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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110483/explosive-blast-loading-on-human-3d-aggregate-minibrains
#1
Nicole E Zander, Thuvan Piehler, Helena Hogberg, David Pamies
The effects of primary explosive blast on brain tissue still remain mostly unknown. There are few in vitro models that use real explosives to probe the mechanisms of injury at the cellular level. In this work, 3D aggregates of human brain cells or brain microphysiological system were exposed to military explosives at two different pressures (50 and 100 psi). Results indicate that membrane damage and oxidative stress increased with blast pressure, but cell death remained minimal.
January 21, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110481/pregnancy-associated-transient-osteoporosis-of-the-hip-results-of-a-case-control-study
#2
Peyman Hadji, Jelena Boekhoff, Melitta Hahn, Lars Hellmeyer, Olaf Hars, Ioannis Kyvernitakis
: The etiology and underlying mechanisms of transient of osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) during pregnancy are still unclear, since no systematic analyses exist. Our results support the hypothesis that TOH is a multifactorial disease, which is associated with immobility, dental problems, and lack of exercise in childhood. INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy-associated transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) is a rare but severe form of osteoporosis, which may affect a subgroup of women in the last trimester of pregnancy or immediately postpartum...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110449/membrane-fluidity-controls-redox-regulated-cold-stress-responses-in-cyanobacteria
#3
Eugene G Maksimov, Kirill S Mironov, Marina S Trofimova, Natalya L Nechaeva, Daria A Todorenko, Konstantin E Klementiev, Georgy V Tsoraev, Eugene V Tyutyaev, Anna A Zorina, Pavel V Feduraev, Suleyman I Allakhverdiev, Vladimir Z Paschenko, Dmitry A Los
Membrane fluidity is the important regulator of cellular responses to changing ambient temperature. Bacteria perceive cold by the transmembrane histidine kinases that sense changes in thickness of the cytoplasmic membrane due to its rigidification. In the cyanobacterium Synechocystis, about a half of cold-responsive genes is controlled by the light-dependent transmembrane histidine kinase Hik33, which also partially controls the responses to osmotic, salt, and oxidative stress. This implies the existence of some universal, but yet unknown signal that triggers adaptive gene expression in response to various stressors...
January 21, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110438/polysubstituted-isoflavonoids-from-spatholobus-suberectus-flemingia-macrophylla-and-cudrania-cochinchinensis
#4
Li-Xia Wang, Hai-Rong Zheng, Fu-Cai Ren, Tian-Ge Chen, Xiang-Mei Li, Xian-Jun Jiang, Fei Wang
Four hitherto unknown polysubstituted isoflavonoids, including three isoflavans: 7,4'-dihydroxy-8,2',3'-trimethoxyisoflavan (1), 7,2',4'-trihydroxy-8,3'-dimethoxyisoflavan (2), and 7,2',4'-trihydroxy-5-methoxyisoflavan (3), and one prenylated isoflavone cudraisoflavone M (4) were isolated from the ethanol extracts of Spatholobus suberectus (for 1 and 2), Flemingia macrophylla (for 3), and Cudrania cochinchinensis (for 4), respectively. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis...
January 21, 2017: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110332/role-of-insulin-in-placental-transport-of-nutrients-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#5
María Ruiz-Palacios, Antonio José Ruiz-Alcaraz, María Sanchez-Campillo, Elvira Larqué
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased fetal adiposity, which may increase the risk of obesity in adulthood. The placenta has insulin receptors and maternal insulin can activate its signaling pathways, affecting the transport of nutrients to the fetus. However, the effects of diet or insulin treatment on the placental pathophysiology of GDM are unknown. SUMMARY: There are very few studies on possible defects in the insulin signaling pathway in the GDM placenta...
January 21, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110175/ketogenic-diet-therapy-for-epilepsy-during-pregnancy-a-case-series
#6
Elles J T M van der Louw, Tanya J Williams, Bobbie J Henry-Barron, Joanne F Olieman, Johannes J Duvekot, Marijn J Vermeulen, Natalja Bannink, Monique Williams, Rinze F Neuteboom, Eric H Kossoff, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Mackenzie C Cervenka
PURPOSE: Evaluation of ketogenic diet (KD) therapies for seizure control during pregnancy when safety and appropriate management become considerations. Until now, no information has been available on seizure reduction and human pregnancy related outcomes in women treated with KD therapies. METHOD: We describe two cases of pregnant women with epilepsy treated with KD therapy either as monotherapy (Case 1) or as adjunctive therapy (Case 2). RESULTS: Case 1: A 27 year old woman, gravida1, started the classic KD with medium chain triglyceride (MCT) emulsion and 75g carbohydrate-restriction, later reduced to 47g...
December 26, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110161/citrate-and-albumin-facilitate-transferrin-iron-loading-in-the-presence-of-phosphate
#7
Catalina Matias, Devin W Belnap, Michael T Smith, Michael G Stewart, Isaac F Torres, Andrew J Gross, Richard K Watt
Labile plasma iron (LPI) is redox active, exchangeable iron that catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen species. Serum transferrin binds iron in a non-exchangeable form and delivers iron to cells. In several inflammatory diseases serum LPI increases but the reason LPI forms is unknown. This work evaluates possible pathways leading to LPI and examines potential mediators of apo transferrin iron loading to prevent LPI. Previously phosphate was shown to inhibit iron loading into apo transferrin by competitively binding free Fe(3+)...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110103/the-retromer-complex-system-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-ad-influence-of-age
#8
Jin Chu, Domenico Praticò
Deficiencies of the retrograde transport mediated by the retromer complex have been described in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Genetic manipulation of retromer modulates brain amyloidosis in Tg2576 mice. However, whether the complex is altered during the development of the AD-like phenotype remains unknown. In this study we assayed the expression levels of the vacuolar sorting protein 35 (VPS35), VPS26, VPS29, and its cargo proteins, cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, sortilin-related receptor in brains of Tg2576 and controls at the ages of 3, 8, and 14 months...
January 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110089/causal-evidence-of-the-involvement-of-the-right-occipital-face-area-in-face-identity-acquisition
#9
Géza Gergely Ambrus, Fabienne Windel, A Mike Burton, Gyula Kovács
There is growing evidence that the occipital face area (OFA), originally thought to be involved in the construction of a low-level representation of the physical features of a face, is also taking part in higher-level face processing. To test whether the OFA is causally involved in the learning of novel face identities, we have used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) together with a sequential sorting - face matching paradigm (Andrews et al. 2015). First, participants sorted images of two unknown persons during the initial learning phase while either their right OFA or the Vertex was stimulated using TMS...
January 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110013/dna-damage-and-translational-response-during-detoxification-from-copper-exposure-in-a-wild-population-of-chironomus-riparius
#10
Paola Bernabò, Matteo Gaglio, Francesco Bellamoli, Gabriella Viero, Valeria Lencioni
Copper is one of the predominant components of pesticides employed in agriculture and known to be highly toxic once it reaches aquatic organisms. The impact of sublethal concentrations of this metal on wild insects is not yet completely understood. Studies addressing alterations in different levels of gene expression are still lacking. We previously demonstrated that in a wild population of Chironomus riparius, HSP and CYP families of genes were up-regulated at the transcriptional level after copper exposure...
January 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109969/independent-of-cirrhosis-hepatocellular-carcinoma-risk-is-increased-with-diabetes-and-metabolic-syndrome-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Allison Kasmari, Amy Welch, Guodong Liu, Doug Leslie, Thomas McGarrity, Thomas Riley
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver malignancy, commonly a sequelae of hepatitis C infection, but can complicate cirrhosis of any cause. Whether metabolic syndrome and its components, type II diabetes (), hypertension, and hyperlipidemia increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma independent of cirrhosis is unknown. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study was conducted using the MarketScan® insurance claims database from 2008-2012...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109932/accuracy-of-noncontrast-quiescent-interval-single-shot-lower-extremity-mr-angiography-versus-ct%C3%A2-angiography-for-diagnosis-of-peripheral-artery-disease-comparison-with-digital-subtraction-angiography
#12
Akos Varga-Szemes, Julian L Wichmann, U Joseph Schoepf, Pal Suranyi, Carlo N De Cecco, Giuseppe Muscogiuri, Damiano Caruso, Ricardo T Yamada, Sheldon E Litwin, Christian Tesche, Taylor M Duguay, Shivraman Giri, Rozemarijn Vliegenthart, Thomas M Todoran
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of noncontrast quiescent-interval single-shot (QISS) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) versus iodine-contrast computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), with invasive digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference standard. BACKGROUND: QISS is a recently introduced noncontrast MRA technique. Although the diagnostic accuracy of QISS is reportedly similar to that of contrast-enhanced MRA, its performance compared with contrast-enhanced CTA, the most frequently used noninvasive modality for evaluation of PAD, is unknown...
January 12, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109915/ethnobotanical-survey-of-medicinal-plants-used-in-the-traditional-treatment-of-diabetes-in-chtouka-ait-baha-and-tiznit-western-anti-atlas-morocco
#13
M Barkaoui, A Katiri, H Boubaker, F Msanda
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Morocco, diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem with more than 1.5 million cases in 2014. Medicinal plants are widely used by the Moroccan population to treat the illness. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this work is to make an inventory of plant species used in folk medicine for the management of diabetes in Chtouka Ait Baha and Tiznit provinces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey was carried out by means of semi-structured questionnaires...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109896/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-modulates-sleep-and-nrem-sleep-delta-power-induced-by-spontaneous-wakefulness-sleep-deprivation-and-lipopolysaccharide
#14
Mark R Zielinski, Dmitry Gerashchenko, Svetlana A Karpova, Varun Konanki, Robert W McCarley, Fayyaz S Sutterwala, Robert E Strecker, Radhika Basheer
Both sleep loss and pathogens can enhance brain inflammation, sleep, and sleep intensity as indicated by electroencephalogram delta (δ) power. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) is increased in the cortex after sleep deprivation (SD) and in response to the Gram-negative bacterial cell-wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS), although the exact mechanisms governing these effects are unknown. The nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome protein complex forms in response to changes in the local environment and, in turn, activates caspase-1 to convert IL-1β into its active form...
January 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109783/the-affordable-care-act-medicaid-expansion-correlated-with-increased-heart-transplant-listings-in-african-americans-but-not-hispanics-or%C3%A2-caucasians
#15
Khadijah Breathett, Larry A Allen, Laura Helmkamp, Kathryn Colborn, Stacie L Daugherty, Prateeti Khazanie, Richard Lindrooth, Pamela N Peterson
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid Expansion was associated with increased census-adjusted heart transplant listing rates for racial/ethnic minorities. BACKGROUND: Underinsurance limits access to transplants, especially among racial/ethnic minorities. Changes in racial/ethnic listing rates post-ACA Medicaid Expansion are unknown. METHODS: Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we analyzed 5,651 patients from early adopter states (implemented the ACA Medicaid Expansion by January 2014) and 4,769 patients from non-adopter states (no implementation during the study period) from 2012 to 2015...
January 11, 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109774/a-tomatinase-like-enzyme-acts-as-a-virulence-factor-in-the-wheat-pathogen-fusarium-graminearum
#16
Jason Carere, Aurélie H Benfield, Mélodie Ollivier, Chunji J Liu, Kemal Kazan, Donald M Gardiner
During their interactions with plants, fungal pathogens employ large numbers of pathogenesis- associated molecules including secreted effectors and enzymes that can degrade various defence compounds. However, in many cases, in planta targets of pathogen-produced enzymes remain unknown. We identified a gene in the wheat pathogen Fusarium graminearum, encoding a putative enzyme that shows 84% sequence identity to FoTom1, a tomatinase produced by the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. In F...
January 18, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109746/diversity-and-evolution-of-tir-domain-containing-proteins-in-bivalves-and-metazoa-new-insights-from-comparative-genomics
#17
Marco Gerdol, Paola Venier, Paolo Edomi, Alberto Pallavicini
The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain has a fundamental role in the innate defence response of plants, vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Mostly found in the cytosolic side of membrane-bound receptor proteins, it mediates the intracellular signalling upon pathogen recognition via heterotypic interactions. Although a number of TIR-domain-containing (TIR-DC) proteins have been characterized in vertebrates, their evolutionary relationships and functional role in protostomes are still largely unknown. Due to the high abundance and diversity of TIR-DC proteins in bivalve molluscs, we investigated this class of marine invertebrates as a case study...
January 18, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109725/6q12-and-11p14-variants-are-associated-with-postnatal-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-respiratory-symptoms
#18
Oliver Fuchs, Olga Gorlanova, Philipp Latzin, Anne Schmidt, Maximilian Schieck, Antoaneta A Toncheva, Sven Michel, Vincent D Gaertner, Michael Kabesch, Urs Frey
BACKGROUND: Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a biomarker of airway inflammation and seems to precede respiratory symptoms, such as asthma in childhood. Identifying genetic determinants of postnatal eNO may aid in unraveling the role of eNO in epithelial function or airway inflammation and disease. OBJECTIVE: To identify genetic determinants of early postnatal eNO and subsequent respiratory symptoms during the first year of life. METHODS: Within a population-based birth cohort, eNO was measured in healthy term infants aged 5 weeks during quiet tidal breathing in unsedated sleep...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109652/epilepsy-in-patients-with-grin2a-alterations-genetics-neurodevelopment-epileptic-phenotype-and-response-to-anticonvulsive-drugs
#19
C von Stülpnagel, M Ensslen, R S Møller, D K Pal, S Masnada, P Veggiotti, E Piazza, M Dreesmann, T Hartlieb, T Herberhold, E Hughes, M Koch, C Kutzer, K Hoertnagel, J Nitanda, M Pohl, K Rostásy, T B Haack, K Stöhr, G Kluger, I Borggraefe
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the genetic, neurodevelopmental and epileptic spectrum associated with GRIN2A alterations with emphasis on epilepsy treatment. METHODS: Retrospective study of 19 patients (7 females; age: 1-38 years; mean 10.1 years) with epilepsy and GRIN2A alteration. Genetic variants were classified according to the guidelines and recommendations of the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG). Clinical findings including epilepsy classification, treatment, EEG findings, early childhood development and neurodevelopmental outcome were collected with an electronic questionnaire...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109569/adhering-to-quality-measures-in-esophagectomy-is-associated-with-improved-survival-in-all-stages-of-esophageal-cancer
#20
Pamela Samson, Varun Puri, Stephen Broderick, G Alexander Patterson, Bryan Meyers, Traves Crabtree
BACKGROUND: Quality measures for patients with early and locally advanced esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy have been made by national organizations. The rate of adherence to these measures as well as their association with overall survival are unknown. METHODS: Esophagectomy patients were abstracted from the National Cancer Database. Because neoadjuvant status was available since 2006, the analysis of locally advanced patients began at this time point...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
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