonstrated, we still do not have a comprehensive view of the fundamental constraints underlying the LES trade-offs. Here, we investigated physiological and structural mechanisms underpinning the LES by analysing a novel data compilation incorporating rarely considered traits such as the dry mass fraction in cell walls, nitrogen allocation, mesophyll CO2 diffusion and associated anatomical traits for hundreds of species covering major growth forms...
March 10, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290958/comparative-assessment-of-three-approaches-of-teaching-nonmedically-trained-persons-in-the-handling-of-supraglottic-airways-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Mario Hensel, Willi Schmidbauer, Michael Benker, Paula Schmieder, Thoralf Kerner
BACKGROUND: The use of supraglottic airways has been recommended in combat trauma airway management. To ensure an adequate airway management on the battlefield, suitable training concepts are sought to efficiently teach as many soldiers as possible. Our aim was to compare three approaches of teaching laypersons in the handling of supraglottic airways in a mannequin model. METHODS: In this prospective randomized blinded study, 285 military service men without any medical background were divided into three groups and trained in the use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme (LMA) and the Laryngeal Tube Disposable (LT-D)...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267947/ambu%C3%A2-auragain%C3%A2-versus-lma-supreme%C3%A2-second-seal%C3%A2-a-randomised-controlled-trial-comparing-oropharyngeal-leak-pressures-and-gastric-drain-functionality-in-spontaneously-breathing-patients
#8
I I Shariffuddin, W H Teoh, Ebk Tang, Nhm Hashim, P S Loh
Newer second generation supraglottic airway devices may perform differently in vivo due to material and design modifications. We compared performance characteristics of the Ambu® AuraGain™ and LMA Supreme™ Second Seal™ in 100 spontaneously breathing anaesthetised patients in this randomised controlled study. We studied oropharyngeal leak pressures (OLP) (primary outcome) and secondarily, ease of insertion, success rates, haemodynamic response, time to insertion, and complications of usage. We found no significant difference in OLP between the AuraGain versus the LMA Supreme, mean (standard deviation, SD) 24...
March 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249684/short-lasting-pediatric-laparoscopic-surgery-are-muscle-relaxants-necessary-endotracheal-intubation-vs-laryngeal-mask-airway
#9
Serkan Tulgar, Ibrahim Boga, Basri Cakiroglu, David Terence Thomas
PURPOSE: Technical advances have led to lower insufflation pressures and shorter anesthesia times for children undergoing laparoscopic procedures. In this study we compared the use of endotracheal tube (ETT) and laryngeal mask airway (LMA) with or without muscle relaxant (MR) in children undergoing laparoscopic repair for inguinal hernia. METHODS: Children undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were randomized into four groups which underwent procedure with either ETT+MR (group 1), ETT without MR (group 2), LMA with subparalytic dose of MR (group 3) or LMA without MR (group 4)...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241374/linking-above-and-belowground-traits-to-soil-and-climate-variables-an-integrated-database-on-china-s-grassland-species
#10
Yan Geng, Wenhong Ma, Liang Wang, Frank Baumann, Peter Kühn, Thomas Scholten, Jin-Sheng He
Knowledge of plant functional traits and trait-environment interactions is important for characterizing species strategies and understanding ecological processes. However, comprehensive field data on both above- and belowground traits, together with their environmental variables are scarce. Biome-scale studies are particularly lacking. Here we present two large-scale datasets that include functional traits of leaves and fine roots and their corresponding soil and climatic variables in China's grasslands. Leaf, fine root and soil samples were collected in three biogeographic regions: temperate grassland on the Inner Mongolia Plateau, alpine grassland on the Tibetan Plateau, and mountain grassland in the Xinjiang mountain areas...
February 27, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235524/awake-tracheal-intubation-in-anticipated-difficult-airways-lma-fastrach-vs-flexible-bronchoscope-a-pilot-study
#11
Sherine F Hanna, Marianne Mikat-Stevens, James Loo, Raj Uppal, W Scott Jellish, Matthew Adams
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of LMA Fastrach intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) to flexible bronchoscopy (FB) for awake intubation in patients with difficult airways. DESIGN: Randomized prospective study. SETTING: Large academic medical center. PATIENTS: Forty adult patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-IV, meeting the criteria for awake intubation based on history and physical examination. INTERVENTIONS: After sedation and airway topicalization, patients were randomized to either FB group, n=19, or ILMA group, n=21...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219323/a-preliminary-assessment-of-the-lma-protector%C3%A2-in-non-paralysed-patients
#12
Ban Leong Sng, Farida Binte Ithnin, Deepak Mathur, Eileen Lew, Nian-Lin Reena Han, Alex Tiong-Heng Sia
BACKGROUND: The LMA Protector™ is the latest CE marked single use supraglottic airway device. This airway device provides access and functional separation of the respiratory and digestive tracts. There are two ports (male, female ports) to provide suction in the laryngeal region and insertion of the gastric tube. The aim of our study is to assess the ease of use, airway quality, device positioning, airway leak and complications associated with initial clinical experience in LMA Protector™ usage...
February 20, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218212/laryngeal-mask-airway-for-cesarean-delivery-a-5-year-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Zhi-Yu Geng, Dong-Xin Wang
BACKGROUND: The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is the most commonly used rescue airway in obstetric anesthesia. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the application of the LMA in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery (CD) for 5 years in our hospital. As a secondary objective, we investigated the incidence of airway-related complication in obstetric general anesthesia (GA). METHODS: We collected electronic data for all obstetric patients who received GA for CD between January 2010 and December 2014 in Peking University First Hospital...
February 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215744/cart-peptide-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-regulates-psychostimulants-correlations-between-psychostimulant-and-cart-peptide-effects
#14
Martin O Job, Michael J Kuhar
In this study, we reexamined the effect of Cocaine-and-Amphetamine-Regulated-Transcript (CART) peptide on psychostimulant (PS)-induced locomotor activity (LMA) in individual rats. The Methods utilized were as previously published. The PS-induced LMA was defined as the distance traveled after PS administration (intraperitoneal), and the CART peptide effect was defined as the change in the PS-induced activity after bilateral intra-NAc administration of CART peptide. The experiments included both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, and varying the CART peptide dose and the PS dose...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183569/gastric-regurgitation-in-patients-undergoing-gynecological-laparoscopy-with-a-laryngeal-mask-airway-a-prospective-observational-study
#15
Jeconias Lemos, Gildasio S De Oliveira, Hugo Eckner Dantas de Pereira Cardoso, Lavínia Dantas Cardoso Neiva Lemos, Lígia Raquel de Carvalho, Norma Suely Pinheiro Módolo
OBJECTIVE: The use of pneumoperitonium and the placement of patients in Trendelenburg position are commonly cited reasons for the potential development of intraoperative regurgitation of gastric contents and the need for an endotracheal tube in laparoscopic surgery. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the presence of regurgitation of gastric contents in the oropharynx of patients having laparoscopic gynecological surgery with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). DESIGN: Prospective, observational clinical investigation...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183554/comparison-of-laryngeal-mask-airway-vs-tracheal-intubation-a-systematic-review-on-airway-complications
#16
REVIEW
Babette F van Esch, Inge Stegeman, Adriana L Smit
To determine whether the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) has advantages over the tracheal tube (TT) in terms of incidence of cough, sore throat, laryngospasm, dysphagia, dysphonia, and blood staining. This is a systematic literature review performed at the Universtity Medical Center of Utrecht. The online databases PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials. Two independent reviewers selected relevant articles after title, abstract, and full text screening. Articles were assessed on risk of bias in accordance with the Cochrane risk of bias tool...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171856/the-safety-of-laryngeal-mask-airway-assisted-bronchoscopy-versus-standard-nasal-bronchoscopy
#17
Daniel Alon, Barak Pertzov, Evgeni Gershman, Miryam Frishman, Nader Abdel Rahman, Dror Rosengarten, Mordechai R Kramer
BACKGROUND: The use of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for fiberoptic bronchoscopy was first described in 1982. The LMA was found to be beneficial in operator view, flexibility, and also in maintaining stable oxygen saturation. Despite its advantages, the use of LMA has not become widespread. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to evaluate the safety of LMA-assisted bronchoscopy compared to standard nasal bronchoscopy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective randomized trial...
February 8, 2017: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159616/influence-of-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-stage-and-plant-age-on-the-performance-of-a-generalist-aphid
#18
Viktoria V Tomczak, Caroline Müller
Host plant quality for herbivores is modulated by different factors including symbiosis with soil organisms, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), as well as plant age. However, the role of the developmental stage of the AM in such plant-microbe-herbivore interactions has been neglected. To investigate the effects of AM stage and plant age on aphid performance, individuals of the generalist Myzus persicae were reared on leaves of non-mycorrhized (NM) or mycorrhized (AM) Plantago lanceolata plants at two time points, on young plants (with a minor established AM) and on older plants (with a well-established AM), respectively...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144270/a-clinical-trial-evaluating-the-laryngeal-mask-airway-supreme-in-obese-children-during-general-anesthesia
#19
Yue Tian, Xiu-Ying Wu, Lu Li, Ling Ma, Yun-Feng Li
INTRODUCTION: The laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-Supreme is a disposable double-lumen laryngeal mask airway that is widely used in clinical practice. However, its use in obese children has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine whether the LMA-Supreme could perform equally as well as endotracheal intubation in obese children having a minor surgical procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After ethical board approval, 100 obese male children receiving non-emergent appendectomy for chronic appendicitis or surgery to correct concealed penis were randomly divided into an endotracheal intubation group and an LMA-Supreme group...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130967/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-laryngeal-mask-airway-for-surfactant-administration-in-neonates
#20
Rosilu F Barbosa, Ana C Simões E Silva, Yerkes P Silva
OBJECTIVE: To compare the short-term efficacy of surfactant administration by laryngeal mask airway versus endotracheal tube. METHODS: Preterm infants (28-35 weeks of gestational age), weighing 1kg or more, with respiratory distress syndrome, requiring nasal continuous positive airway pressure, with increased respiratory effort and/or fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2)≥0.40 to maintain oxygen saturation 91-95%, were randomized to receive surfactant by LMA following nCPAP or by ETT following mechanical ventilation (MV)...
January 25, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
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