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macrophage in immune response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141050/differential-immunomodulation-in-human-monocytes-versus-macrophages-by-filarial-cystatin
#1
Gopinath Venugopal, Marion Mueller, Susanne Hartmann, Svenja Steinfelder
Parasitic nematodes have evolved powerful immunomodulatory molecules to enable their survival in immunocompetent hosts by subverting immune responses and minimizing pathological processes. One filarial molecule known to counteract host immune responses by inducing IL-10 and regulatory macrophages in mice is filarial cystatin. During a patent filarial infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140923/il-4-mediates-the-analgesia-produced-by-low-intensity-exercise-in-mice-with-neuropathic-pain
#2
Franciane Bobinski, Juliana Maia Teixeira, Kathleen Anne Sluka, Adair Roberto Soares Santos
Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) activates the immune system resulting in increased pro-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Exercise modulates the immune system promoting an anti-inflammatory phenotype of macrophages in uninjured muscle, and increases in anti-inflammatory cytokines can promote healing and analgesia. We proposed that PNI will decrease, and treadmill exercise will increase, release of anti-inflammatory cytokines at the site of injury and in the spinal cord...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140820/renal-effects-of-cytokines-in-hypertension
#3
Yi Wen, Steven D Crowley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammatory cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension through effects on renal blood flow and sodium handling. This review will update recent advances that explore the renal actions of immune cells and cytokines in the pathogenesis of hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: Populations of cells from both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to hypertension by modulating functions of the vasculature and epithelial cells in the kidney...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138398/characterization-of-macrophages-from-schizophrenia-patients
#4
Paul R Ormel, Hans C van Mierlo, Manja Litjens, Miriam E van Strien, Elly M Hol, René S Kahn, Lot D de Witte
Genetic, epidemiological and post mortem studies have described an association between schizophrenia (SCZ) and the immune system. Microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages of the brain, not only play an essential role in inflammatory processes, but also in neurodevelopment and synapse refinement. It has therefore been hypothesized that aberrant functioning of these myeloid immune cells is involved in SCZ pathogenesis. Until now cellular research into the role of myeloid cells in SCZ has been limited to monocytes and functional assays are lacking...
November 14, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138299/induction-of-antiviral-immune-response-through-recognition-of-the-repeating-subunit-pattern-of-viral-capsids-is-toll-like-receptor-2-dependent
#5
Kelly M Shepardson, Benjamin Schwarz, Kyle Larson, Rachelle V Morton, John Avera, Kimberly McCoy, Alayna Caffrey, Ann Harmsen, Trevor Douglas, Agnieszka Rynda-Apple
Although viruses and viral capsids induce rapid immune responses, little is known about viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are exhibited on their surface. Here, we demonstrate that the repeating protein subunit pattern common to most virus capsids is a molecular pattern that induces a Toll-like-receptor-2 (TLR2)-dependent antiviral immune response. This early antiviral immune response regulates the clearance of subsequent bacterial superinfections, which are a primary cause of morbidities associated with influenza virus infections...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137411/a-novel-polyamine-blockade-therapy-activates-an-anti-tumor-immune-response
#6
Eric T Alexander, Allyson Minton, Molly C Peters, Otto Phanstiel, Susan K Gilmour
Most tumors maintain elevated levels of polyamines to support their growth and survival. This study explores the anti-tumor effect of polyamine starvation via both inhibiting polyamine biosynthesis and blocking the upregulated import of polyamines into the tumor. We demonstrate that polyamine blockade therapy (PBT) co-treatment with both DFMO and a novel polyamine transport inhibitor, Trimer PTI, significantly inhibits tumor growth more than treatment with DFMO or the Trimer PTI alone. The anti-tumor effect of PBT was lost in mice where CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were antibody depleted, implying that PBT stimulates an anti-tumor immune effect that is T-cell dependent...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136637/transcriptional-profiling-of-toll-like-receptor-2-deficient-primary-murine-brain-cells-during-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#7
Kousuke Umeda, Sachi Tanaka, Fumiaki Ihara, Junya Yamagishi, Yutaka Suzuki, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is capable of persisting in the brain, although it is efficiently eliminated by cellular immune responses in most other sites. While Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) reportedly plays important roles in protective immunity against the parasite, the relationship between neurological disorders induced by T. gondii infection and TLR2 function in the brain remains controversial with many unknowns. In this study, primary cultured astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and peritoneal macrophages obtained from wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice were exposed to T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134678/systemic-immune-checkpoint-blockade-with-anti-pd1-antibodies-does-not-alter-cerebral-amyloid-%C3%AE-burden-in-several-amyloid-transgenic-mouse-models
#8
Martine Latta-Mahieu, Bradford Elmer, Alexis Bretteville, Yaming Wang, Mati Lopez-Grancha, Philippe Goniot, Nicolas Moindrot, Paul Ferrari, Véronique Blanc, Nathalie Schussler, Emmanuel Brault, Valérie Roudières, Véronique Blanchard, Zhi-Yong Yang, Pascal Barneoud, Philippe Bertrand, Bart Roucourt, Sofie Carmans, Astrid Bottelbergs, Liesbeth Mertens, Cindy Wintmolders, Peter Larsen, Caroline Hersley, Tyler McGathey, Margaret M Racke, Ling Liu, Jirong Lu, Michael J O'Neill, David R Riddell, Andreas Ebneth, Gary J Nabel, Laurent Pradier
Chronic inflammation represents a central component in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent work suggests that breaking immune tolerance by Programmed cell Death-1 (PD1) checkpoint inhibition produces an IFN-γ-dependent systemic immune response, with infiltration of the brain by peripheral myeloid cells and neuropathological as well as functional improvements even in mice with advanced amyloid pathology (Baruch et al., (): Nature Medicine, 22:135-137). Immune checkpoint inhibition was therefore suggested as potential treatment for neurodegenerative disorders when activation of the immune system is appropriate...
November 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134249/early-siv-and-hiv-infection-promotes-the-lilrb2-mhc-i-inhibitory-axis-in-cdcs
#9
Lamine Alaoui, Gustavo Palomino, Sandy Zurawski, Gerard Zurawski, Sixtine Coindre, Nathalie Dereuddre-Bosquet, Camille Lecuroux, Cecile Goujard, Bruno Vaslin, Christine Bourgeois, Pierre Roques, Roger Le Grand, Olivier Lambotte, Benoit Favier
Classical dendritic cells (cDCs) play a pivotal role in the early events that tip the immune response toward persistence or viral control. In vitro studies indicate that HIV infection induces the dysregulation of cDCs through binding of the LILRB2 inhibitory receptor to its MHC-I ligands and the strength of this interaction was proposed to drive disease progression. However, the dynamics of the LILRB2/MHC-I inhibitory axis in cDCs during early immune responses against HIV are yet unknown. Here, we show that early HIV-1 infection induces a strong and simultaneous increase of LILRB2 and MHC-I expression on the surface of blood cDCs...
November 13, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133512/exosomes-from-adipose-derived-stem-cells-attenuate-adipose-inflammation-and-obesity-through-polarizing-m2-macrophages-and-beiging-in-white-adipose-tissues
#10
Hui Zhao, Qianwen Shang, Zhenzhen Pan, Yang Bai, Zequn Li, Huiying Zhang, Qiu Zhang, Chun Guo, Lining Zhang, Qun Wang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) play critical roles in controlling obesity-associated inflammation and metabolic disorders. Exosomes from ADSCs exert protective effects in several diseases, but their roles in obesity and related pathological conditions remain unclear. Here we showed that treatment of obese mice with ADSC-derived exosomes facilitated their metabolic homeostasis including improved insulin sensitivity (27.8% improvement), reduced obesity and alleviated hepatic steatosis. ADSC-derived exosomes drove M2 macrophage polarization, inflammation reduction and beiging in white adipose tissues (WAT) of diet-induced obese mice...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133346/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-groel2-modulates-dendritic-cell-responses
#11
Maria Georgieva, Jonathan Kevin Sia, Erica Bizzell, Ranjna Madan-Lala, Jyothi Rengarajan
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) successfully subverts the host immune response to promote disease progression. In addition to its known intracellular niche in macrophages, Mtb interferes with the functions of dendritic cells (DCs), which are the primary antigen presenting cells in the immune system. We previously showed that Mtb dampens proinflammatory responses and impairs DC functions through the cell envelope-associated serine protease, Hip1. Here we present data showing that Mtb GroEL2, a substrate of Hip1, modulates DC functions...
November 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132684/interactions-between-lactobacilli-and-chicken-macrophages-induce-antiviral-responses-against-avian-influenza-virus
#12
Bahram Shojadoost, Raveendra R Kulkarni, Jennifer T Brisbin, Wanderley Quinteiro-Filho, Tamiru N Alkie, Shayan Sharif
Macrophages are an important cell type of the innate immune system that upon activation, can exert antiviral functions and also can induce virus-specific adaptive immune responses. Macrophage interaction with certain probiotic bacteria such as lactobacilli can enhance antiviral functions of these cells. We have previously shown that administration of lactobacilli to chickens can effectively augment immune response to vaccine antigens. Here, we investigated the effects of representative strains of three Lactobacillus species, L...
October 31, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132376/ezh2-suppression-in-glioblastoma-shifts-microglia-toward-m1-phenotype-in-tumor-microenvironment
#13
Yatao Yin, Shuwei Qiu, Xiangpen Li, Bo Huang, Yun Xu, Ying Peng
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) induces tumor immunosuppression through interacting with tumor-infiltrating microglia or macrophages (TAMs) with an unclear pathogenesis. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is abundant in GBM samples and cell lines and is involved in GBM proliferation, cell cycle, and invasion, whereas its association with innate immune response is not yet reported. Herein, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of EZH2 in GBM immune. METHODS: Co-culturing models of human/murine GBM cells with PBMC-derived macrophages/primary microglia were employed...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132302/immunomodulatory-role-for-membrane-vesicles-released-by-thp-1-macrophages-and-respiratory-pathogens-during-macrophage-infection
#14
Charlotte Volgers, Birke J Benedikter, Gert E Grauls, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
BACKGROUND: During infection, inflammation is partially driven by the release of mediators which facilitate intercellular communication. Amongst these mediators are small membrane vesicles (MVs) that can be released by both host cells and Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Bacterial membrane vesicles are known to exert immuno-modulatory and -stimulatory actions. Moreover, it has been proposed that host cell-derived vesicles, released during infection, also have immunostimulatory properties...
November 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132049/male-syrian-hamsters-are-more-susceptible-to-intravenous-infection-with-species-c-human-adenoviruses-than-are-females
#15
Baoling Ying, Jacqueline F Spencer, Ann E Tollefson, William S M Wold, Karoly Toth
Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the influence of sex on the course of infectious diseases. Thus far, the best-documented examples point toward an immune-mediated mechanism: the generally stronger immune response in females can result in a faster clearance of the pathogen or, conversely, a more severe immune-mediated pathology. Here, we report that human species C adenoviruses replicate more and cause more pathology in male Syrian hamsters than in females. We also show that this sex disparity is not caused by a stronger immune response to the infection by the female hamsters...
November 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131546/polymeric-nanoparticles-induce-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-promote-breast-cancer-metastasis
#16
Qinglian Hu, Fenghui Zhao, Fengliang Guo, Chengcheng Wang, Zhengwei Fu
Polymeric nanoparticles gain enormous interests in cancer therapy. Polyethylenimine (PEI) 25 kD is well known for its high transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity. PEI-CyD (PC) was previously synthesized by conjugating low molecular PEI (M w 600) with β-cyclodextrin (β-CyD), which is shown to induce lower cytotoxicity than PEI 25 kD. In the current study, the in vivo immune response of branched PEI 25 kD and PC is investigated. Compared to PC/pDNA, exposure of PEI 25kD/pDNA induces higher level of immune-stimulation evidenced by the increased spleen weight, phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophage, and proinflammatory cytokines in serum and liver...
November 13, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131510/pulmonary-pleomorphic-carcinoma-with-few-pd-1-positive-immune-cells-and-regulatory-t-cells-that-showed-a-complete-response-to-nivolumab
#17
Kazuaki Okamura, Yuichi Fukuda, Hiroshi Soda, Daiki Ogawara, Keisuke Iwasaki, Shinichiro Fuchi, Takayuki Suyama, Masataka Yoshida, Tatsuhiko Harada, Minoru Fukuda, Hiroshi Mukae
Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma has been shown to respond remarkably to PD-1 inhibitors; however, the biomarkers for this therapy have not been fully proven. We report a case of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma with overexpressed PD-L1, in which a complete response to nivolumab was sustained for >14 months. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed few PD-1(+) immune cells and regulatory T cells in the tumor, in addition to predominant infiltration of CD8(+) cells and macrophages. Our findings suggest that the presence of a small number of PD-1(+) immune cells and regulatory T cells should be investigated as candidate therapeutic biomarkers...
November 13, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129568/cutaneous-leishmaniasis-distinct-functions-of-dendritic-cells-and-macrophages-in-the-interaction-of-the-host-immune-system-with-leishmania-major
#18
REVIEW
Esther von Stebut, Stefan Tenzer
Leishmaniasis is transmitted by sand flies leading to parasite inoculation into skin. In the mammalian host, the parasite primarily resides in skin macrophages (MΦ) and dendritic cells (DC). MΦ are silently invaded by the parasite eliciting a stress response, whereas DC become activated, release IL-12, and prime antigen-specific T cells. Here we review the basics of the immune response against this human pathogen and elucidate the role and function DC and MΦ for establishment of protective immunity against leishmaniasis...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129226/measuring-bovine-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cell-function-at-the-site-of-mycobacterium-bovis-infection
#19
Rachel A Rusk, Mitchell V Palmer, W Ray Waters, Jodi L McGill
Bovine γδ T cells are amongst the first cells to accumulate at the site of Mycobacterium bovis infection; however, their role in the developing lesion remains unclear. We utilized transcriptomics analysis, in situ hybridization, and a macrophage/γδ T cell co-culture system to elucidate the role of γδ T cells in local immunity to M. bovis infection. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that γδ T cells upregulated expression of several novel, immune-associated genes in response to stimulation with M. bovis antigen...
December 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129094/rational-combination-of-immunotherapy-for-triple-negative-breast-cancer-treatment
#20
Chia-Wei Li, Seung-Oe Lim, Jennifer L Hsu, Mien-Chie Hung
Recent evidence indicates that tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), including cytotoxic T cells, are present in the tumor microenvironment of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). Despite the presence of cytotoxic T cells, these tumors still develop, progress, and metastasize, suggesting evasion of immune response. One mechanism of immunosuppression is the presence of the T cell inhibitory molecule, programmed death protein 1 (PD-1), on infiltrating T cells and its cognate ligand programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on tumor cells, myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages, in the tumor microenvironment...
October 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
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