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Patrícia V Ellsworth, Patrick Z Ellsworth, Nuria K Koteyeva, Asaph B Cousins
Diffusion of CO2 from the leaf intercellular air space to the site of carboxylation (gm ) is a potential trait for increasing net rates of CO2 assimilation (Anet ), photosynthetic efficiency, and crop productivity. Leaf anatomy plays a key role in this process; however, there are few investigations into how cell wall properties impact gm and Anet . Online carbon isotope discrimination was used to determine gm and Anet in Oryza sativa wild-type (WT) plants and mutants with disruptions in cell wall mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) production (CslF6 knockouts) under high- and low-light growth conditions...
April 20, 2018: New Phytologist
E D Mauch, J M Young, N V L Serão, W L Hsu, J F Patience, B J Kerr, T E Weber, N K Gabler, J C M Dekkers
Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed and predicted feed intake of an animal, based on growth and maintenance requirements. In Yorkshire pigs, divergent selection for increased (Low RFI) and decreased (High RFI) RFI was carried out over 10 generations (G) while feeding a corn- and soybean-meal-based, higher-energy, lower-fiber (HELF) diet. In G8 to G10, representing 4 replicates, barrows and gilts (n = 649) of the RFI lines were fed the HELF diet and a diet incorporating coproducts that were lower in energy and higher in dietary fiber (LEHF)...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Shahar Pincovici, Amnon Cochavi, Arnon Karnieli, Jhonathan Ephrath, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana) is a root holoparasitic plant causing major damage to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Parasite infection initiates source-sink relations between the parasite (sink) and the host (source), allocating carbohydrates, water and nutrients to the parasite. The primary aim of the current study was to explore responses of sunflower to broomrape parasitism, specifically to examine alternations in leaf area, leaf mass per area (LMA), mesophyll structure and root hydraulic conductivity...
June 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
V Mann, F Limberg, S T W Mann, S Little, M Müller, M Sander, R Röhrig
OBJECTIVE: For emergency medicine personnel (EMP), there is little evidence concerning the adequate timing for refresher courses to maintain routine in the application of extraglottic airways. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and long-term results of a simulator-based education concept teaching the basic airway management skills with extraglottic airways for EMP and also to draw conclusions concerning the adequate time interval for refresher courses. METHODS: By use of an explorative, prospective simulator-study with nonphysician EMP, airway management skills using the Larynxmaske Supreme® (LMA‑S) after an introduction lecture were examined...
April 11, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Swapnil Verma, S P Sharma
Background and Aims: Proseal laryngeal mask airway (LMA) and laryngeal tube suction (LTS) are both supraglottic devices with an esophageal suction port. In the present prospective, randomized study, the effectiveness of airway seal, hemodynamic variables, ability to pass orogastric tube, and postoperative complications with the two devices were evaluated. Material and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, single-blind study conducted in a hospital-based setting...
January 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Chetan B Bhat, Kiran A Honnannavar, Mallanna B Police Patil, Mahantesh S Mudakanagoudar
Introduction: In the past 25 years with the development of various supraglottic airway devices, the armamentarium for airway management has increased. In our study, the laryngeal mask airway (LMA)-ProSeal is compared with the LMA-Classic with respect to as follows: (a) Ease of insertion and number of insertion attempts, (b) Device positional stability and possible oropharyngeal leak, (c) Airway trauma, and (d) Hemodynamic changes; in children aged 3-15 years undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia, hypothesizing that these would be different...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Vinaya Udaybhaskar, Amol Singam, Himanshu Dodeja, Karuna Taksande
Background: Since the development of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) by Dr. Brain, it is extensively used for airway management; satisfactory insertion of LMA requires administration of an induction agent and suppression of airway reflexes. Among intravenous agents, propofol has been the drug of choice in view of better safety profile, relaxation and depression of upper airway reflexes. Sevoflurane on the other hand, with pleasant odor, nonirritating to the airways and with bronchodilator property are best among the volatile induction agents...
January 2018: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Xiaohai Wang, Karen Smith, Michelle Pearson, Anna Hughes, Mali L Cosden, Jacob Marcus, J Fred Hess, Mary J Savage, Thomas Rosahl, Sean M Smith, Joel B Schachter, Jason M Uslaner
Although tau pathology, behavioral deficits, and neuronal loss are observed in patients with tauopathies, the relationship between these endpoints has not been clearly established. Here we found that rTg4510 mice, which overexpress human mutant tau in the forebrain, develop progressive age-dependent increases in locomotor activity (LMA), which correlates with neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) pathology, hyperphosphorylated tau levels, and brain atrophy. To further clarify the relationship between these endpoints, we treated the rTg4510 mice with either doxycycline to reduce mutant tau expression or an O-GlcNAcase inhibitor Thiamet G, which has been shown to ameliorate tau pathology in animal models...
2018: PloS One
Johannes Kulnig, Lisa Füreder, Nicole Harrison, Michael Frass, Oliver Robak
Supraglottic airway devices (SADs) have been introduced to assist medical professionals in emergency situations with limited experience in securing airways via conventional endotracheal intubation (ETI). Literature on the use of SADs for securing an airway during pediatric critical settings is scarce, and there is a lack of studies comparing different SADs to each other and to conventional ETI. We conducted a study comparing five different SADs to ETI with regard to success rate, time to first ventilation, and personal rating in a pediatric manikin under simulated physiologic and pathologic airway conditions in 41 pediatricians of varying clinical experience and training...
April 5, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Manisha Bhatt Dwivedi, Anisha Puri, Sankalp Dwivedi, Harinder Deol
Background: Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a supraglottic device which requires lesser depth of anaesthesia, evokes lesser hemodynamic response and causes lesser stimulation of airway as compared to traditional definitive airway device endotracheal tube. Its placement is possible without muscle relaxants thereby allowing maintenance of anaesthesia on spontaneous respiration thus preventing apnoea or minimizing apnoea time. Propofol, the commonly used induction agent, causes cardiorespiratory depression at higher induction doses...
January 2018: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Daniele Muser, Pasquale Santangeli, Simon A Castro, Jackson J Liang, Andres Enriquez, Thomas J Werner, Gaetano Nucifora, Silvia Magnani, Tatsuya Hayashi, Erica S Zado, Fermin C Garcia, David J Callans, Sanjay Dixit, Benoit Desjardins, Francis E Marchlinski, Abass Alavi
BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) with18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has shown to be useful in diagnosis, staging and monitoring of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) but its interpretation is not standardized. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the clinical impact of serial quantitative FDG uptake analysis in patients with CS presenting with ventricular tachycardia (VT) treated by catheter ablation (CA). METHODS: We followed 20 patients (51 ± 9 years, 70% males) with CS and VT who underwent CA, with 92 serial FDG-PET scans (3-10 per patient)...
April 2, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Sijing Liang, Lin Xu, Qiang Fu, Yongmin Jung, David P Shepherd, David J Richardson, Shaif-Ul Alam
We report a gain-switched diode-seeded thulium doped fiber master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) producing up to 295-kW picosecond pulses (35 ps) at a repetition rate of 1 MHz with a good beam quality (M2 ~1.3). A narrow-band, grating-based filter was incorporated within the amplifier chain to restrict the accumulation of nonlinear spectral broadening and counter-pumping of a short length of large-mode-area (LMA) fiber was used in the final stage amplifier to further reduce nonlinear effects. Finally, we generated watt-level >2...
March 19, 2018: Optics Express
Alex Fajardo, Andrew Siefert
Understanding patterns of functional trait variation across environmental gradients offers an opportunity to increase inference in the mechanistic causes of plant community assembly. The leaf economics spectrum (LES) predicts global tradeoffs in leaf traits and trait-environment relationships, but few studies have examined whether these predictions hold across different levels of organization, particularly within species. Here, we asked (1) whether the main assumptions of the LES (expected trait relationships and shifts in trait values across resource gradients) hold at the intraspecific level, and (2) how within-species trait correlations scale up to interspecific or among-community levels...
March 30, 2018: Ecology
Patricia L Sáez, Betsy K Rivera, Constanza F Ramírez, Valentina Vallejos, Lohengrin A Cavieres, Luis J Corcuera, León A Bravo
Regional climate change in Antarctica would favor the carbon assimilation of Antarctic vascular plants, because rising temperatures are approaching their photosynthetic optimum (10-19°C). This could be detrimental for photoprotection mechanisms, mainly those associated with thermal dissipation, making plants more susceptible to eventual drought predicted by climate change models. With the purpose to study the effect of temperature and water availability on light energy utilization and putative adjustments in photoprotective mechanisms of Deschampsia antarctica Desv...
March 30, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Yushan Wu, Wanzhuo Gong, Yangmei Wang, Taiwen Yong, Feng Yang, Weigui Liu, Xiaoling Wu, Junbo Du, Kai Shu, Jiang Liu, Chunyan Liu, Wenyu Yang
Leaf anatomy and the stomatal development of developing leaves of plants have been shown to be regulated by the same light environment as that of mature leaves, but no report has yet been written on whether such a long-distance signal from mature leaves regulates the total leaf area of newly emerged leaves. To explore this question, we created an investigation in which we collected data on the leaf area, leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf anatomy, cell size, cell number, gas exchange and soluble sugar content of leaves from three soybean varieties grown under full sunlight (NS), shaded mature leaves (MS) or whole plants grown in shade (WS)...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Thavakumar Subramaniam, Paula Casserly
Introduction: The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a safe method to establish airway control during general anaesthesia. In otolaryngology surgery, the use of a LMA is well established in ear surgery; however, the use of a LMA during open neck procedures remains controversial. We report a case in which the pharyngeal distortion by the LMA cuff resulted in an iatrogenic complication. Case Report: A 38-year-old female with a background of multiple myeloma was referred to the otolaryngology team for an open cervical lymph node biopsy...
March 2018: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
David T Wong, Alister Ooi, Kawal P Singh, Amelie Dallaire, Vina Meliana, Jason Lau, Frances Chung, Mandeep Singh, Jean Wong
PURPOSE: Studies comparing the recently introduced Ambu® AuraGain™ (Auragain) with the LMA® Supreme™ (Supreme) supraglottic airway (SGA) have reported conflicting results regarding differences in oropharyngeal leak pressure (OLP). This randomized-controlled trial investigated the OLP of the Auragain compared with the Supreme in patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. METHODS: Adult patients with a body mass index ≤ 40 kg·m-2 presenting for ambulatory surgery and requiring an SGA were randomized to receive either the Auragain or the Supreme...
March 26, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Daniel M Sakai, Manuel Martin-Flores, Amanda K Jones, Galina M Hayes, Marina J McConkey, Jonathan Cheetham
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability to assess laryngeal function and to diagnose unilateral laryngeal paralysis (uLP) via airway endoscopy and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) stimulation. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. ANIMALS: Six healthy, adult beagles. METHODS: Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine. Laryngeal activity was observed via endoscopy placed through a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). The absolute and normalized glottic gap areas (AGGA and NGGA, respectively) and the glottic length (GL) were measured at inspiration and before and after surgically induced uLP...
March 23, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Jia Wang, Xiaoping Shi, Tao Xu, Geng Wang
Objectives A failed first attempt at laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion could increase the risk of laryngospasm, hypoxemia, and postoperative sore throat. This study was performed to investigate the risk factors for failed first-attempt LMA placement. Methods In total, 461 patients who underwent general anesthesia with a Supreme LMA (Teleflex Medical, Shanghai, China) and who had an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status of I to III were prospectively enrolled. The LMA was inserted after anesthetic induction...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Bridget W Brox, Bart A Ellenbroek
BACKGROUND: Despite ongoing study and research to better understand drug addiction, it continues to be a heavy burden. Only a small percentage of individuals who take drugs of abuse go on to develop addiction. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that a reduction in the serotonin transporter may play an important role for those that transition to compulsive drug taking. Studies have demonstrated that reduced serotonin transporter function potentiates self-administration of psychostimulant drugs ("ecstasy," MDMA; cocaine); however, additional research revealed no differences between genotypes when the opioid heroin was self-administered...
March 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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