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macrophage in immune response

Chalathan Saengruengrit, Patcharee Ritprajak, Supason Wanichwecharungruang, Apoorva Sharma, Georgeta Salvan, Dietrich R T Zahn, Numpon Insin
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have received much attention in drug and biomolecule delivery systems. Here, we report a delivery system using the combination of a magnetic field and the relatively biocompatible composite particles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and SPIONs (SPION-PLGA particles) for protein delivery to bone-marrow derived primary dendritic cells (BM-DCs). SPIONs with the diameter of ∼10 nm were synthesized via thermal decomposition of iron(III) oleate. The SPIONs and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were encapsulated in PLGA particles of two different diameters, 300 and 500 nm...
March 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Katsuhiro Nakagawa, Takanori Matsuki, Liang Zhao, Kanako Kuniyoshi, Hiroki Tanaka, Isao Ebina, Kenta J Yoshida, Hiroshi Nabeshima, Kiyoharu Fukushima, Hisashi Kanemaru, Fumihiro Yamane, Takahiro Kawasaki, Tomohisa Machida, Hisamichi Naito, Nobuyuki Takakura, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira
Schlafen-8 (Slfn8) is a member of the Schlafen family of proteins, which harbor helicase domains and are induced by LPS and interferons. It has been reported that the Schlafen family are involved in various cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and regulation of virus replication. Slfn8 has been implicated in T-cell differentiation in the thymus. However, the roles of Slfn8 in the immune system remains unclear. In this study, we generated Slfn8 knockout mice (Slfn8-/-) and investigated the immunological role of Slfn8 using the T-cell-mediated autoimmune model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
March 8, 2018: International Immunology
Marike Rüder, Benedikt M Nagel, Sven Bogdan
The most abundant immune cells in Drosophila are macrophage-like plasmatocytes that fulfill central roles in morphogenesis, immune and tissue damage response. The various genetic tools available in Drosophila together with high-resolution and live-imaging microscopy techniques make Drosophila macrophages an excellent model system that combines many advantages of cultured cells with in vivo genetics. Here, we describe the isolation and staining of macrophages from larvae for ex vivo structured illumination microscopy (SIM), the preparation of white prepupae for in vivo 2D random cell migration analysis, and the preparation of pupae (18 h after puparium formation, APF) for in vivo 3D directed cell migration analysis upon wounding using spinning disk microscopy...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lili Gao, Mengting Li, Lu Yin, Chanjuan Zhao, Junhong Chen, Jie Zhou, Ke Duan, Bo Feng
Excessive immune responses following the use of implantable, biomaterial-based medical devices represent a substantial challenge for treatment efficacy and patient well-being. Specifically, after implantation, pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages are activated by cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) followed by anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages polarized by cytokines including interleukin-4 (IL-4), leading to healing and long-term stability of implants. Here, we report the loading of an immunomodulatory cytokine,IL-4, into TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) followed by hydrogel coating on the TNTs for subsequent release of IL-4...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Allison E Irvin, Gaurang Jhala, Yuxing Zhao, Timothy S Blackwell, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Helen E Thomas, Thomas W H Kay
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterised by selective destruction of pancreatic beta cells by the immune system. The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) regulates innate and adaptive immune responses. Using gene targeting and in vitro analysis of pancreatic islets and immune cells, NF-κB activation has been implicated in type 1 diabetes development. Here we use a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model that expresses a luciferase reporter of transcriptionally active NF-κB to determine its activation in vivo during development of diabetes...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaolei Wang, Yanhua Wu, Jin Jiao, Qing Huang
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection is a significant contributor to dysregulated T cell-mediated immune response. Here we aimed to evaluate the mechanism of MTB infection in promoting interleukin-10 (IL-10) upregulation. The IL-10 levels in MTB infected THP-1 cells were evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In challenged THP-1 cells, the HDAC6 and HDAC11 mRNA and protein levels were monitored at varied duration after MTB infection. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis was used to investigate the interaction between IL-10 expression and HDAC6 or HDAC11...
January 2018: Tuberculosis
Emmanuel C Patin, Aiysha Thompson, Selinda J Orr
Over the last decade, invasive fungal infections have emerged as a growing threat to human health worldwide and novel treatment strategies are urgently needed. In this context, investigations into host-pathogen interactions represent an important and promising field of research. Antigen presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells are strategically located at the frontline of defence against potential invaders. Importantly, these cells express germline encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which sense conserved entities from pathogens and orchestrate innate immune responses...
March 6, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Sally A F El-Sahrigy, Azza M O Abdel Rahman, Dalia Y Samaha, Nesrine A Mohamed, Sally M Saber, Hala A Talkhan, Ghada A Ismail, Essam M Ibraheem, Emad M Riad
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a huge worldwide burden, despite extensive vaccination coverage with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine available against this disease, indicating that BCG-driven immunity is inadequate to protect the human population against TB. This underscore the critical necessitate to develop an improved TB vaccine, based on a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions and immune responses during mycobacterial infection. AIM OF THE WORK: To examine whether the exogenous addition of IFN-β could improve dendritic cell (DC) response to Mycobacterium bovis (M...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Marta Schirripa, Wu Zhang, Dongyun Yang, Shu Cao, Satoshi Okazaki, Fotios Loupakis, Martin D Berger, Yan Ning, Yuji Miyamoto, Mitsukuni Suenaga, Giulia Alberti, Jordan D West, Sara Lonardi, Taline Khoukaz, Francesca Bergamo, Francesca Battaglin, Carlotta Antoniotti, Alfredo Falcone, Sebastian Stintzing, Volker Heinemann, Heinz-Josef Lenz
BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a crucial role in the interaction between tumor and immune system, and iNOS is known as a surrogate marker of M1 macrophages activation. The goal of the study was to investigate the role of iNOS polymorphisms as prognostic marker in mCRC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Functional significant polymorphisms in the promoter of INOS gene were analyzed by PCR-based and direct DNA sequencing in 4 cohorts of patients receiving bevacizumab based first-line chemotherapy: two evaluation cohorts (TRIBE ARM A and ARM B) and two validation cohorts (FIRE 3 arm A and MOMA)...
2018: PloS One
Leila M Lopes-Bezerra, Louise A Walker, Gustavo Niño-Vega, Héctor M Mora-Montes, Gabriela W P Neves, Hector Villalobos-Duno, Laura Barreto, Karina Garcia, Bernardo Franco, José A Martínez-Álvarez, Carol A Munro, Neil A R Gow
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by pathogenic species of the Sporothrix genus. A new emerging species, Sporothrix brasiliensis, is related to cat-transmitted sporotrichosis and has severe clinical manifestations. The cell wall of pathogenic fungi is a unique structure and impacts directly on the host immune response. We reveal and compare the cell wall structures of Sporothrix schenckii and S. brasiliensis using high-pressure freezing electron microscopy to study the cell wall organization of both species...
March 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Charu Rajput, Megan P Walsh, Breanna N Eder, Ediri E Metitiri, Antonia P Popova, Marc B Hershenson
Infections with rhinovirus (RV) cause asthma exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that macrophages play a role in asthmatic airway inflammation and the innate immune response to RV infection. Macrophages exhibit discrete phenotypes based on surface markers and gene expression. We hypothesized that macrophage polarization state alters gene expression in response to RV infection. Cells were derived from human peripheral blood derived monocytes. M1 and M2 polarization was carried out using IFN-y and IL-4, respectively, and RNA was extracted for Affymetrix Human Gene ST2...
March 9, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Violeta D Alvarez-Jiménez, Kahiry Leyva-Paredes, Mariano García-Martínez, Luis Vázquez-Flores, Víctor Gabriel García-Paredes, Marcia Campillo-Navarro, Israel Romo-Cruz, Víctor Hugo Rosales-García, Jessica Castañeda-Casimiro, Sirenia González-Pozos, José Manuel Hernández, Carlos Wong-Baeza, Blanca Estela García-Pérez, Vianney Ortiz-Navarrete, Sergio Estrada-Parra, Jeanet Serafín-López, Isabel Wong-Baeza, Rommel Chacón-Salinas, Iris Estrada-García
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In the lungs, macrophages and neutrophils are the first immune cells that have contact with the infecting mycobacteria. Neutrophils are phagocytic cells that kill microorganisms through several mechanisms, which include the lytic enzymes and antimicrobial peptides that are found in their lysosomes, and the production of reactive oxygen species. Neutrophils also release extracellular vesicles (EVs) (100-1,000 nm in diameter) to the extracellular milieu; these EVs consist of a lipid bilayer surrounding a hydrophilic core and participate in intercellular communication...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Ciana Diskin, Eva M Pålsson-McDermott
Traditionally cellular respiration or metabolism has been viewed as catabolic and anabolic pathways generating energy and biosynthetic precursors required for growth and general cellular maintenance. However, growing literature provides evidence of a much broader role for metabolic reactions and processes in controlling immunological effector functions. Much of this research into immunometabolism has focused on macrophages, cells that are central in pro- as well as anti-inflammatory responses-responses that in turn are a direct result of metabolic reprogramming...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Katharina Bröker, Julia Figge, Albert F Magnusen, Rudolf A Manz, Jörg Köhl, Christian M Karsten
B-1 cells constitute a unique subpopulation of lymphocytes residing mainly in body cavities like the peritoneal cavity (PerC) but are also found in spleen and bone marrow (BM). As innate-like B cells, they mediate first line immune defense through low-affinity natural IgM (nIgM) antibodies. PerC B-1 cells can egress to the spleen and differentiate into nIgM antibody-secreting plasma cells that recognize conserved exogenous and endogenous cellular structures. Homing to and homeostasis within the PerC are regulated by the chemokine CXCL13 released by PerC macrophages and stroma cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lan H Chu, Mohanalaxmi Indramohan, Rojo A Ratsimandresy, Anu Gangopadhyay, Emily P Morris, Denise M Monack, Andrea Dorfleutner, Christian Stehlik
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria can elicit a strong immune response. Although extracellular LPS is sensed by TLR4 at the cell surface and triggers a transcriptional response, cytosolic LPS binds and activates non-canonical inflammasome caspases, resulting in pyroptotic cell death, as well as canonical NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent cytokine release. Contrary to the highly regulated multiprotein platform required for caspase-1 activation in the canonical inflammasomes, the non-canonical mouse caspase-11 and the orthologous human caspase-4 function simultaneously as innate sensors and effectors, and their regulation is unclear...
March 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Shinya Yamamoto, Kazuhiko Matsuo, Daisuke Nagakubo, Shintaro Higashiyama, Keiji Nishiwaki, Naoki Oiso, Akira Kawada, Osamu Yoshie, Takashi Nakayama
CCR4 is a major chemokine receptor expressed by Treg cells that downregulate immune responses. Here, we investigated the role of CCR4-mediated Treg cell recruitment in antigen-specific immune responses. CCR4-deficient mice immunized intramuscularly with ovalbumin (OVA) showed enhanced OVA-specific IgG responses. Furthermore, intramuscular administration of OVA induced the expression of MDC/CCL22, a ligand for CCR4, in macrophages of the muscle tissues, and enhanced the recruitment of CCR4+ Treg cells in wild-type mice, whereas this recruitment of Treg cells was severely impaired in CCR4-deficient mice...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Raquel Portugal, Alexandre Leitão, Carlos Martins
ASFV causes an important disease of domestic swine and wild boar. Currently no vaccine is available, highlighting the necessity to understand ASFV modulation of innate immune responses in natural host cells. With this aim, macrophage cultures enriched in SWC9 and CD163 differentiation markers were infected in parallel with high virulent ASFV/L60 and low virulent ASFV/NHV, the latter lacking MGF 360 and 505/530 genes associated with type I interferon (IFN I) control. IFN I production and signaling were studied after completion of the viral cycles...
March 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Harry D Dawson, Joan K Lunney
Pigs are a major source of food worldwide; preventing and treating their infectious diseases is essential, requiring a thorough understanding of porcine immunity. The use of pigs as models for human physiology is a growing area; progress in this area has been limited because the immune toolkit is not robust. The international community has established cluster of differentiation (CD) markers for assessing cells involved in immunity as well as characterizing numerous other cells like stem cells. Overall, for humans 419 proteins have been designated as CD markers, each reacting with a defined set of antibodies (Abs)...
February 22, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Vipin Kumar Verma, Kumari Vandana Rani, Shiva Raj Kumar, Om Prakash
The laboratory acclimatized Clarias gariepinus (80 ± 10 g) were divided into six groups and five subgroups each containing 10 fish. A fish feed was reconstituted by adding 33% powder of Leucaena leucocephala seed in place of fish trash. Group B, C and E were fed on reconstituted feed and group A, D and F were fed on artificial feed containing animal protein for 7 days prior to start of experiments. Then Group B was challenged with BSA while other groups were challenged with Vibrio harveyi (Group C, D) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Group E, F)...
March 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yueling Zhang, Guicai Gao, Ruihong Lin, Jude Juventus Aweya, Mengyuan Tao, Fan Wang
Although vertebrate immunity has been well studied for the past decades, invertebrate immunity was much less explored. One possible reason was that in vitro culture system was not well established. In this study, Litopenaeus vannamei was applied as an invertebrate study model. Primary culture conditions for L. vannamei hemocytes were optimized to get relatively quiescent state cells. LPS was used as an immune stimulator and the responses of primary cultured hemocytes were transcriptomically analyzed. Our results showed that around 1600 genes were upregulated and 800 genes were downregulated from LPS treated hemocytes...
March 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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