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BK virus in renal transplantation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872831/outcomes-of-renal-transplant-recipients-with-bk-virus-infection-and-bk-virus-surveillance-in-the-auckland-region-from-2006-to-2012
#1
Chun-Yuan Hsiao, Helen L Pilmore, Lifeng Zhou, Janak R de Zoysa
AIM: To evaluate incidence, risk factors and treatment outcome of BK polyomavirus nephropathy (BKVN) in a cohort of renal transplant recipients in the Auckland region without a formal BK polyomavirus (BKV) surveillance programme. METHODS: A cohort of 226 patients who received their renal transplants from 2006 to 2012 was retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Seventy-six recipients (33.6%) had a BK viral load (BKVL) test and 9 patients (3.9%) developed BKVN...
November 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805505/challenges-for-renal-retransplant-an-overview
#2
Mohamed Adel Bakr, Ahmed Abdelfattah Denewar, Mohamed Hamed Abbas
Despite many achievements in renal transplant in the past few years regarding immunosuppression and tissue matching, the rates of early and late graft loss and return to dialysis are still high. Many of those with primary graft failure will be listed for a kidney retransplant, as this allows for better quality of life than dialysis. Many challenges face those requiring renal retransplant, including first graft nephrectomy and whether site of retransplant should be ipsilateral or contralateral, whether to conduct preemptive retransplant or wait while on dialysis, additional immunologic factors, immunosuppression after retransplant, cancer risk, BK virus infection, and retransplant in pediatrics...
November 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799969/bk-viremia-among-iranian-renal-transplant-candidates
#3
Manizheh Jozpanahi, Amitis Ramezani, Shahrzad Ossareh, Mohammad Banifazl, Anahita Bavand, Setareh Mamishi, Arezoo Aghakhani
BACKGROUND: Primary infection with BK virus (BKV) is occurred during childhood and usually asymptomatic, but after initial infection, BKV may persist lifelong in the kidney and genitourinary tract. Reactivation may occur in individuals with compromised immunity such as renal transplant recipients. Due to the role of BKV in BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) and potentially renal allograft rejection, the detection of BKV in renal transplant candidates is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of BK viremia in end stage renal disease cases who were candidates for renal transplantation...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777772/urothelial-carcinoma-of-donor-origin-in-a-kidney-transplant-patient
#4
Rosa M Michel Ortega, Daynna J Wolff, Cynthia A Schandl, Harry A Drabkin
BACKGROUND: Malignancy after transplantation is an uncommon multifactorial occurrence. Immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection is described as a major risk factor in malignancy development in the post-transplant state. Donor-derived malignancy is a rare reported complication. Herein, we review our patient history and discuss diagnostic strategies and the implications of immunosuppression for donor-derived malignancy. CASE PRESENTATION: This is a 69-year-old man with post-renal-transplant urothelial carcinoma determined to be of donor origin...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772622/bk-and-other-polyomaviruses-in-kidney-transplantation
#5
Jennifer Trofe-Clark, Deirdre Sawinski
For more than 40 years, polyomaviruses (BK virus and JC virus) have been known to cause disease in human beings. Recently, 11 new polyomaviruses were discovered. However, the majority of these viruses are rare in renal transplant recipients and BK and JC viruses remain the most important polyomaviruses to impact this population. BK virus presents as BK virus nephropathy and has, in rare instances, been associated with hemorrhagic cystitis or ureteral strictures. JC virus can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or nephropathy in this population as well, but is uncommon...
September 2016: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755502/primary-human-renal-derived-tubular-epithelial-cells-fail-to-recognize-and-suppress-bk-virus-infection
#6
Hanneke de Kort, Kirstin M Heutinck, Jurjen M Ruben, Alessa E Valverde da Silva, Katja C Wolthers, Jörg Hamann, Ineke J M Ten Berge
BACKGROUND: BK polyomavirus (BKV)-associated nephropathy is a threat to kidney allograft survival affecting up to 15% of renal transplant patients. Previous studies revealed that tubular epithelial cells (TEC) show a limited response towards BKV infection. Here we investigated the interplay between BKV and TEC in more detail. In particular, we questioned whether BKV suppresses and/or evades antiviral responses. METHODS: Human primary tubular epithelial cells (TEC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected with BKV Dunlop strain or other viruses...
October 17, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742286/pilot-study-of-early-monitoring-using-urinary-screening-for-bk-polyomavirus-as-a-strategy-for-prevention-of-bkv-nephropathy-in-kidney-transplantation
#7
A L F Gouvêa, R I J Cosendey, F R Carvalho, R B Varella, C F de Souza, P F Lopes, A A Silva, M C Rochael, H P de Moraes, J R Lugon, J R Almeida
BACKGROUND: Urine monitoring programs represent an important strategy for early diagnosis of reactivation of BK polyomavirus (BKV) in kidney transplant recipients. This study analyzes a BKV urine screening model in kidney transplant patients. METHODS: Urinary screening for BKV reactivation was performed by urinary decoy cell and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests in samples from 32 consecutive kidney transplant patients, collected in a 6-month follow-up period...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737395/screening-for-bk-virus-nephropathy-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-comparison-of-diagnostic-tests
#8
Gabriel Godinho Pinto, Jose Antonio T Poloni, Liane N Rotta, Raymund R Razonable, Alessandro C Pasqualotto
Urine cytology and qPCR in blood and urine are commonly used to screen renal transplant recipients for polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN). Few studies, however, have directly compared these two diagnostic tests, in terms of their performance to predict PVAN. This was a systematic review in which adult (≥ 18 years old) renal transplant recipients were studied. A structured Pubmed search was used to identify studies comparing urine cytology and/or qPCR in urine and plasma samples for detecting PVAN with renal biopsy as the gold standard for diagnosis...
July 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718431/il-2-and-polyoma-bk-virus-infection-a-systematic-review-article
#9
Ashraf Kariminik
It has been demonstrated that IL-2 plays a dual role in induction/suppression of immune responses via activation of conventional and regulatory T lymphocytes, respectively. IL-2 contacts complete IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) which contains CD25 (α chain) on the antigen specific activated T helper and cytotoxic lymphocytes and also T regulatory cells. Additionally, previous investigations revealed that polyoma BK virus (PBK) reactivation and induction of PBK associated nephropathy (PBKAN) is a main complication following renal transplantation...
December 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717279/successful-renal-retransplantation-after-graft-loss-from-bk-polyomavirus-infection-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patient
#10
Aurore Barthélemy, Nicolas Bouvier, Renaud Verdon, Valérie Chatelet, Bruno Hurault de Ligny
We report the case of a human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patient whose initial kidney transplant failed because of BK polyomavirus-induced nephropathy, and who underwent a second transplantation 3 years later. BK viruria was detected 1 day after transplantation. After 1 month, BK viremia developed along with a donor-specific antibody. After decreasing tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid and 2 courses of intravenous immunoglobulins, BK viremia and donor-specific antibody permanently disappeared, with stable renal function...
September 26, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686031/-infectious-and-neoplasic-complications-after-kidney-transplantation
#11
Georges Mourad, Jean-Emmanuel Serre, Cyrielle Alméras, Olivia Basel, Valérie Garrigue, Vincent Pernin, Moglie Le Quintrec
Infections and malignancies are the expected complications of immunosuppressive therapy, which non-specifically impairs cellular and humoral immune responses in renal transplant recipients. Infections were usually frequent and severe during the early post-transplant period (first year). Recent diagnostic methods (molecular biology) and availability of new antivirals, antifungal and antibiotic drugs made rapid diagnosis and systematic preventive strategies much easier and this resulted in a significant reduction of infections and infectious death in this population...
September 24, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683628/bk-nephropathy-in-the-native-kidneys-of-patients-with-organ-transplants-clinical-spectrum-of-bk-infection
#12
REVIEW
Darlene Vigil, Nikifor K Konstantinov, Marc Barry, Antonia M Harford, Karen S Servilla, Young Ho Kim, Yijuan Sun, Kavitha Ganta, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Nephropathy secondary to BK virus, a member of the Papoviridae family of viruses, has been recognized for some time as an important cause of allograft dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. In recent times, BK nephropathy (BKN) of the native kidneys has being increasingly recognized as a cause of chronic kidney disease in patients with solid organ transplants, bone marrow transplants and in patients with other clinical entities associated with immunosuppression. In such patients renal dysfunction is often attributed to other factors including nephrotoxicity of medications used to prevent rejection of the transplanted organs...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668162/high-level-viruria-as-a-screening-tool-for-bk-virus-nephropathy-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#13
W James Chon, Nidhi Aggarwal, Masha Kocherginsky, Brenna Kane, Jozefa Sutor, Michelle A Josephson
BACKGROUND: Although early monitoring of BK virus infection in renal transplant patients has led to improved outcomes over the past decade, it remains unclear whether monitoring for viremia is the best screening tool for BK virus nephropathy (BKVN). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of 368 renal transplant recipients who had a minimum of 18 months of posttransplantation follow-up. The relationship between the presence of BK viruria and a composite end point of BK viremia/BKVN was established, and the predictive value of high-grade BK viruria for development of viremia/BKVN was determined...
September 2016: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653963/differential-characteristics-of-kidney-transplant-recipients-according-to-1-year-chronic-kidney-disease-stage-3a-and-stage-3b-graft-function
#14
Chung Hee Baek, Hyosang Kim, Won Seok Yang, Duck Jong Han, Su-Kil Park
The outcomes of transplantation have improved, but more than 50% of kidney transplantation (KT) recipients are still reported to have renal function of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 at 1 year after KT. We reviewed all 1235 patients who received a KT in our institution between 2008 and 2012. Among these recipients, 77 and 289 cases were included in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 1 year after KT 30-44 (CKD stage 3b) group and eGFR 45-59 (CKD stage 3a) group, respectively. Longer duration of dialysis (odds ratio [OR] = 1...
September 22, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631127/heat-shock-protein-90%C3%AE-is-a-potential-serological-biomarker-of-acute-rejection-after-renal-transplantation
#15
Takeshi Maehana, Toshiaki Tanaka, Hiroshi Kitamura, Nobuyuki Fukuzawa, Hideki Ishida, Hiroshi Harada, Kazunari Tanabe, Naoya Masumori
BACKGROUND: Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), a molecular chaperone associated with the activation of client proteins, was recently reported to play an important role in immunologic reactions. To date, the role of HSP90 in solid organ transplantations has remained unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum HSP90α levels and acute allograft rejection after organ and tissue transplantation using serum samples from kidney allograft recipients, an in vitro antibody-mediated rejection model, and a murine skin transplantation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573493/influence-of-tacrolimus-metabolism-rate-on-bkv-infection-after-kidney-transplantation
#16
Gerold Thölking, Christina Schmidt, Raphael Koch, Katharina Schuette-Nuetgen, Dirk Pabst, Heiner Wolters, Iyad Kabar, Anna Hüsing, Hermann Pavenstädt, Stefan Reuter, Barbara Suwelack
Immunosuppression is the major risk factor for BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) after renal transplantation (RTx). As the individual tacrolimus (Tac) metabolism rate correlates with Tac side effects, we hypothesized that Tac metabolism might also influence the BKV infection risk. In this case-control study RTx patients with BK viremia within 4 years after RTx (BKV group) were compared with a BKV negative control group. The Tac metabolism rate expressed as the blood concentration normalized by the daily dose (C/D ratio) was applied to assess the Tac metabolism rate...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500256/a-preliminary-study-into-the-significance-of-intrarenal-reflux-in-bk-virus-nephropathy-after-kidney-transplantation
#17
Kunio Kawanishi, Kazuho Honda, Junki Koike, Motoshi Hattori, Shouhei Fuchinoue, Kazunari Tanabe, Hideaki Oda, Yoji Nagashima
BACKGROUND: The BK virus typically colonizes the lower urinary tract and is the causative agent in BK virus nephropathy (BKVN), which can progress to allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Urinary reflux in kidney allografts is induced by vesicoureteral reflux or disturbances in intrarenal reflux (IRR), believed to be associated with BKVN. This study was designed to elucidate the relationship between BKVN and IRR. METHODS: We examined 30 renal transplant recipients histologically diagnosed with BKVN using anti-Simian virus 40 immunohistochemistry and 60 clinically matched control recipients...
February 2016: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448566/optimal-use-of-plasma-and-urine-bk-viral-loads-for-screening-and-predicting-bk-nephropathy
#18
Peter Boan, Christopher Hewison, Ramyasuda Swaminathan, Ashley Irish, Kevin Warr, Rajalingam Sinniah, Todd M Pryce, James Flexman
BACKGROUND: BK virus is a polyoma virus causing renal allograft nephropathy. Reduction of immunosuppression with the early recognition of significant BK viral loads in urine and plasma can effectively prevent BKV associated nephropathy (BKVN), however the optimal compartment and frequency of BK viral load measurement post renal transplantation are undetermined. Our purpose was to examine time to detection and viral loads in urine compared to plasma, and establish viral load cut-offs associated with histological BKVN...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391196/bk-polyomavirus-and-the-transplanted-kidney-immunopathology-and-therapeutic-approaches
#19
Caroline Lamarche, Julie Orio, Suzon Collette, Lynne Senécal, Marie-Josée Hébert, Édith Renoult, Lee Anne Tibbles, Jean-Sébastien Delisle
BK polyomavirus is ubiquitous, with a seropositivity rate of over 75% in the adult population. Primary infection is thought to occur in the respiratory tract, but asymptomatic BK virus latency is established in the urothelium. In immunocompromised host, the virus can reactivate but rarely compromises kidney function except in renal grafts, where it causes a tubulointerstitial inflammatory response similar to acute rejection. Restoring host immunity against the virus is the cornerstone of treatment. This review covers the virus-intrinsic features, the posttransplant microenvironment as well as the host immune factors that underlie the pathophysiology of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy...
July 7, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27365783/bk-polyoma-viral-infection-in-renal-allograft-recipients
#20
Sonia Badwal, G S Chopra, P P Varma, A K Hooda
BACKGROUND: BK polyoma viral nephropathy (BKVAN) has emerged as a significant cause of renal allograft loss. The literature on BK viral infection from India is scarce. The study was therefore undertaken to evaluate impact of BK polyoma viral (BKV) infection on renal allograft recipients in Indian scenario from a service renal transplantation centre. METHODS: Renal allograft recipients who underwent graft biopsy formed the part of this descriptive cross-sectional study group...
April 2011: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
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