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community acquired pneumonia guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#1
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215132/may-car-washing-represent-a-risk-for-legionella-infection
#2
T Baldovin, A Pierobon, C Bertoncello, E Destefani, M Gennari, A Stano, V Baldo
BACKGROUND: Legionella is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium naturally found in aquatic environments. It can pose a health problem when it grows and spreads in man-made water systems. Legionella pneumophila is the most common cause of Legionnaires' disease nowadays, a community-acquired pneumonia with pulmonary symptoms and chest radiography no different from any other form of infectious pneumonia. Legionella monitoring is important for public health reasons, including the identification of unusual environmental sources of Legionella...
January 2018: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164144/intensive-care-unit-patients-with-lower-respiratory-tract-nosocomial-infections-the-enirris-project
#3
Gennaro De Pascale, Otavio T Ranzani, Saad Nseir, Jean Chastre, Tobias Welte, Massimo Antonelli, Paolo Navalesi, Eugenio Garofalo, Andrea Bruni, Luis Miguel Coelho, Szymon Skoczynski, Federico Longhini, Fabio Silvio Taccone, David Grimaldi, Helmut J F Salzer, Christoph Lange, Filipe Froes, Antoni Artigas, Emili Díaz, Jordi Vallés, Alejandro Rodríguez, Mauro Panigada, Vittoria Comellini, Luca Fasano, Paolo M Soave, Giorgia Spinazzola, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Francisco Alvarez-Lerma, Judith Marin, Joan Ramon Masclans, Davide Chiumello, Angelo Pezzi, Marcus Schultz, Hafiz Mohamed, Menno Van Der Eerden, Roger A S Hoek, D A M P J Gommers, Marta Di Pasquale, Rok Civljak, Marko Kutleša, Matteo Bassetti, George Dimopoulos, Stefano Nava, Fernando Rios, Fernando G Zampieri, Pedro Povoa, Lieuwe D Bos, Stefano Aliberti, Antoni Torres, Ignacio Martín-Loeches
The clinical course of intensive care unit (ICU) patients may be complicated by a large spectrum of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), defined by specific epidemiological, clinical and microbiological aspects. A European network for ICU-related respiratory infections (ENIRRIs), supported by the European Respiratory Society, has been recently established, with the aim at studying all respiratory tract infective episodes except community-acquired ones. A multicentre, observational study is in progress, enrolling more than 1000 patients fulfilling the clinical, biochemical and radiological findings consistent with a LRTI...
October 2017: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150897/determining-best-outcomes-from-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-how-to-achieve-them
#4
REVIEW
Jane Hadfield, Lesley Bennett
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common acute medical illness with a standard, effective treatment that was introduced before the evidenced-based medicine era. Mortality rates have improved in recent decades but improvements have been minimal when compared to other conditions such as acute coronary syndromes. The standardized approach to treatment makes CAP a target for comparative performance and outcome measures. While easy to collect, simplistic outcomes such as mortality, readmission and length of stay are difficult to interpret as they can be affected by subjective choices and health care resources...
November 17, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119848/management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-immunocompetent-adults-updated-swedish-guidelines-2017
#5
Simon Athlin, Christer Lidman, Anders Lundqvist, Pontus Naucler, Anna C Nilsson, Carl Spindler, Kristoffer Strålin, Jonas Hedlund
Based on expert group work, Swedish recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults are here updated. The management of sepsis-induced hypotension is addressed in detail, including monitoring and parenteral therapy. The importance of respiratory support in cases of acute respiratory failure is emphasized. Treatment with high-flow oxygen and non-invasive ventilation is recommended. The use of statins or steroids in general therapy is not found to be fully supported by evidence. In the management of pleural infection, new data show favourable effects of tissue plasminogen activator and deoxyribonuclease installation...
November 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091975/treatment-trends-and-outcomes-in-healthcare-associated-pneumonia
#6
Sarah Haessler, Tara Lagu, Peter K Lindenauer, Daniel J Skiest, Aruna Priya, Penelope S Pekow, Marya D Zilberberg, Thomas L Higgins, Michael B Rothberg
BACKGROUND: The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines for management of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), first published in 2005, have been controversial regarding the selection of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics, whether the criteria for HCAP predicts the likelihood of infection with multidrug resistant organisms, and whether HCAP patients have improved outcomes when treated with empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study at 488 US hospitals from July 2007 to November 2011...
November 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067039/management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-by-family-physicians
#7
Saima Akhter, Nadeem Rizvi, Sajeer Bhura, Usman Ali Warraich
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)is a major burden on health systemwith significant mortality and morbidity. Family Physicians(FPs)can play important role. To determine management strategies and prescription of FPs regarding CAP. METHODS: A multicenter cross sectional survey was done in 10 cities of Pakistan from November 2014 to January 2015. Self-administered questionnaire was filled by 110 Family Physicians. RESULTS: Of total 71% of FPs reported to work in high prevalence areas for respiratory ailments...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049213/clinical-characteristics-and-prognostic-risk-factors-of-healthcare-associated-pneumonia-in-a-korean-tertiary-teaching-hospital
#8
June H Ahn, Kwan H Lee, Jin H Chung, Kyeong-Cheol Shin, Choong K Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Eun Young Choi
The 2016 American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines removed the concept of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). We examined whether the 2016 ATS/IDSA guidelines are applicable in Korea.We conducted a retrospective, observational study of pneumonia patients who were hospitalized at a tertiary teaching hospital from March 2012 to February 2014. Identified pathogens that were not susceptible to β-lactams, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones were defined as community-acquired pneumonia drug-resistant pathogens (CAP-DRPs)...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043422/guidelines-for-the-use-of-chest-radiographs-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
REVIEW
Savvas Andronikou, Elena Lambert, Jarred Halton, Lucy Hilder, Iona Crumley, Mark D Lyttle, Cara Kosack
National guidance from the United Kingdom and the United States on community-acquired pneumonia in children states that chest radiographs are not recommended routinely in uncomplicated cases. The main reason in the ambulatory setting is that there is no evidence of a substantial impact on clinical outcomes. However clinical practice and adherence to guidance is multifactorial and includes the clinical context (developed vs. developing world), the confidence of the attending physician, the changing incidence of complications (according to the success of immunisation programs), the availability of alternative imaging (and its relationship to perceived risks of radiation) and the reliability of the interpretation of imaging...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043420/lung-ultrasound-for-the-diagnosis-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Jacob A M Stadler, Savvas Andronikou, Heather J Zar
Ultrasound (US) has been proposed as an alternative first-line imaging modality to diagnose community-acquired pneumonia in children. Lung US has the potential benefits over chest radiography of being radiation free, subject to fewer regulatory requirements, relatively lower cost and with immediate bedside availability of results. However, the uptake of lung US into clinical practice has been slow and it is not yet included in clinical guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia in children. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the equipment and techniques used to perform lung US in children with suspected pneumonia and the interpretation of relevant sonographic findings...
October 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036540/tackling-anti-microbial-resistance-ethical-framework-for-rational-antibiotic-use
#11
Jasper Littmann, Annette Rid, Alena Buyx
Background: To reduce the effect of antimicrobial resistance and to preserve antibiotic effectiveness, clinical guidelines and health policy documents call for the rational use of antibiotics, which aims to reduce unnecessary or minimally effective antibiotic use. Methods: Through ethical analysis, we show that rational use programmes can lead to ethical conflicts, because they sometimes place patients at risk of harm-for example, a delayed switch to second-line antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia can lead to substantial increases in mortality...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034094/antibiotic-therapy-supportive-treatment-and-management-of-immunomodulation-inflammation-response-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-review-of-recommendations
#12
REVIEW
Marco Mantero, Paolo Tarsia, Andrea Gramegna, Sonia Henchi, Nicolò Vanoni, Marta Di Pasquale
Community-acquired pneumonia is a common and serious disease, with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Management and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia are described in three main documents: the 2007 American Thoracic Society guidelines, the 2011 European Respiratory Society guidelines, and the 2009 British Thoracic Society guidelines, updated by the NICE in 2015. Despite the validity of current guidelines in improving prognosis and management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia, not all recommendations have high levels of evidence and there are still some controversial issues...
2017: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970157/initial-empiric-antibiotic-therapy-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-chinese-hospitals
#13
Xiaomeng Nie, Yesheng Li, Zhangwei Yang, Hui Wang, Sanyong Jin, Yang Jiao, Mark L Metersky, Yi Huang
OBJECTIVES: Studies on treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China are very scarce. This study was performed to investigate empirical antibiotic practices for patients hospitalized with CAP in China and the risk factors for treatment failure. METHODS: Data was collected from a national Chinese hospitalization database. Adult patients who were diagnosed as CAP between October 1st, 2014, and September 30th, 2015 were identified. We studied initial empiric antibiotic regimens, microbiologic sampling, treatment failure, in hospital mortality, and length of hospital stay (LOS)...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956537/epidemiology-and-treatment-of-the-commonest-form-of-listeriosis-meningitis-and-bacteraemia
#14
Pasquale Pagliano, Ferhat Arslan, Tiziana Ascione
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacillus and facultative intracellular bacterium whose transmission occurs mainly through the consumption of contaminated food. Listeriosis has an incidence estimated at around three-six cases per million per year and the most common forms of the infection are neurolisteriosis, bacteraemia, and maternal-neonatal infection. Those affected by listeriosis are at the extremes age of the life or report specific risk factors, such as malignancies, causing a defect of cellular immunity...
September 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955497/pneumococcal-vaccination-in-autoimmune-rheumatic-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Éva Rákóczi, Zoltan Szekanecz
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of the community-acquired pneumonia. The mortality rate of invasive pneumococcal infections is high. Immunocompromised patients suffering from autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIRD) have a high risk for acquiring these infections. Protection against infection can be improved with vaccination. After using polysaccharide vaccines (PPV-23), in July 2013, a 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) was approved for adults. Due to its conjugate form, this vaccine is the recommended choice in pneumococcal vaccine-naive patients...
2017: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952384/investigational-drugs-in-phase-i-and-phase-ii-clinical-trials-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#16
REVIEW
Adamantia Liapikou, Catia Cillóniz, Antoni Torres
Community acquired pneumonia is one of the main infections, remaining as a global cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. Successful treatment hinges on expedient delivery of appropriate antibiotic therapy tailored to both the likely pathogens and the severity of disease. Although antibiotic resistance is increasing and pharmaceutical companies continue to debate the profitability of introducing new antibacterial agents, an encouraging number of new molecules have recently been unveiled which target multidrug-resistant bacteria...
November 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914846/-analysis-of-the-efficiency-of-antimicrobial-treatment-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-clinical-practice
#17
O V Zhukova, O V Ruina, S V Kononova, T M Konyshkina
AIM: To analyze actual drug consumption based on the defined daily dose (DDD analysis) and to analyze the utilization of drugs based on their proportion of the total defined daily doses (DU90% analysis) for the antimicrobial therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in clinical practice at a hospital in Russia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The investigation materials were the data of 117 case histories of male (51.3%) and female (48.7%) patients hospitalized with CAP at Nizhny Novgorod City Clinical Hospital Five in 2015...
2017: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892896/detection-of-cytomegalovirus-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-from-hiv-positive-individuals-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
Arati Mane, Pankaj Gujar, Shraddha Gaikwad, Tilak Dhamgaye, Arun Risbud
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is one of the frequent viral pneumonia reported in persons with HIV infection. Knowledge of pulmonary CMV infection is important for deciding appropriate diagnostic strategies. However, there is scanty literature addressing the role of CMV aetiology among HIV positive individuals presenting with Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) using Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) samples from India. AIM: To detect CMV in BAL fluid from HIV-positive individuals presenting with CAP...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890433/evaluation-of-severity-score-guided-approaches-to-macrolide-use-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#19
Aran Singanayagam, Stefano Aliberti, Catia Cillóniz, Antoni Torres, Francesco Blasi, James D Chalmers
International guidelines including those in the UK, Japan, Australia and South Africa recommend the avoidance of macrolides in patients with low-severity community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We hypothesised that severity scores are poor predictors of atypical pneumonia and response to macrolide therapy, and thus, inadequate tools for guiding antibiotic prescriptions.Secondary analysis of four independent prospective CAP datasets was conducted. The predictive values of the CURB-65 and pneumonia severity index (PSI) for clinically important groups of causative pathogens were evaluated...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876159/implementing-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-enhance-compliance-with-guideline-recommended-prechemotherapy-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-a-military-based-medical-oncology-practice
#20
Wilfred Delacruz, Sandra Terrazzino, Michael Osswald, Casey Payne, Brian Haney
PURPOSE: Patients with cancer are at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease, including community-acquired pneumonia. Current Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices and National Cancer Comprehensive Network guidelines recommend pneumococcal vaccination for immunocompromised patients, including patients with cancer. METHODS: We conducted a quality improvement (QI) project to enhance compliance with pneumococcal vaccination in patients before their chemotherapy...
November 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
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