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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913837/hospitalizations-due-to-preventable-adverse-reactions-a-systematic-review
#1
REVIEW
Nidhi S Patel, Tejas K Patel, Parvati B Patel, Viren N Naik, C B Tripathi
PURPOSE: The study aimed to measure the percentage of preventable adverse drug reactions that lead to the hospitalization (PADRAd) and to explore the heterogeneity in its estimation through subgroup analysis of study characteristics. METHODS: Two investigators independently searched in electronic databases and related bibliography for prospective studies involving PADRAd. We excluded studies investigating medication errors and spontaneous and retrospective reporting...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906700/update-on-lipid-species-and-paediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
Jake P Mann, Ariel E Feldstein, Valerio Nobili
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the recent advances in our understanding of fatty acids and lipids in paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and their future implications. RECENT FINDINGS: Data have been accumulated to suggest that ceramides are the main drivers of hepatic insulin resistance in NAFLD, and inhibition of ceramide synthesis improves histology in mice.Saturated fatty acids formed by de novo lipogenesis generate increased lipotoxicity compared with dietary-derived saturated fatty acids...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885090/the-impact-of-circadian-rhythms-on-medical-imaging-and-radiotherapy-regimes-for-the-paediatric-patient
#3
E Forssell-Aronsson, R A Quinlan
Daily rhythmic changes are found in cellular events in cell cycle, DNA repair, apoptosis and angiogenesis in both normal and tumour tissue, as well as in enzymatic activity and drug metabolism. In this paper, we hypothesize that circadian rhythms need to be considered in radiation protection and optimization in personalized medicine, especially for paediatric care. The sensitivity of the eye lens to ionizing radiation makes the case for limiting damage to the lens epithelium by planning medical radio-imaging procedures for the afternoon, rather than the morning...
November 24, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884679/risk-stratified-staging-in-paediatric-hepatoblastoma-a-unified-analysis-from-the-children-s-hepatic-tumors-international-collaboration
#4
Rebecka L Meyers, Rudolf Maibach, Eiso Hiyama, Beate Häberle, Mark Krailo, Arun Rangaswami, Daniel C Aronson, Marcio H Malogolowkin, Giorgio Perilongo, Dietrich von Schweinitz, Marc Ansari, Dolores Lopez-Terrada, Yukichi Tanaka, Rita Alaggio, Ivo Leuschner, Tomoro Hishiki, Irene Schmid, Kenichiro Watanabe, Kenichi Yoshimura, Yurong Feng, Eugenia Rinaldi, Davide Saraceno, Marisa Derosa, Piotr Czauderna
BACKGROUND: Comparative assessment of treatment results in paediatric hepatoblastoma trials has been hampered by small patient numbers and the use of multiple disparate staging systems by the four major trial groups. To address this challenge, we formed a global coalition, the Children's Hepatic tumors International Collaboration (CHIC), with the aim of creating a common approach to staging and risk stratification in this rare cancer. METHODS: The CHIC steering committee-consisting of leadership from the four major cooperative trial groups (the International Childhood Liver Tumours Strategy Group, Children's Oncology Group, the German Society for Paediatric Oncology and Haematology, and the Japanese Study Group for Paediatric Liver Tumours)-created a shared international database that includes comprehensive data from 1605 children treated in eight multicentre hepatoblastoma trials over 25 years...
November 21, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883932/biological-response-of-human-suture-mesenchymal-cells-to-titania-nanotube-based-implants-for-advanced-craniosynostosis-therapy
#5
Manpreet Bariana, Prem Dwivedi, Sarbin Ranjitkar, John A Kaidonis, Dusan Losic, Peter J Anderson
Titania nanotubes (TNTs) engineered on titanium (Ti) surfaces (i.e. TNT/Ti) and loaded with specific drugs have been recognised as a promising solution for localised therapeutic delivery to address several medical problems not feasible with conventional drug administration. We propose the use of TNT/Ti protein-releasing implants to treat paediatric craniofacial abnormality in craniosynostosis caused by premature fusion of cranial sutures. In this study, we have analysed the biological response of human suture mesenchymal cells (SMCs), extracted from two different patients undergoing craniofacial reconstruction surgery, at the TNT/Ti implant surface...
November 17, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875921/a-retrospective-review-of-paediatric-adverse-drug-reactions-reported-in-lombardy-and-croatia-from-2005-to-2013
#6
Carla Carnovale, Marta Gentili, Marco Matacena, Marina Dimov Di Giusti, Darko Krnic, Barbara Dolinic, Darija Kolaric, Zeljana Margan Koletic, Viola Macolic Sarinic, Maja Culjak, Ida Fortino, Luca Merlino, Emilio Clementi, Sonia Radice
OBJECTIVE: to characterise the adverse drugs reactions (ADRs) reported in the Lombard and Croatian paediatric population and to compare data to specific paediatric age groups, in terms of trend, pattern and severity of ADRs, increasing understanding of paediatric ADRs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We selected and analysed all the spontaneous reports in which children were involved (0 < 18 years old) reported in the Lombardy and in Croatian pharmacovigilance databases from 1(th) March 2005 to 31(th) December 2013...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875914/second-generation-antipsychotics-in-real-life-paediatric-patients-adverse-drug-reactions-and-clinical-outcomes-of-drug-switch
#7
Concetta Rafaniello, Marco Pozzi, Simone Pisano, Carmen Ferrajolo, Silvana Bertella, Liberata Sportiello, Carla Carnovale, Maria Giuseppa Sullo, Dario Cattaneo, Marta Gentili, Renata Rizzo, Antonio Pascotto, Elisa Mani, Laura Villa, Maria Pia Riccio, Serena Sperandeo, Renato Bernardini, Carmela Bravaccio, Emilio Clementi, Massimo Molteni, Francesco Rossi, Sonia Radice, Annalisa Capuano
OBJECTIVE: Gap in knowledge on benefit/risk ratio of second generation antipsychotics (SGA) in the paediatric population represents a challenge for the scientific community. This study aims to analyse all suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to SGA observed during the study period; compare the safety profiles of risperidone and aripiprazole; evaluate the effect of switching from risperidone to aripiprazole or to a first generation antipsychotic (FGA). METHODS: Prospective analysis of spontaneously reported ADRs concerning 184 paediatric outpatients between 2012 and 2014...
December 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859519/asymmetric-inner-wedge-group-sequential-tests-with-applications-to-verifying-whether-effective-drug-concentrations-are-similar-in-adults-and-children
#8
Lisa V Hampson, Roland Fisch, Linh M Van, Thomas Jaki
Extrapolating from information available on one patient group to support conclusions about another is common in clinical research. For example, the findings of clinical trials, often conducted in highly selective patient cohorts, are routinely extrapolated to wider populations by policy makers. Meanwhile, the results of adult trials may be used to support conclusions about the effects of a medicine in children. For example, if the effective concentration of a drug can be assumed to be similar in adults and children, an appropriate paediatric dosing rule may be found by 'bridging', that is, by matching the adult effective concentration...
November 8, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859251/a-randomized-two-way-crossover-bioequivalence-study-in-healthy-adult-volunteers-of-paediatric-zidovudine-lamivudine-nevirapine-fast-disintegrating-fixed-dose-combination-tablet
#9
Anjali Joshi, Daniel Gbadero, Fredrick Esseku, Olufikayo J Adesanya, Moji C Adeyeye
OBJECTIVE: The bioequivalence study was conducted to compare the developed paediatric fixed-dose combination (FDC) zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine (60/30/50 mg) tablet - the test formulation - with the combined mixture of single-entity innovator products (reference product). METHODS: A single-dose open-label randomized two-way crossover study was conducted in healthy adult African volunteers after an informed consent was obtained. The 24 volunteers, divided into two groups, were administered the products after an overnight fast on two treatment days with 14 days of washout period...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852424/hypersensitivity-to-beta-lactam-antibiotics-a-three-year-study
#10
I Mota, Â Gaspar, M Chambel, S Piedade, M Morais-Almeida
BACKGROUND: Beta-lactams antibiotics (BL) are the most frequent elicitors of allergic drug reactions. The aim of our study was to characterize the patients referred with suspected hypersensitivity (HS) to BL. METHODS: Over a three-year period (2011-2013), a total of 234 adult and paediatric patients (pts) with suspected HS to BL were investigated according to the European Network for Drug Allergy guidelines. RESULTS: HS to BL was confirmed in 43 pts (18%), without differences between adult and paediatric pts; anaphylaxis was reported by 20 pts...
November 2016: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848094/aminoglycoside-induced-nephrotoxicity-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Stephen J McWilliam, Daniel J Antoine, Rosalind L Smyth, Munir Pirmohamed
Aminoglycoside antibiotics, in particular gentamicin and tobramycin, are still commonly used in paediatric clinical practice. These drugs cause nephrotoxicity, which particularly affects the proximal tubule epithelial cells due to selective endocytosis and accumulation of aminoglycosides via the multi-ligand receptor megalin. Recent epidemiological studies, using more widely accepted definitions of acute kidney injury (AKI), have suggested that AKI may occur in between 20 and 33 % of children exposed to aminoglycosides...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845483/prevalence-of-pain-in-the-departments-of-surgery-and-oncohematology-of-a-paediatric-hospital-that-has-joined-the-project-towards-pain-free-hospital
#12
G Marchetti, A Vittori, V Tortora, M Bishop, G Lofino, V Pardi, E A De Marco, G Manca, A Inserra, R Caruso, I Ciaralli, F Locatelli, S Bella, A E Tozzi, S Picardo
BACKGROUND: Among hospitalized adults and children pain is undertreated. This study wants to assess the effectiveness of pain therapy in two departments of a large children's hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a single day work three committees, administering a questionnaire to patients or parents, have evaluated the adherence to international recommendations (JCI and WHO) in the management of analgesic therapy. Patient demographics, prevalence and intensity (moderate and/or severe) of pain (during hospitalization, 24 hours before and at the time of the interview), analgesia (type, route, duration and frequency of administration) and Pain Management Index (=analgesic score-pain score) were recorded...
September 2016: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836969/knowledge-and-attitudes-towards-the-use-of-antibiotics-in-the-paediatric-age-group-a-multicenter-survey-in-italy
#13
Fabrizio Bert, Maria R Gualano, Renata Gili, Giacomo Scaioli, Emanuela Lovato, Italo F Angelillo, Silvio Brusaferro, Elisabetta De Vito, Giuseppe La Torre, Lamberto Manzoli, Francesco Vitale, Walter Ricciardi, Roberta Siliquini
BACKGROUND: The misuse of antibiotics is one of the leading causes of antibiotic resistance. Paediatric patients are highly involved in this issue, as they are those who receive the largest amount of prescriptions of these drugs. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the general knowledge regarding the use of antibiotics, as well as the attitudes related to the administration of these drugs to children, amongst parents of children in the paediatric age-group. METHODS: In 2014, a multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted amongst parents of children aged 0-14...
November 11, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836020/high-levels-of-pre-treatment-hiv-drug-resistance-and-treatment-failure-in-nigerian-children
#14
Ragna S Boerma, T Sonia Boender, Kim C E Sigaloff, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Nicaise Ndembi, Titilope Adeyemo, Edamisan O Temiye, Akin Osibogun, Pascale Ondoa, Job C Calis, Alani Sulaimon Akanmu
INTRODUCTION: Pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) is an increasing problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Children are an especially vulnerable population to develop PDR given that paediatric second-line treatment options are limited. Although monitoring of PDR is important, data on the paediatric prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and its consequences for treatment outcomes are scarce. We designed a prospective paediatric cohort study to document the prevalence of PDR and its effect on subsequent treatment failure in Nigeria, the country with the second highest number of HIV-infected children in the world...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832658/anaphylaxis-to-over-the-counter-flurbiprofen-in-a-child
#15
Mattia Giovannini, Lucrezia Sarti, Simona Barni, Neri Pucci, Elio Novembre, Francesca Mori
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are suspected to cause drug hypersensitivity very frequently in paediatric patients. In this article, we describe the first case of anaphylaxis to flurbiprofen in a child and provide insight into the possibility of severe reactions and even anaphylaxis to over-the-counter flurbiprofen. Finally, the importance of a rigorous allergy work-up in reaching a confident diagnosis and providing the patient with a safe alternative is shown.
November 11, 2016: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832553/pharmacological-agents-for-reducing-the-haemodynamic-response-to-tracheal-intubation-in-paediatric-patients-a-systematic-review
#16
M Nazir, B Salim, F A Khan
The primary aim of this review was to assess the effect of pharmacological agents administered to attenuate the haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation in paediatric patients up to 16 years of age undergoing elective surgery. Secondary aims were to identify adverse effects related to these agents, and the agents' roles in decreasing arrhythmias. A systematic search was conducted for articles listed in PubMed, CINAHL or the Cochrane database between January 1980 and June 2014. We included randomised controlled trials where the stated aim of the study included observing the effects of pharmacological agents on the haemodynamic response to tracheal intubation...
November 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825644/-variability-and-suitability-of-anti-asmathic-treatment-in-pediatric-primary-health-care
#17
Cristina Suárez-Castañón, Gracia Modroño-Riaño, Gonzalo Solís-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the use patterns and the characteristics of anti-asmathic prescriptions in pediatric primary health care. DESIGN: Observational and retrospective study. LOCATION: Pediatric primary health care, Asturias, Spain. PARTICIPANTS: Drug prescriptions in respiratory diseases in children (<14years old) during 2011. PRINCIPAL MEASUREMENTS: Data obtained from the billing database of the Regional Health Service of Asturias and analysed by sanitary district and primary health centres, calculating the number of DDD/1...
November 5, 2016: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818363/antiepileptic-drug-adherence-and-persistence-in-children-with-epilepsy-attending-a-large-tertiary-care-children-s-hospital
#18
Yon-Kyong Lee, Young-Mi Ah, Yun Jung Choi, Yoon Sook Cho, Ki Joong Kim, Ju-Yeun Lee
We aimed to evaluate antiepileptic drug treatment persistence and adherence in paediatric epilepsy patients and investigate the association between medication-taking behaviours and clinical outcome. Medical and prescription records of newly treated paediatric epilepsy patients, aged 1-18 years who initiated antiepileptic drug monotherapy in a tertiary teaching hospital, were retrospectively reviewed. The rates of overall treatment, non-persistence, a treatment gap >60 days, and adherence, as measured by a medication possession ratio ≥0...
November 4, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810613/use-of-atomoxetine-and-suicidal-ideation-in-children-and-adolescents-results-of-an-observational-cohort-study-within-general-practice-in-england
#19
M Davies, A Coughtrie, D Layton, S A S Shakir
AIM: To investigate the association between atomoxetine, a drug used in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and suicidal ideation, within a cohort of 2-18-year-old patients in England. METHODS: The study was conducted using the observational cohort technique of Modified prescription event monitoring (M-PEM). Patients prescribed atomoxetine were identified from dispensed prescriptions issued by primary care physicians. A customised postal GP questionnaire was used to capture outcome data for suicidal ideation...
October 28, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809913/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-omnitrope%C3%A2-a-somatropin-biosimilar-in-children-requiring-growth-hormone-treatment-italian-interim-analysis-of-the-patro-children-study
#20
Lorenzo Iughetti, Gianluca Tornese, Maria Elisabeth Street, Flavia Napoli, Claudia Giavoli, Franco Antoniazzi, Stefano Stagi, Caterina Luongo, Sara Azzolini, Letizia Ragusa, Gianni Bona, Clara Zecchino, Tommaso Aversa, Luca Persani, Laura Guazzarotti, Emiliano Zecchi, Alberto Pietropoli, Stefano Zucchini
BACKGROUND: PATRO Children is an ongoing observational, longitudinal, non-interventional, global post-marketing surveillance study, which is investigating the long-term safety and effectiveness of Omnitrope®, a somatropin biosimilar to Genotropin®, in children with growth disturbances. The primary endpoint of PATRO Children is long-term safety and the secondary endpoint is effectiveness, which is assessed by analysing auxological data such as height (HSDS) and height velocity (HVSDS) standard deviation scores...
November 3, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
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