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community acquired pneumonia guidelines

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281915/burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-over-18%C3%A2-years-of-age
#1
Filiz Kosar, Devrim Emel Alici, Basak Hacibedel, Burcu Arpınar Yigitbas, Pejman Golabi, Caglar Cuhadaroglu
This study aimed to determine the economic burden and affecting factors in adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients (≥18 years) by retrospectively evaluating the data of two centers in Istanbul province, Turkey. Data of outpatients and inpatients with CAP from January 2013 through June 2014 were evaluated. The numbers of laboratory analyses, imaging, hospitalization days, and specialist visits were multiplied by the relevant unit costs and the costs of the relevant items per patient were obtained...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270546/variability-in-antibiotic-prescribing-for-community-acquired-pneumonia
#2
Lori K Handy, Matthew Bryan, Jeffrey S Gerber, Theoklis Zaoutis, Kristen A Feemster
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Published guidelines recommend amoxicillin for most children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), yet macrolides and broad-spectrum antibiotics are more commonly prescribed. We aimed to determine the patient and clinician characteristics associated with the prescription of amoxicillin versus macrolide or broad-spectrum antibiotics for CAP. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in an outpatient pediatric primary care network from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013...
March 7, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224517/-update-guidelines-for-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-adult-community-acquired-pneumonia-2016-what-is-new
#3
REVIEW
Santiago Ewig, Christian Giesa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202294/point-of-care-lung-ultrasound-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
Hayri Levent Yilmaz, Ahmet Kağan Özkaya, Sinem Sarı Gökay, Özlem Tolu Kendir, Hande Şenol
OBJECTIVES: To present lung ultrasound findings in children assessed with suspected pneumonia in the emergency department and to show the benefit of lung ultrasound in diagnosing pneumonia in comparison with chest X-rays. METHODS: This observational prospective study was performed in the pediatric emergency department of a single center. Point of care lung ultrasound was performed on each child by an independent sonographer blinded to the patient's clinical and chest X-ray findings...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198726/community-acquired-pneumonia-requiring-hospitalization-rational-decision-making-and-interpretation-of-guidelines
#5
Douwe F Postma, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the evidence base for guideline recommendations on the diagnosis, the optimal choice, timing and duration of empirical antibiotic therapy, and the use of microbiological tests for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): issues for which guidelines are frequently used as a quick reference. Furthermore, we will discuss possibilities for future research in these topics. RECENT FINDINGS: Many national and international guideline recommendations, even on critical elements of CAP management, are based on low-to-moderate quality evidence...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148226/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-and-empiric-antibiotic-therapy-of-bloodstream-infections-at-a-general-hospital-in-mid-norway-a-prospective-observational-study
#6
Arne Mehl, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Angela Kümmel, Stian Lydersen, Julie Paulsen, Ingvild Haugan, Erik Solligård, Jan Kristian Damås, Stig Harthug, Tom-Harald Edna
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of bloodstream infection (BSI) and antimicrobial resistance have been increasing in many countries. We studied trends in antimicrobial resistance and empiric antibiotic therapy at a medium-sized general hospital in Mid-Norway. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2013, 1995 prospectively recorded episodes of BSI in 1719 patients aged 16-99 years were included. We analyzed the antimicrobial non-susceptibility according to place of acquisition, site of infection, microbe group, and time period...
February 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012492/guidelines-concordant-empiric-antimicrobial-therapy-and-mortality-in-patients-with-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-requiring-mechanical-ventilation
#7
Yukiyo Sakamoto, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Hideo Yasunaga, Hideyuki Takeshima, Wakae Hasegawa, Taisuke Jo, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Takahide Nagase
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has high morbidity and mortality among adults. Several clinical guidelines recommend prompt administration of combined antimicrobial therapy. However, the association between guidelines concordance and mortality in patients with severe pneumonia remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the impact of guidelines-concordant empiric antimicrobial therapy on 7-day mortality in patients with extremely severe pneumonia who required mechanical ventilation at admission, using a nationwide inpatient database in Japan...
January 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002979/antibiotic-stewardship-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#8
Diego Viasus, Milly Vecino-Moreno, Juan M De La Hoz, Jordi Carratalà
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be associated with significant mortality and morbidity. As with other infectious diseases, in recent years there has been a marked increase in resistance to the antibiotics commonly used against the pathogens that cause CAP. Antimicrobial stewardship denotes coordinated interventions to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotics by encouraging the selection of optimal drug regimens. Areas covered: Several elements can be applied to antibiotic stewardship strategies for CAP in order to maintain or improve patient outcomes...
December 27, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960206/role-of-atypical-pathogens-in-the-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#9
Forest W Arnold, James T Summersgill, Julio A Ramirez
Atypical pneumonia has been described for over 100 years, but some of the pathogens attributed to it have been identified only in the past decades. The most common pathogens are Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of these three pathogens have been studied since their discovery, and are reviewed herein to provide better insight when evaluating these patients, which hopefully translates into improved care. The incidence of atypical pathogens has been shown to be approximately 22% worldwide, but this probably varies with location...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960204/community-acquired-pneumonia-a-global-perspective
#10
Grant W Waterer
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a global disease responsible for a large proportion of deaths and having significant economic cost. As diagnostic tools have increased in sensitivity, our understanding of the etiology of CAP has begun to change with a significant increase in confirmed viral infections and the recognition that multiple pathogens are frequently present. Empiric therapy remains the standard of care and guidelines are mostly based on published data from the United States or Europe. Blindly applying guidelines without any consideration of local etiological differences can lead to a risk of under or overtreatment...
December 2016: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956727/assessment-of-cytokine-and-chemokine-signatures-as-potential-biomarkers-of-childhood-community-acquired-pneumonia-severity-a-nested-cohort-study-in-india
#11
Shanie Saghafian-Hedengren, Joseph L Mathew, Eva Hagel, Sunit Singhi, Pallab Ray, Sofia Ygberg, Anna Nilsson
BACKGROUND: Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of childhood mortality in developing countries. In resource-poor settings, pneumonia diagnosis is commonly made clinically, based on World Health Organization guidelines, where breathing difficulty or cough and age-adjusted tachypnea suffice to establish diagnosis. Also, the severity of CAP is generally based on clinical features and existing biomarkers do not reliably correlate to either clinical severity or outcome...
January 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924871/prognostic-implications-of-aspiration-pneumonia-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#12
Kosaku Komiya, Bruce K Rubin, Jun-Ichi Kadota, Hiroshi Mukae, Tomohiro Akaba, Hiroshi Moro, Nobumasa Aoki, Hiroki Tsukada, Shingo Noguchi, Nobuaki Shime, Osamu Takahashi, Shigeru Kohno
Aspiration pneumonia is thought to be associated with a poor outcome in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there has been no systematic review regarding the impact of aspiration pneumonia on the outcomes in patients with CAP. This review was conducted using the MOOSE guidelines: Patients: patients defined CAP. EXPOSURE: aspiration pneumonia defined as pneumonia in patients who have aspiration risk. Comparison: confirmed pneumonia in patients who were not considered to be at high risk for oral aspiration...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873512/antimicrobial-resistance-and-clinical-outcomes-in-nursing-home-acquired-pneumonia-compared-to-community-acquired-pneumonia
#13
Yun Seong Kang, Soo Ryeong Ryoo, Seung Joo Byun, Yun Jeong Jeong, Jin Young Oh, Young Soon Yoon
PURPOSE: Patients with nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) should be treated as hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) according to guidelines published in 2005. However, controversy still exists on whether the high mortality of NHAP results from multidrug resistant pathogens or underlying disease. We aimed to outline differences and factors contributing to mortality between NHAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients aged 65 years or older with either CAP or NHAP from 2008 to 2014...
January 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811579/a-comprehensive-approach-to-pediatric-pneumonia-relationship-between-standardization-antimicrobial-stewardship-clinical-testing-and-cost
#14
Lori Rutman, Davene R Wright, James OʼCallaghan, Suzanne Spencer, K Casey Lion, Matthew P Kronman, Chuan Zhou, Rita Mangione-Smith
OBJECTIVE: In September 2012, our institution implemented an emergency department (ED) and inpatient pathway for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) based on national guideline recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between standardizing ED and inpatient care for CAP and antimicrobial stewardship, clinical testing, and cost. METHODS: We used descriptive statistics, statistical process control, and interrupted time series analysis to analyze measures 12 months before and after implementation...
November 1, 2016: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803507/role-of-atypical-bacteria-in-hospitalized-patients-with-nursing-home-acquired-pneumonia
#15
Laura Meyer-Junco
Background: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) has been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality and hospitalization for long-term care residents. However, current and previous pneumonia guidelines differ on the appropriate management of NHAP in hospitalized patients, specifically in regard to the role of atypical bacteria such as Chlamydiae pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella. Objectives: The purpose of this review is to evaluate clinical trials conducted in hospitalized patients with NHAP to determine the prevalence of atypical bacteria and thus the role for empiric antibiotic coverage of these pathogens in NHAP...
October 2016: Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766169/microbial-etiology-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-infants-and-children-admitted-to-the-pediatric-hospital-ain-shams-university
#16
Magda Yehia El Seify, Eman Mahmoud Fouda, Hanan Mohamed Ibrahim, Maha Muhammad Fathy, Asmaa Al Husseiny Ahmed, Walaa Shawky Khater, Noha Nagi Mohammed Salah El Deen, Heba Galal Mohamed Abouzeid, Nancy Riyad Ahmed Hegazy, Heba Salah Sayed Elbanna
BACKGROUND: While recognizing the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia is necessary for formulating local antimicrobial guidelines, limited data is published about this etiology in Egyptian pediatric patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of bacterial and viral pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among immunocompetent Egyptian infants and preschool children. METHODS: Ninety infants and preschool-age children admitted to our hospital with CAP were prospectively included in the study...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759360/a-relook-of-cefuroxime-in-community-infections-an-option-still-beneficial
#17
V R Badhwar, S Ganapathy, P P Prabhudesai, N K Tulara, A Y Varaiya, D Vyas
In community and family practice, infections are a common OPD presentation. In the management of common bacterial infections seen in community especially RTI, UTI, SSTI; cefuroxime a second generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity can be used for empirical treatment. To know current place of cefuroxime in the management of infections, physicians, surgeons, microbiologist, chest physician, gynecologist and pediatrician came together to discuss and debate their experience with cefuroxime and its place in today's world...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755118/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-post-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-era
#18
Erin E Shaughnessy, Erika L Stalets, Samir S Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review covers the outpatient management of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), discussing the changing microbiology of CAP since the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2010, and providing an overview of national guideline recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance have plummeted since widespread 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747254/effects-of-a-syndrome-specific-antibiotic-stewardship-intervention-for-inpatient-community-acquired-pneumonia
#19
Michelle K Haas, Kristen Dalton, Bryan C Knepper, Sarah A Stella, Lilia Cervantes, Connie S Price, William J Burman, Philip S Mehler, Timothy C Jenkins
Background.  Syndrome-specific interventions are a recommended approach to antibiotic stewardship, but additional data are needed to understand their potential impact. We implemented an intervention to improve the management of inpatient community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and evaluated its effects on antibiotic and resource utilization. Methods.  A stakeholder group developed and implemented a clinical practice guideline and order set for inpatient, non-intensive care unit CAP recommending a short course (5 days) of a fluoroquinolone-sparing antibiotic regimen in uncomplicated cases...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739904/clinical-utility-of-testing-for-legionella-pneumonia-in-central-texas
#20
Christopher Henry, Carl Boethel, Laurel A Copeland, Shekhar Ghamande, Alejandro C Arroliga, Heath D White
RATIONALE: Legionella pneumophila is an uncommon cause of community-acquired pneumonia in the south central region of the United States, and regular testing may not be cost effective in areas of low incidence. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the incidence of Legionella in central Texas and to determine the cost effectiveness of Legionella urinary antigen testing. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with pneumonia between January 2001 and December 2013...
January 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
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