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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164650/market-share-and-costs-of-biologic-therapies-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease-in-the-usa
#1
H Yu, D MacIsaac, J J Wong, Z M Sellers, A A Wren, R Bensen, C Kin, K T Park
BACKGROUND: Real-world data quantifying the costs of increasing use of biologics in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are unknown. AIM: To determine the outpatient IBD drug utilization trends, relative market share, and costs in the USA during a 9-year period. METHODS: The Truven MarketScan(®) Database was analysed for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) during 2007-2015. National drug codes were used to identify prescription drugs; Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System J-codes were used to capture biologic out-patient infusions...
November 22, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151001/intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-hospitalized-and-critically-ill-children-rationale-available-drugs-and-possible-side-effects
#2
Thomas Langer, Rosamaria Limuti, Concezione Tommasino, Niels van Regenmortel, Els L I M Duval, Pietro Caironi, Manu L N G Malbrain, Antonio Pesenti
Human beings are constituted mainly of water. In particular, children's total body water might reach 75-80% of their body weight, compared to 60-70% in adults. It is therefore not surprising, that children, especially hospitalized newborns and infants, are markedly prone to water and electrolyte imbalances. Parenteral fluid therapy is a cornerstone of medical treatment and is thus of exceptional relevance in this patient population. It is crucial to appreciate the fact that intravenous fluids are drugs with very different characteristics, different indications, contraindications and relevant side effects...
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149387/analgosedation-in-paediatric-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-practice-pitfalls-and-possibilities
#3
N Ketharanathan, Y Yamamoto, U Rohlwink, E D Wildschut, M Hunfeld, E C M de Lange, D Tibboel
Analgosedation is a fundamental part of traumatic brain injury (TBI) treatment guidelines, encompassing both first and second tier supportive strategies. Worldwide analgosedation practices continue to be heterogeneous due to the low level of evidence in treatment guidelines (level III) and the choice of analgosedative drugs is made by the treating clinician. Current practice is thus empirical and may result in unfavourable (often hemodynamic) side effects. This article presents an overview of current analgosedation practices in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and addresses pitfalls both in the short and long term...
October 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140587/comparison-of-haematology-and-biochemistry-parameters-in-healthy-south-african-infants-with-laboratory-reference-intervals
#4
B Schmidt, M Tameris, H Geldenhuys, A Luabeya, E Bunyasi, T Hawkridge, J B McClain, H Mahomed, T J Scriba, H McShane, M Hatherill
OBJECTIVE: Paediatric laboratory reference intervals used in Africa and Asia may be derived from historical intervals of predominantly Caucasian infants in Europe or North America. These intervals may therefore not be compatible with the range of normality for developing country populations. We aimed to compare haematology and biochemistry parameters in healthy South African infants with local laboratory reference intervals. METHODS: We compared the baseline haematology and biochemistry results of 634 (316 male and 318 female) HIV-unexposed infants, aged 3-6 months, living in a rural area of the Western Cape Province, South Africa, against laboratory reference intervals supplied by the South African National Health Laboratory Services (NHLS)...
November 15, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126299/cns-penetration-of-art-in-hiv-infected-children
#5
Malon Van den Hof, Charlotte Blokhuis, Sophie Cohen, Henriette J Scherpbier, Ferdinand W N M Wit, M C M Pistorius, Neeltje A Kootstra, Charlotte E Teunissen, Ron A A Mathot, Dasja Pajkrt
Background: Paediatric data on CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs are scarce. Objectives: To evaluate CNS penetration of antiretroviral drugs in HIV-infected children and explore associations with neurocognitive function. Patients and methods: Antiretroviral drug levels were measured in paired CSF and blood samples of clinically stable HIV-infected children between 8 and 18 years old on long-term combined ART. Plasma drug concentrations were corrected for protein binding...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116003/protocols-on-classification-monitoring-and-therapy-in-children-s-rheumatology-pro-kind-results-of-the-working-group-polyarticular-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#6
REVIEW
Gerd Horneff, Ariane Klein, Gerd Ganser, Michaela Sailer-Höck, Annette Günther, Ivan Foeldvari, Frank Weller-Heinemann
OBJECTIVE: Several effective pharmacologic treatment options for polyarticual juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have emerged but initial treatment is heterogeneous in Germany. Therefore, the German Society of Pediatric Rheumatolgy has established a commission to develop consensus "Protocols on classification, monitoring and therapy in children's rheumatology (PRO-KIND)" to harmonize diagnostic and treatment approaches for new-onset JIA in Germany. METHODS: A set of definitions for in- and exclusion, diagnostic workup, parameters for the evaluation of disease activity criteria, therapeutic options, medication dosing, monitoring recommendations, targets, definitions of a therapy failure and four therapeutic algorithms developed by a working group were agreed by web based survey to which all members of the GKJR have been invited...
November 7, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106702/hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-hpa-axis-suppression-after-treatment-with-glucocorticoid-therapy-for-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#7
REVIEW
Niki Rensen, Reinoud Jbj Gemke, Elvira C van Dalen, Joost Rotteveel, Gertjan Jl Kaspers
BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids play a major role in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, supraphysiological doses can suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. HPA axis suppression resulting in reduced cortisol response may cause an impaired stress response and an inadequate host defence against infection, which remain a cause of morbidity and death. Suppression commonly occurs in the first days after cessation of glucocorticoid therapy, but the exact duration is unclear...
November 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105865/oral-medication-prescription-practices-of-tertiary-based-specialists-for-dystonia-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#8
Adrienne Harvey, Dinah Reddihough, Adam Scheinberg, Katrina Williams
AIM: To examine current clinical practice for prescribing medications for children with dystonic cerebral palsy (CP) by medical doctors working at a tertiary care centre. METHODS: Rehabilitation and developmental paediatric specialists completed: (i) a custom-designed online cross-sectional survey capturing their usual prescribing patterns; and (ii) one-page questionnaires detailing medication prescription for each child with CP who they started on a new medication for dystonia over a 12-month period...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103396/prevalence-risk-factors-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-diarrhoeal-infection-among-children-in-thi-qar-governorate-iraq
#9
A Harb, M O'Dea, Z K Hanan, S Abraham, I Habib
We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study among children aged <5 years in Thi-Qar Governorate, south-eastern Iraq, in order to examine the prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial resistance associated with gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella infection. From 320 diarrhoea cases enrolled between March and August 2016, 33 (10·3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8·4-12·4) cases were stool culture-positive for non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica. The most commonly identified serovar was Typhimurium (54%)...
November 6, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102353/effect-of-a-training-and-educational-intervention-for-physicians-and-caregivers-on-antibiotic-prescribing-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-at-primary-care-facilities-in-rural-china-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Xiaolin Wei, Zhitong Zhang, John D Walley, Joseph P Hicks, Jun Zeng, Simin Deng, Yu Zhou, Jia Yin, James N Newell, Qiang Sun, Guanyang Zou, Yan Guo, Ross E G Upshur, Mei Lin
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing contributes to the generation of drug resistance worldwide, and is particularly common in China. We assessed the effectiveness of an antimicrobial stewardship programme aiming to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in paediatric outpatients by targeting providers and caregivers in primary care hospitals in rural China. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, cluster-randomised controlled trial with a 6-month intervention period...
December 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101342/a-protease-resistant-escherichia-coli-asparaginase-with-outstanding-stability-and-enhanced-anti-leukaemic-activity-in-vitro
#11
Maristella Maggi, Steven D Mittelman, Jean Hugues Parmentier, Giorgio Colombo, Massimiliano Meli, Jeannette Marie Whitmire, D Scott Merrell, Julian Whitelegge, Claudia Scotti
L-Asparaginases (ASNases) have been used as first line drugs for paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) treatment for more than 40 years. Both the Escherichia coli (EcAII) and Erwinia chrysanthemi (ErAII) type II ASNases currently used in the clinics are characterized by high in vivo instability, short half-life and the requirement of several administrations to obtain a pharmacologically active concentration. Moreover, they are sensitive to proteases (cathepsin B and asparagine endopeptidase) that are over-expressed by resistant leukaemia lymphoblasts, thereby impairing drug activity and pharmacokinetics...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099542/chloral-hydrate-as-a-sedating-agent-for-neurodiagnostic-procedures-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Choong Yi Fong, Chee Geap Tay, Lai Choo Ong, Nai Ming Lai
BACKGROUND: Paediatric neurodiagnostic investigations, including brain neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG), play an important role in the assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders. The use of an appropriate sedative agent is important to ensure the successful completion of the neurodiagnostic procedures, particularly in children, who are usually unable to remain still throughout the procedure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of chloral hydrate as a sedative agent for non-invasive neurodiagnostic procedures in children...
November 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076138/current-challenges-and-opportunities-in-treating-adult-patients-with-philadelphia-negative-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia
#13
REVIEW
Ofir Wolach, Irina Amitai, Daniel J DeAngelo
Significant advances have been made in recent years in the field of Philadelphia-negative acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). New insights into the biology and genetics of ALL as well as novel clinical observations and new drugs are changing the way we diagnose, risk-stratify and treat adult patients with ALL. New genetic subtypes and alterations refine risk stratification and uncover new actionable therapeutic targets. The incorporation of more intensive, paediatric and paediatric-inspired approaches for young adults seem to have a positive impact on survival in this population...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071700/-treatment-of-encephalopathy-by-means-of-valproic-acid-with-carglumic-acid-two-case-reports-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
J J Nava-Mateos, P Roiz-Rey, J Diaz Alvarez-Mediavilla, D Cebrian-Novella, V Gomez-Del Olmo, L Ceberio-Hualde
INTRODUCTION: Valproic acid (VPA) is a drug mainly used to treat epilepsy. Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy due to VPA is a rare but serious complication. The mechanism by which VPA influences the increase in ammonia consists in blocking the urea cycle, thereby inhibiting N-acetylglutamate synthase and diminishing acetyl coenzyme A. Generally, the treatment employed has been to withdraw VPA and to administer arginine, carnitine, antibiotics, glucose and protein restriction. Previous experience with carglumic acid is limited to reports of isolated cases of paediatric patients...
November 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071540/current-and-emerging-treatment-strategies-for-children-with-progressive-chiasmatic-hypothalamic-glioma-diagnosed-as-infants-a-web-based-survey
#15
Amedeo A Azizi, Antoinette Y N Schouten-van Meeteren
Treatment of infant hypothalamic chiasmatic glioma (iCHG) is challenging, about 30% of the children progress during chemotherapy. Despite subsequent treatments the 5 year overall-survival rate is only 70%. This study investigates treatment strategies currently applied for progressive iCHG. A web-based questionnaire was sent out to the members of the SIOPE Brain Tumour Group asking for current second and third line strategies at progression during and after the end of first line therapy. The questionnaire was answered by 47 paediatric oncologists from 15 countries...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063150/drug-safety-in-pregnancy-the-german-embryotox-institute
#16
Katarina Dathe, Christof Schaefer
Since 1988, the German Embryotox institute combines individual counselling of pregnant women and their health care providers (HCP) with research on drug safety in pregnancy. In addition, Embryotox offers web-based information which covers the most important and most frequently requested pharmaceutical substances. In contrast to ready-made drug risk information in package leaflets and other product information, individual counselling considers different clinical settings such as (1) looking for a drug of choice or planning pregnancy under medication, (2) risk assessment of a particular drug that has already been taken during an (unplanned) pregnancy and (3) evaluation of an adverse pregnancy outcome in association with a particular medication...
October 24, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061148/integrated-community-case-management-by-drug-sellers-influences-appropriate-treatment-of-paediatric-febrile-illness-in-south-western-uganda-a-quasi-experimental-study
#17
Freddy Eric Kitutu, Joan Nakayaga Kalyango, Chrispus Mayora, Katarina Ekholm Selling, Stefan Peterson, Henry Wamani
BACKGROUND: Fever case management is a major challenge for improved child health globally, despite existence of cheap and effective child survival health technologies. The integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) intervention of paediatric febrile illnesses though adopted by Uganda's Ministry of Health to be implemented by community health workers, has not addressed the inaccess to life-saving medicines and diagnostics. Therefore, the iCCM intervention was implemented in private drug shops and evaluated for its effect on appropriate treatment of paediatric fever in a low malaria transmission setting in South Western Uganda...
October 23, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061072/perinatally-hiv-infected-youths-after-transition-from-pediatric-to-adult-care-a-single-center-experience-from-northern-italy
#18
Ilaria Izzo, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Barbara Saccani, Erika Chiari, Salvatore Casari, Emanuele Focà, Maria Chiara Pezzoli, Maria Antonia Forleo, Andrea Bonito, Raffaele Badolato, Laura Dotta, Francesco Castelli
With the development of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the first generation of perinatally HIV-infected children has reached young adulthood. A retrospective study was conducted on perinatally HIV-infected young adults after transition to adult care in Brescia (Northern Italy). Twenty-four patients were transferred to Infectious Disease outpatient Clinic from Pediatric Clinic between 2004 and 2016. Median age at transition was 18 years. 37.5% were male, and 75% were Italian. Median CD4(+) T-cell count was 534 cell/μL, and 9/24 presented detectable HIV-RNA at the time of transition...
November 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058318/seizure-outcome-after-corpus-callosotomy-in-a-large-paediatric-series
#19
David Graham, Deepak Gill, Russell C Dale, Martin M Tisdall
AIM: To describe 20 years of experience with corpus callosotomy at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London and the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney. METHOD: Records of patients who underwent corpus callosotomy between January 1995 and December 2015 were reviewed. Complications of surgery and changes in seizure type and frequency, injuries, and use of antiepileptic drugs were recorded. Drop attacks were analysed using Kaplan-Meier event-free survival curves...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051812/patients-perceptions-on-the-usability-of-the-surepal%C3%A2-self-injection-device-for-omnitrope-%C3%A2-a-questionnaire-based-observational-study-conducted-in-paediatric-patients-in-france
#20
Régis Coutant, Clémentine Dupuis, Patricia Pigeon, Phillipe Rebaud
BACKGROUND: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to evaluate attitudes towards a reusable self-injection system, SurePal™, among paediatric patients with growth disturbances who were prescribed treatment with somatropin (Omnitrope(®)) as part of routine clinical practice. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was incorporated into the multinational, multi-centre, noninterventional PAtients TReated with Omnitrope(®) (PATRO) Children study. Questions were mainly focused on five areas: the attractiveness of SurePal™; training received; use of the device; opinion of the low-drug wastage system; experience compared with previous devices used (among pretreated patients)...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
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