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macrophage in immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813018/biophysical-and-computational-studies-of-the-vcci-vmip-ii-complex
#1
Anna F Nguyen, Nai-Wei Kuo, Laura J Showalter, Ricardo Ramos, Cynthia M Dupureur, Michael E Colvin, Patricia J LiWang
Certain viruses have the ability to subvert the mammalian immune response, including interference in the chemokine system. Poxviruses produce the chemokine binding protein vCCI (viral CC chemokine inhibitor; also called 35K), which tightly binds to CC chemokines. To facilitate the study of vCCI, we first provide a protocol to produce folded vCCI from Escherichia coli (E. coli.) It is shown here that vCCI binds with unusually high affinity to viral Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-II (vMIP-II), a chemokine analog produced by the virus, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812211/the-immune-system-in-obesity-developing-paradigms-amidst-inconvenient-truths
#2
REVIEW
Madhur Agrawal, Philip A Kern, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811976/long-lived-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-slice-cultures-enable-precise-study-of-the-immune-microenvironment
#3
Xiuyun Jiang, Y David Seo, Jae Hyuck Chang, Andrew Coveler, Eslam N Nigjeh, Sheng Pan, Florencia Jalikis, Raymond S Yeung, Ian N Crispe, Venu G Pillarisetty
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) remains a deadly disease that is rarely cured, despite many recent successes with immunotherapy for other malignancies. As the human disease is heavily infiltrated by effector T cells, we postulated that accurately modeling the PDA immune microenvironment would allow us to study mechanisms of immunosuppression that could be overcome for therapeutic benefit. Using viable precision-cut slices from fresh PDA, we developed an organotypic culture system for this purpose. We confirmed that cultured slices maintain their baseline morphology, surface area, and microenvironment after at least 6 d in culture, and demonstrated slice survival by MTT assay and by immunohistochemistry staining with Ki-67 and cleaved-Caspase-3 antibodies...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811289/primary-tumors-limit-metastasis-formation-through-induction-of-il15-mediated-crosstalk-between-patrolling-monocytes-and-nk-cells
#4
Hiroshi Kubo, Sofia Mensurado, Natacha Goncalves-Sousa, Karine Serre, Bruno Silva-Santos
Metastases are responsible for the vast majority of cancer-related deaths. Although tumor cells can become invasive early during cancer progression, metastases formation typically occurs as a late event. How the immune response to primary tumors may dictate this outcome remains poorly understood, which hampers our capacity to manipulate it therapeutically. Here we used a two-step experimental model, based on the highly aggressive B16F10 melanoma, that temporally segregates the establishment of primary tumors (subcutaneously) and the formation of lung metastases (from intravenous injection)...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808968/cgamp-quantification-in-virus-infected-human-monocyte-derived-cells-by-hplc-coupled-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#5
Jennifer Paijo, Volkhard Kaever, Ulrich Kalinke
Upon virus infection, cells of the innate immune system such as dendritic cells and macrophages can mount type I interferon (IFN-I) responses that restrict viral dissemination. To inform host cells of virus infection, detection of cytosolic DNA is one important mechanism. Inappropriate sensing of endogenous DNA and subsequent induction of IFN-I responses can also cause autoimmunity, highlighting the need to tightly regulate DNA sensing. The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) was recently identified to be the major sensor of cytosolic DNA that triggers IFN-I expression...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808568/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-friend-or-foe
#6
Kyoung Soo Kim, Hyung-In Yang
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has characteristic pannus tissues, which show tumor-like growth of the synovium through chronic joint inflammation. The synovium is highly penetrated by various immune cells, and the synovial lining becomes hyperplastic due to increased numbers of macrophage-like and fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Thus, a resultant hypoxic condition stimulates the expression of inflammation-related genes in various cells, in particular, vascular endothelial growth factor. Thymosin β4 (Tβ4), a 5-kDa protein, is known to play a significant role in various biological activities, such as actin sequestering, cell motility, migration, inflammation, and damage repair...
September 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807561/mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-intact-francisella-bacteria-identifies-lipid-a-structure-remodeling-in-response-to-acidic-ph-stress
#7
Camille B Robert, Michael Thomson, Alain Vercellone, Francesca Gardner, Robert K Ernst, Gérald Larrouy-Maumus, Jérôme Nigou
Structural modification of lipid A, the lipid anchor of LPS, is one of the strategies used by Gram-negative bacteria to evade host innate immunity. Francisella tularensis is a human pathogen that infects and replicates within phagocytic cells. It produces an atypical lipid A, whose structure precludes an efficient recognition by both innate immune players, TLR4 and cationic antimicrobial peptides. Interestingly, a recent report indicates that the lipid A of Francisella (LVS vaccinal strain) undergoes polar modifications when bacteria are grown in human macrophages as compared to in broth...
August 11, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807497/characterisation-of-the-porcine-cytokines-which-activate-the-cd131%C3%AE-c-common-sub-unit-for-potential-immune-augmentation
#8
G Stephenson, K R Morris, T E O'Neil, M P Bruce, A D G Strom, A G D Bean
Early acting cytokines and growth factors such as those of the CD131 βc subunit, may offer an alternative method to the current use of antibiotics and chemicals such as anthelmintics in maintaining Porcine (Po) health. Thus far, the recombinant Po (rPo) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rPo interleukin-3 (IL-3) and rPo interleukin-5 (IL-5) proteins have been identified and cloned and the biological activity of each cytokine has been confirmed in vitro, however, in vivo immune system regulation and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) augmentation are regulated by numerous cytokines and cellular signals within the bone marrow (BM) niche...
August 11, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807053/regulation-of-inflammation-in-japanese-encephalitis
#9
REVIEW
Nils Lannes, Artur Summerfield, Luis Filgueira
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled inflammatory response of the central nervous system is a hallmark of severe Japanese encephalitis (JE). Although inflammation is necessary to mount an efficient immune response against virus infections, exacerbated inflammatory response is often detrimental. In this context, cells of the monocytic lineage appear to be important forces driving JE pathogenesis. MAIN BODY: Brain-infiltrating monocytes, macrophages and microglia play a major role in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation during JE...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805110/lack-of-interaction-of-lopinavir-solid-drug-nanoparticles-with-cells-of-the-immune-system
#10
Neill J Liptrott, Marco Giardiello, Tom O McDonald, Steven P Rannard, Andrew Owen
AIM: We previously demonstrated that solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) lopinavir (LPV) dispersed into aqueous media display favorable pharmacokinetics. METHODS: The impact of LPV SDNs on the function and phenotype of primary human T cells and macrophages (primary sites of HIV replication) was investigated. RESULTS: LPV significantly increased IL-1β (ninefold higher than untreated cells; p = 0.045) and TNF-α (sixfold higher than untreated cells; p = 0...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804688/pivotal-regulators-of-tissue-homeostasis-and-cancer-macrophages
#11
REVIEW
Yulei Chen, Xiaobo Zhang
Macrophages are an essential component of innate immunity and play a vital role in inflammation and host defense. Based on immunological responses, the macrophages are classified into "activated" macrophage (M1 macrophages) participating in the responses of type I helper T (Th1) cells to pathogens and "alternatively activated" macrophages (M2 macrophages) in response to interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. In this review, we discuss the origin, classification and function of macrophages. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying polarization of different macrophage subtypes, including transcriptional, epigenetic and post-transcriptional regulation...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804681/luminol-amplified-chemiluminescence-detects-mainly-superoxide-anion-produced-by-human-neutrophils
#12
Samia Bedouhène, Farida Moulti-Mati, Margarita Hurtado-Nedelec, Pham My-Chan Dang, Jamel El-Benna
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by numerous biological systems and by several phagocytes such as neutrophils and macrophages. ROS include mostly superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical, which are involved in a variety of biological processes such as immunity, inflammation, apoptosis and cell signaling. Thus, there is a need for a sensitive and reliable method to measure ROS. The luminol-amplified chemiluminescence technique is widely used to measure ROS production by neutrophils; however, it is unclear which ROS species are detected by this technique...
2017: American Journal of Blood Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804220/antitumor-macrophage-response-to-bacillus-pumilus-ribonuclease-binase
#13
Anna Makeeva, Julian Rodriguez-Montesinos, Pavel Zelenikhin, Alexander Nesmelov, Klaus T Preissner, Hector A Cabrera-Fuentes, Olga N Ilinskaya
Extracellular bacterial ribonucleases such as binase from Bacillus pumilus possess cytotoxic activity against tumor cells with a potential for clinical application. Moreover, they may induce activation of tumor-derived macrophages either into the M1-phenotype with well-documented functions in the regulation of the antitumor immune response or into M2-macrophages that may stimulate tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In this study, binase or endogenous RNase1 (but not RNA or short oligonucleotides) stimulated the expression of activated NF-κB p65 subunit in macrophages...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803930/identification-of-neuroglobin-as-a-novel-player-in-anti-bacterial-responses-in-amphioxus
#14
Yu Bai, Shousheng Liu, Xia Wang, Xiaoyuan Du, Guangdong Ji, Shicui Zhang
Theoretical considerations support various functions of neuroglobin (Ngb), but further studies are required for full characterization of these functions. In this study, we identified the presence of a single Ngb gene, BjNgb, in the amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum. BjNgb was expressed in various tissues including the notochord, gonads (ovary and testis) and gill, and up-regulated significantly in response to the challenge with LPS and LTA, suggesting involvement in immune response of amphioxus against bacterial infection...
August 10, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802852/autophagy-regulates-accumulation-and-functional-activity-of-granulocytic-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-via-stat3-signaling-in-endotoxin-shock
#15
Guanjun Dong, Chuanping Si, Qingqing Zhang, Fenglian Yan, Chunxia Li, Hui Zhang, Qun Ma, Jun Dai, Zhihua Li, Hui Shi, Bo Wang, Junfeng Zhang, Jiankuo Ming, Yuan Hu, Shuo Geng, Yao Zheng, Liwu Li, Huabao Xiong
Autophagy extensively participates in immune responses and inflammatory diseases. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are derived from CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells under pathological conditions and play an immunosuppressive role in the pathogenesis of cancer and inflammatory diseases. However, the role of autophagy in regulating the accumulation and activity of MDSCs remains unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the effects and mechanisms of autophagy on regulating accumulation and activity of MDSCs. We first found that granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs), but not monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs), were accumulated in mice challenged by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and showed an elevated autophagy activity...
August 9, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802679/impact-of-cell-wall-peptidoglycan-o-acetylation-on-the-pathogenesis-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-septic-arthritis
#16
Gaurav Baranwal, Majd Mohammad, Anders Jarneborn, Bommana Raghunath Reddy, Archana Golla, Sumana Chakravarty, Lalitha Biswas, Friedrich Götz, Sahadev Shankarappa, Tao Jin, Raja Biswas
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common pathogen causing septic arthritis. To colonize the joints and establish septic arthritis this bacterium needs to resist the host innate immune responses. Lysozyme secreted by neutrophils and macrophages is an important defense protein present in the joint synovial fluids. S. aureus is known to be resistant to lysozyme due to its peptidoglycan modification by O-acetylation of N-acetyl muramic acid. In this study we have investigated the role of O-acetylated peptidoglycan in septic arthritis...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802400/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-myma-is-a-tlr2-agonist-that-activate-macrophages-and-a-th1-response
#17
Iti Saraav, Swati Singh, Kirti Pandey, Monika Sharma, Sadhna Sharma
Cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is a major source of immunogenic proteins that can be tested as vaccine candidates. MymA (Rv3083), a 55 kDa M.tb flavin containing monooxygenase, is involved in modification of mycolic acids during acidic shock following M.tb internalization in macrophage. In this study, we have investigated the role of this cell wall associated protein in activation of macrophages by toll like receptor (TLRs) engagement and subsequent signaling. Our results showed that MymA stimulation of THP1 cells and human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) lead to upregulation of TLR2 and co-stimulatory molecules CD40, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801853/tumor-associated-macrophage-infiltration-is-highly-associated-with-pd-l1-expression-in-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#18
Kazuto Harada, Xiaochuan Dong, Jeannelyn S Estrella, Arlene M Correa, Yan Xu, Wayne L Hofstetter, Kazuki Sudo, Hisashi Onodera, Koyu Suzuki, Akihiro Suzuki, Randy L Johnson, Zhenning Wang, Shumei Song, Jaffer A Ajani
BACKGROUND: Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a key protein upregulated by tumor cells to suppress immune responses. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a major role in this immunosuppression, but the relationship between PD-L1 expression and TAMs remains unclear in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). We simultaneously examined expression of PD-L1 and TAMs in GAC. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical staining for PD-L1, CD68 (pan-macrophage), and CD163 (M2-like macrophage) in 217 GAC samples using a tissue microarray...
August 11, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801784/prior-repeated-stress-attenuates-cold-induced-immunomodulation-associated-with-browning-in-mesenteric-fat-of-rats
#19
P Vargovic, M Laukova, J Ukropec, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
Continuous exposure to cold leads to activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue but also to induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this work was to investigate whether prior exposure to immobilization (IMO) stress may affect immune response associated with adipocyte "browning" in mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT). In the first experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to acute (3 h) or prolonged (7 days) cold exposure (4 ± 1 °C). 7-day cold stimulated gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other "browning"-associated factors...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801743/investigation-of-an-optimal-cell-lysis-method-for-the-study-of-the-zinc-metalloproteome-of-histoplasma-capsulatum
#20
Anna M Donnell, Stephanie Lewis, Sami Abraham, Kavitha Subramanian, Julio Landero Figueroa, George S Deepe, Anne P Vonderheide
This work sought to assess optimal extraction conditions in the study of the metalloproteome of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. One of the body's responses to H. capsulatum infection is sequestration of zinc within host macrophage (MØ), as reported by Vignesh et al. (Immunity 39:697-710, 2013) and Vignesh et al. (PLOS Pathog 9:E1003815, 2013). Thus, metalloproteins containing zinc were of greatest interest as it plays a critical role in survival of the fungus. One challenge in metalloproteomics is the preservation of the native structure of proteins to retain non-covalently bound metals...
August 12, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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