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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#1
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#2
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903089/simultaneous-determination-of-pentoxifylline-metabolites-m1-lisofylline-m4-and-m5-and-caffeine-in-plasma-and-dried-blood-spots-for-pharmacokinetic-studies-in-preterm-infants-and-neonates
#3
Madhu Page-Sharp, Tobias Strunk, Sam Salman, Julie Hibbert, Sanjay K Patole, Laurens Manning, Kevin T Batty
Advances in bioanalytical methods are facilitating micro-volume and dried blood spot (DBS) analysis of drugs in biological matrices for pharmacokinetic studies in children and neonates. We sought to develop a UPLC-MS/MS assay for simultaneous measurement of caffeine, pentoxifylline (PTX) and three metabolites of PTX in both plasma and DBS. Caffeine, PTX, the metabolites M1 (lisofylline), M4 and M5, and the internal standards (caffeine-d9 and PTX-d6) were separated using a Waters Aquity T3 UPLC C18 column and gradient mobile phase (water-methanol-formic acid)...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900869/enabling-development-of-paediatric-medicines-in-europe-10-years-of-the-eu-paediatric-regulation
#4
Paolo A Tomasi, Gunter F Egger, Chrissi Pallidis, Agnes Saint-Raymond
The year 2017 marks the tenth anniversary of entry into force of the Paediatric Regulation in the European Union (EU). This law aimed to stimulate the development of paediatric medicines and provide more information on their use, as a response to the lack of evidence and approval of medicines for children. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has had a central role in the implementation of the Regulation. Pharmaceutical companies need to submit a paediatric investigation plan (PIP) to the EMA's Paediatric Committee (PDCO) for every new medicine, unless an exemption (waiver) is granted...
September 12, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900315/efficacy-and-safety-of-deferasirox-in-pediatric-patients-of-thalassemia-at-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital
#5
Dhaval R Thakor, Chetna K Desai, Jigar D Kapadia, Ram K Dikshit, K M Mehariya
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy, safety and utilization pattern of deferasirox in paediatric patients of transfusion dependant β Thalassemia Major at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Gujarat. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational, prospective-retrospective, single centre, continuous study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital among paediatric patients of transfusion dependent β Thalassemia Major. Patients treated with deferasirox for not more than 12 weeks were enrolled...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889403/do-paediatric-investigation-plans-pips-advance-paediatric-healthcare
#6
Klaus Rose, Philip D Walson
Since 2007, new drugs need a paediatric investigation plan (PIP) for EU registration. The PIPs' justifications can be traced back to concerns expressed by Shirkey that label warnings against paediatric use made children "therapeutic orphans", and the American Academy of Pediatrics' claim that all children differ considerably from adults. US legislation first encouraged, then also required, separate, adult-style safety and efficacy studies in all paediatric subpopulations. This triggered paediatric regulatory studies by the pharmaceutical industry...
September 9, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889370/semi-mechanistic-model-for-predicting-the-dosing-rate-in-children-and-neonates-for-drugs-mainly-eliminated-by-cytochrome-metabolism
#7
Lena Cerruti, Nathalie Bleyzac, Michel Tod
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A simple approach is proposed to predict drug clearance in children when no paediatric data are available for drugs metabolised by cytochromes. METHODS: The maturation functions of cytochrome activity and binding proteins in plasma were combined with several measures of body size to describe drug clearance increase with age. The complete model and different reduced models were evaluated on a large panel of drug clearance data in children...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886496/convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-a-quaternary-hospital-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-picu-in-south-africa-an-8-year-review
#8
Yavini Reddy, Yusentha Balakrishna, Lawrence Mubaiwa
PURPOSE: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to describe the clinical profile, aetiology, neuroimaging and EEG findings as well as outcome of children with CSE in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of electronic records of children with CSE admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) over an 8-year period from January 2007 to December 2014. RESULTS: Seventy six patients were admitted to the PICU with CSE and 55(72%) had refractory status epilepticus...
August 2, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884208/lacosamide-treatment-of-childhood-refractory-focal-epilepsy-the-first-reported-side-effect-in-paediatric-patients
#9
Edibe Pembegul Yildiz, Melis Ulak Ozkan, Gonca Bektas, Tuğçe Aksu Uzunhan, Nur Aydinli, Mine Caliskan, Meral Ozmen
PURPOSE: Lacosamide (LCM) is an effective antiepileptic drug (AED) approved for the treatment of focal epilepsy in both children and adults. The aim of this observational study was to review our centre's experience with LCM and to characterise its efficacy and tolerability as an adjunct therapy in children with refractory focal epilepsy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 12 paediatric patients who underwent treatment with LCM from January 2014 to December 2015...
September 7, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877866/european-evidence-based-recommendations-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-childhood-onset-lupus-nephritis-the-share-initiative
#10
Noortje Groot, Nienke de Graeff, Stephen D Marks, Paul Brogan, Tadej Avcin, Brigitte Bader-Meunier, Pavla Dolezalova, Brian M Feldman, Isabelle Kone-Paut, Pekka Lahdenne, Liza McCann, Seza Özen, Clarissa A Pilkington, Angelo Ravelli, Annet van Royen-Kerkhof, Yosef Uziel, Bas J Vastert, Nico M Wulffraat, Michael W Beresford, Sylvia Kamphuis
Lupus nephritis (LN) occurs in 50%-60% of patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE), leading to significant morbidity. Timely recognition of renal involvement and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent renal damage. The Single Hub and Access point for paediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) initiative aimed to generate diagnostic and management regimens for children and adolescents with rheumatic diseases including cSLE. Here, we provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of childhood LN...
September 6, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854174/orthotopic-patient-derived-xenografts-of-paediatric-solid-tumours
#11
Elizabeth Stewart, Sara M Federico, Xiang Chen, Anang A Shelat, Cori Bradley, Brittney Gordon, Asa Karlstrom, Nathaniel R Twarog, Michael R Clay, Armita Bahrami, Burgess B Freeman, Beisi Xu, Xin Zhou, Jianrong Wu, Victoria Honnell, Monica Ocarz, Kaley Blankenship, Jason Dapper, Elaine R Mardis, Richard K Wilson, James Downing, Jinghui Zhang, John Easton, Alberto Pappo, Michael A Dyer
Paediatric solid tumours arise from endodermal, ectodermal, or mesodermal lineages. Although the overall survival of children with solid tumours is 75%, that of children with recurrent disease is below 30%. To capture the complexity and diversity of paediatric solid tumours and establish new models of recurrent disease, here we develop a protocol to produce orthotopic patient-derived xenografts at diagnosis, recurrence, and autopsy. Tumour specimens were received from 168 patients, and 67 orthotopic patient-derived xenografts were established for 12 types of cancer...
September 7, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845129/sepsis-epidemiology-and-outcome-in-the-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-of-vilnius-university-children-s-hospital
#12
Odeta Bobelytė, Ieva Gailiūtė, Vytautas Zubka, Virginija Žilinskaitė
Research was carried out at the paediatric intensive care unit (paediatric ICU) of the Children's Hospital, affiliate of Vilnius University Hospital Santariškių klinikos. BACKGROUND: Being the most common cause of children's death, sepsis is a challenge for most physicians. In order to improve the outcomes, it is important to know the aetiology and peculiarities of sepsis in a particular region and hospital. The aim of this study was to analyse the outcomes of sepsis in a paediatric intensive care unit and their relation with patients' characteristics and causative microorganisms...
2017: Acta medica Lituanica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841850/implementing-the-who-integrated-tool-to-assess-quality-of-care-for-mothers-newborns-and-children-results-and-lessons-learnt-from-five-districts-in-malawi
#13
Helen Smith, Atnafu Getachew Asfaw, Kyaw Myint Aung, Lastone Chikoti, Florence Mgawadere, Luigi d'Aquino, Nynke van den Broek
BACKGROUND: In 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new tool to be used to assess the quality of care for mothers, newborns and children provided at healthcare facility level. This paper reports on the feasibility of using the tool, its limitations and strengths. METHODS: Across 5 districts in Malawi, 35 healthcare facilities were assessed. The WHO tool includes checklists, interviews and observation of case management by which care is assessed against agreed standards using a Likert scale (1 lowest: not meeting standard, 5 highest: compliant with standard)...
August 25, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840010/delamanid-and-bedaquiline-to-treat-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Lia D'Ambrosio, Rosella Centis, Simon Tiberi, Marina Tadolini, Margareth Dalcolmo, Adrian Rendon, Susanna Esposito, Giovanni Battista Migliori
The new drugs delamanid and bedaquiline are increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant (MDR-) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). As evidence is lacking, the World Health Organization recommends their use under specific conditions in adults, delamanid only being recommended in children ≥6 years of age. No systematic review has yet evaluated the efficacy, safety and tolerability of the new drugs in children. A search of peer-reviewed, scientific evidence was performed, to evaluate the efficacy/effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of delamanid or bedaquiline-containing regimens in children with confirmed M/XDR-TB...
July 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828309/adverse-drug-reactions-reporting-by-undergraduate-medical-students-in-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-of-india-content-and-quality-analysis-in-comparison-to-physician-reporting
#15
Parvati B Patel, Tejas K Patel, Snehal Anturlikar, Sahila Khatun, Prakash Bhabhor, Manoj Kumar Saurabh
BACKGROUND: An important challenge to spontaneous reporting system is underreporting. The sensitization and involvement of undergraduate medical students can reduce underreporting in pharmacovigilance program. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and reporting quality of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by undergraduate medical students in comparison with physicians' reporting. METHODS: We sensitized the second professional year undergraduate medical students about pharmacovigilance and asked them to submit reports of ADR observed during their clinical posting from January to December 2015...
July 2017: Perspectives in Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827258/protocol-for-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-pilot-study-for-assessing-feasibility-and-efficacy-of-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-a-paediatric-ulcerative-colitis-population-pedifetch-trial
#16
Nikhil Pai, Jelena Popov
INTRODUCTION: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, relapsing condition characterised by colonic inflammation. Increasing prevalence in early-age diagnosis provides opportunities for additional complications in later life as a result of prolonged exposure to inflammatory and therapeutic insults, necessitating novel avenues for therapeutics which may result in fewer side effects. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has previously demonstrated potential therapeutic benefit in an adult randomised-controlled trial and several recurrent Clostridium difficile infection studies...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827252/safety-of-ceftriaxone-in-paediatrics-a-systematic-review-protocol
#17
Linan Zeng, Imti Choonara, Lingli Zhang, Song Xue, Zhe Chen, Miaomiao He
INTRODUCTION: Ceftriaxone is widely used in children in the treatment of sepsis. However, concerns have been raised about the safety of ceftriaxone, especially in young children. The aim of this review is to systematically evaluate the safety of ceftriaxone in children of all age groups. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring systems will be systematically searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, case series and case reports evaluating the safety of ceftriaxone in children...
August 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826627/neurostimulation-for-abdominal-pain-related-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-adolescents-a-randomised-double-blind-sham-controlled-trial
#18
Katja Kovacic, Keri Hainsworth, Manu Sood, Gisela Chelimsky, Rachel Unteutsch, Melodee Nugent, Pippa Simpson, Adrian Miranda
BACKGROUND: Development of safe and effective therapies for paediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders is needed. A non-invasive, US Food and Drug Administration-cleared device (Neuro-Stim, Innovative Health Solutions, IN, USA) delivers percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation (PENFS) in the external ear to modulate central pain pathways. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of PENFS in adolescents with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders...
August 18, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823070/-what-is-not-written-does-not-exist-the-importance-of-proper-documentation-of-medication-use-history
#19
Carina Carvalho Silvestre, Lincoln Marques Cavalcante Santos, Alfredo Dias de Oliveira-Filho, Divaldo Pereira de Lyra
Medications are perceived as health risk factors, because they might cause damage if used improperly. In this context, an adequate assessment of medication use history should be encouraged, especially in transitions of care to avoid unintended medication discrepancies (UMDs). In a case-controlled study, we investigated potential risk factors for UMDs at hospital admission and found that 150 (42%) of the 358 patients evaluated had one or more UMDs. We were surprised to find that there was no record of a patient and/or relative interview on previous use of medication in 117 medical charts of adult patients (44...
August 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818704/orphan-drug-regulation-a-missed-opportunity-for-children-and-adolescents-with-cancer
#20
Gilles Vassal, Pam Kearns, Patricia Blanc, Nicole Scobie, Delphine Heenen, Andy Pearson
BACKGROUND: Oncology represents a major sector in the field of orphan drug development in Europe. The objective was to evaluate whether children and adolescents with cancer benefited from the Orphan Drug Regulation. METHODS: Data on orphan drug designations (ODDs) and registered orphan drugs from 8th August 2000 to 10th September 2016 were collected from the Community Register of medicinal products for human use. Assessment history, product information and existence of paediatric investigation plans were searched and retrieved from the European Medicine Agency website...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
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