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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651369/reduced-thalamus-volume-may-reflect-nicotine-severity-in-young-male-smokers
#1
Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jiadong Cheng, Yanyan Guan, Yangding Li, Yanzhi Bi, Jinquan Zhai, Lin Luo, Bo Liu, Ting Xue, Xiaoqi Lu
Introduction: Nicotine acts as an agonist at presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and to facilitate synaptic release of several neurotransmitters including dopamine and glutamate. The thalamus has the highest density of nAChRs in the brain, which may make this area be more vulnerable to the addictive effects of nicotine. However, the volume of thalamus abnormalities and the association with smoking behaviors in young smokers remains unknown. Methods: Thirty-six young male smokers and 36 age-, gender- and education-matched nonsmokers participated in current study...
June 23, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651346/effect-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B5-genotype-on-lipoprotein-a-and-the-associated-risk-of-myocardial-infarction-and-aortic-valve-stenosis
#2
Leonard Kritharides, Børge G Nordestgaard, Anne Tybjærg-Hansen, Pia R Kamstrup, Shoaib Afzal
Context: Lipoprotein(a) is a genetic risk factor for myocardial infarction and aortic valve stenosis. APOE ε2/3/4 genotypes affect plasma lipoprotein(a); however, the effects of APOE genotypes on the prediction of myocardial infarction and aortic valve stenosis by lipoprotein(a) are unknown. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that APOE ε2/3/4 genotype affects plasma lipoprotein(a), the contribution of plasma apoE levels this effect, and the associated risk of myocardial infarction and aortic valve stenosis...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651327/alpha-klotho-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-among-alcoholics
#3
Geraldine Quintero-Platt, Emilio González-Reimers, Melchor Rodríguez-Gaspar, Candelaria Martín-González, Onán Pérez-Hernández, Lucía Romero-Acevedo, Elisa Espelosín-Ortega, María José de la Vega-Prieto, Francisco Santolaria-Fernández
Aims: Alcoholism may be a cardiovascular risk factor. Osteocyte derived molecules such as fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and soluble α Klotho have recently been associated with cardiovascular disease, but their role in alcoholics is unknown. We here analyze the behavior of FGF23 and α Klotho in alcoholics. Methods: Ninety-seven alcoholic patients were assessed for liver function, presence of hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), vascular calcifications (assessed by chest X-ray) and nutritional status (lean and fat mass measured by densitometry)...
June 23, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651250/a-role-for-neuronal-alpha-synuclein-in-gastrointestinal-immunity
#4
Ethan Stolzenberg, Deborah Berry, De Yang, Ernest Y Lee, Alexander Kroemer, Stuart Kaufman, Gerard C L Wong, Joost J Oppenheim, Supti Sen, Thomas Fishbein, Ad Bax, Brent Harris, Denise Barbut, Michael A Zasloff
BACKGROUND: Alpha-synuclein (αS) is a nerve cell protein associated with Parkinson disease (PD). Accumulation of αS within the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its traffic from the gut to the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. αS has no known function in humans and the reason for its accumulation within the ENS is unknown. Several recent studies conducted in rodents have linked αS to immune cell activation in the central nervous system. We hypothesized that αS in the ENS might play a role in the innate immune defenses of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651170/an-analysis-of-quality-of-life-qol-in-patients-with-epilepsy-and-comorbid-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-pnes-after-vagus-nerve-stimulation-vns
#5
Andrew C Vivas, Christian J Reitano, Hena Waseem, Selim R Benbadis, Fernando L Vale
PURPOSE: Patients with epilepsy (PWE) may suffer from comorbid psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). The efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in the treatment of epilepsy and depression is established, however the impact on PNES is unknown. Since many patients with PNES have comorbid depression, we explored the impact on quality of life (QOL) that VNS has on PWE and PNES. METHODS: The video electroencephalogram (vEEG) of all patients who underwent VNS at our institution was reviewed...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651151/assessment-methods-and-schedules-for-collecting-daily-process-data-on-substance-use-related-health-behaviors-a-randomized-control-study
#6
Anne Buu, Lynn S Massey, Maureen A Walton, James A Cranford, Marc A Zimmerman, Rebecca M Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Interactive voice response (IVR) and short message service (SMS) systems have been used to collect daily process data on substance use. Yet, their relative compliance, use patterns, and user experiences are unknown. Furthermore, recent studies presented the potential of a hybrid weekly protocol requiring recall of behaviors in past week right after the weekend, in order to reduce the concerns about low compliance and measurement reactivity associated with daily data collection and also provide high quality data on the peak of use...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651086/age-at-first-febrile-seizure-correlates-with-perinatal-maternal-emotional-symptoms
#7
Fanny Thébault-Dagher, Catherine M Herba, Jean R Séguin, Gina Muckle, Sonia J Lupien, Lionel Carmant, Marie-Noëlle Simard, Gabriel D Shapiro, William D Fraser, Sarah Lippé
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal exposure to stress and fever are factors lowering seizure threshold in animal models. The fever effect on seizure threshold is well documented in human infants, however the associations between maternal perinatal stress and infants' susceptibility to seizures is unknown. This is the first study in humans to investigate longitudinally, whether in humans, the effect of maternal perinatal emotional symptoms such as stress, anxiety and depression that may trigger a biological stress response on age at first seizure occurrence...
June 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651023/many-to-one-comparisons-after-safety-selection-in-multi-arm-clinical-trials
#8
Gerald Hlavin, Lisa V Hampson, Franz Koenig
In phase II platform trials, 'many-to-one' comparisons are performed when K experimental treatments are compared with a common control to identify the most promising treatment(s) to be selected for Phase III trials. However, when sample sizes are limited, such as when the disease of interest is rare, only a single Phase II/III trial addressing both treatment selection and confirmatory efficacy testing may be feasible. In this paper, we suggest a two-step safety selection and testing procedure for such seamless trials...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651010/macrophages-but-not-neutrophils-are-critical-for-proliferation-of-burkholderia-cenocepacia-and-ensuing-host-damaging-inflammation
#9
Jennifer Mesureur, Joana R Feliciano, Nelly Wagner, Margarida C Gomes, Lili Zhang, Monica Blanco-Gonzalez, Michiel van der Vaart, David O'Callaghan, Annemarie H Meijer, Annette C Vergunst
Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) can cause devastating pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, yet the precise mechanisms underlying inflammation, recurrent exacerbations and transition from chronic stages to acute infection and septicemia are not known. Bcc bacteria are generally believed to have a predominant extracellular biofilm life style in infected CF lungs, similar to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but this has been challenged by clinical observations which show Bcc bacteria predominantly in alveolar macrophages...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650994/abnormal-global-functional-network-connectivity-and-its-relationship-to-medial-temporal-atrophy-in-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
Can Sheng, Mingrui Xia, Haikuo Yu, Yue Huang, Yan Lu, Fang Liu, Yong He, Ying Han
BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which is recently considered as a high risk status for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), manifests with gray matter atrophy and increased focal functional activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL). However, the abnormalities of whole-brain functional network connectivity in aMCI and its relationship to medial temporal atrophy (MTA) remain unknown. METHODS: In this study, thirty-six aMCI patients and thirty-five healthy controls (HCs) were recruited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650992/galectin-8-as-an-immunosuppressor-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-a-target-of-human-early-prognostic-antibodies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Evelyn Pardo, Claudia Cárcamo, Reinaldo Uribe-San Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Fabián Segovia-Miranda, Cristobal Curkovic-Peña, Fabián Montecino, Christopher Holmes, Juan Enrique Tichauer, Eric Acuña, Francisco Osorio-Barrios, Marjorie Castro, Priscilla Cortes, Claudia Oyanadel, David M Valenzuela, Rodrigo Pacheco, Rodrigo Naves, Andrea Soza, Alfonso González
Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a member of a glycan-binding protein family that regulates the immune system, among other functions, and is a target of antibodies in autoimmune disorders. However, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), remains unknown. We study the consequences of Gal-8 silencing on lymphocyte subpopulations and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), to then assess the presence and clinical meaning of anti-Gal-8 antibodies in MS patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650974/resting-state-electrical-brain-activity-and-connectivity-in-fibromyalgia
#12
Sven Vanneste, Jan Ost, Tony Van Havenbergh, Dirk De Ridder
The exact mechanism underlying fibromyalgia is unknown, but increased facilitatory modulation and/or dysfunctional descending inhibitory pathway activity are posited as possible mechanisms contributing to sensitization of the central nervous system. The primary goal of this study is to identify a fibromyalgia neural circuit that can account for these abnormalities in central pain. The second goal is to gain a better understanding of the functional connectivity between the default and the executive attention network (salience network plus dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex) in fibromyalgia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650950/neurobiologic-correlates-of-attention-and-memory-deficits-following-critical-illness-in-early-life
#13
Raisa M Schiller, Hanneke IJsselstijn, Marlous J Madderom, André B Rietman, Marion Smits, Arno F J van Heijst, Dick Tibboel, Tonya White, Ryan L Muetzel
OBJECTIVES: Survivors of critical illness in early life are at risk of long-term-memory and attention impairments. However, their neurobiologic substrates remain largely unknown. DESIGN: A prospective follow-up study. SETTING: Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PATIENTS: Thirty-eight school-age (8-12 yr) survivors of neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and/or congenital diaphragmatic hernia with an intelligence quotient greater than or equal to 80 and a below average score (z score ≤ -1...
June 23, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650934/congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-child-development-quality-of-life-and-impact-on-daily-life
#14
Marjolein J Korndewal, Anne Marie Oudesluys-Murphy, Aloys C M Kroes, Ann C T M Vossen, Hester E de Melker
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) is the most common congenital infection worldwide and can lead to long-term impairments such as developmental delay. It is currently unknown how this affects the daily life of children and their parents. METHODS: Children with cCMV were identified by testing stored dried blood spots of 31.484 five-year-old children born in 2008 in the Netherlands. Parents of 133 children with cCMV and 274 children without cCMV participated and filled in questionnaires on the child's development, the child's and parents' quality of life, care provided for the children, and consequences of cCMV on daily life...
June 23, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650931/hypertrophic-restrictive-cardiomyopathy-with-apical-thinning-a-peculiar-case-of-genotype-phenotype-correlation
#15
Pierluigi Lesizza, Marco Merlo, Giancarlo Vitrella, Gianfranco Sinagra
: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common cardiomyopathy, mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding for sarcomere proteins. Even though many mutations have been recognized to be causative of HCM, specific HCM phenotypes can be rarely predicted by the genotype, possibly as a consequence of the presence of still unknown disease-modifying genes [Maron et al. (2013). Lancet 381:242-55]. In this very peculiar case of HCM hypertrophy localized to left ventricle, mid-wall segments coexisted with a restrictive filling pattern and an apical wall thinning mimicking hypoplasia of left ventricle apex...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650928/circulating-exosomes-isolated-from-septic-mice-induce-cardiovascular-hyperpermeability-through-promoting-podosome-cluster-formation
#16
Xingjiang Mu, Xiaohong Wang, Wei Huang, Rui-Tao Wang, Kobina Essandoh, Yutian Li, Amanda M Pugh, Jiangtong Peng, Shan Deng, Yigang Wang, Charles C Caldwell, Tianqing Peng, Kai-Jiang Yu, Guo-Chang Fan
Septic shock increases vascular permeability, leading to multiple organ failure including cardiac dysfunction, a major contributor to septic death. Podosome, an actin-based dynamic membrane structure, plays critical roles in extracellular matrix degradation and angiogenesis. However, whether podosome contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. In this study, we found that the endothelial hyperpermeability, stimulated by PMA and thrombin, was accompanied by increased formation of podosome clusters at the cell periphery, indicating a positive correlation between podosome clusters and endothelial leakage...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650927/dexamethasone-prevents-lipopolysaccharide-induced-epithelial-barrier-dysfunction-in-rat-ileum
#17
Aline Barbosa Ribeiro, Humberto Giusti, Ana Paula Trevelin Souza, Celso Rodrigues Franci, Rafael Simone Saia
Inflammatory mediators have been postulated as elementary inducing factors to the disruption of the intestinal tight junctions (TJ) and consequently, gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Corticosteroids are considered the mainstay in the treatment of septic shock; however the impact of this therapy on the intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction during septic shock remains unknown. Our aims were to demonstrate the role of low dexamethasone (DEX) doses in modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the expression and the arrangement of TJ proteins in endotoxemic rats...
June 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650812/alpha-matting-with-kl-divergence-based-sparse-sampling
#18
Levent Karacan, Aykut Erdem, Erkut Erdem
In this paper, we present a new sampling-based alpha matting approach for the accurate estimation of foreground and background layers of an image. Previous sampling-based methods typically rely on certain heuristics in collecting representative samples from known regions, and thus their performance deteriorates if the underlying assumptions are not satisfied. To alleviate this, we take an entirely new approach and formulate sampling as a sparse subset selection problem where we propose to pick a small set of candidate samples that best explains the unknown pixels...
June 22, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650732/air-hand-wipe-and-surface-wipe-sampling-for-bisphenol-a-bpa-among-workers-in-industries-that-manufacture-and-use-bpa-in-the-united-states
#19
Cynthia J Hines, Matthew V Jackson, Annette L Christianson, John C Clark, James E Arnold, Jack R Pretty, James A Deddens
For decades, bisphenol A (BPA) has been used in making polycarbonate, epoxy, and phenolic resins and certain investment casting waxes, yet published exposure data are lacking for U.S. manufacturing workers. In 2013-2014, BPA air and hand exposures were quantified for 78 workers at six U.S. companies making BPA or BPA-based products. Exposure measures included an inhalable-fraction personal air sample on each of two consecutive work days (n = 146), pre- and end-shift hand wipe samples on the second day (n = 74 each), and surface wipe samples (n = 88)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650672/campylobacter-species-isolated-from-pigs-in-grenada-exhibited-novel-clones-genotypes-and-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-sequence-types
#20
Victor A Amadi, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Charmarthy Subbarao, Isaac Kashoma, Gireesh Rajashekara, Ravindra Sharma, Harry Hariharan, Diana Stone
Infections caused by Campylobacter species pose a severe threat to public health worldwide. However, in Grenada, the occurrence and characteristics of Campylobacter in food animals, including pigs, remain mostly unknown. In this study, we identified the sequence types (STs) of Campylobacter from young healthy pigs in Grenada and compared the results with previous studies in Grenada and other countries. Antimicrobial resistance patterns and diversity of the Campylobacter clones were evaluated. Ninety-nine Campylobacter isolates (97 Campylobacter coli and 2 Campylobacter jejuni) were analyzed by multilocus sequence typing...
June 26, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
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