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Heart-brain axis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921218/a-comparison-of-lkb1-ampk-mtor-metabolic-axis-response-to-global-ischaemia-in-brain-heart-liver-and-kidney-in-a-rat-model-of-cardiac-arrest
#1
Shohreh Majd, John H T Power, Timothy K Chataway, Hugh J M Grantham
BACKGROUND: Cellular energy failure in high metabolic rate organs is one of the underlying causes for many disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiomyopathies, liver and renal failures. In the past decade, numerous studies have discovered the cellular axis of LKB1/AMPK/mTOR as an essential modulator of cell homeostasis in response to energy stress. Through regulating adaptive mechanisms, this axis adjusts the energy availability to its demand by a systematized control on metabolism...
June 19, 2018: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872396/trpc5-enos-axis-negatively-regulates-atp-induced-cardiomyocyte-hypertrophy
#2
Caroline Sunggip, Kakeru Shimoda, Sayaka Oda, Tomohiro Tanaka, Kazuhiro Nishiyama, Supachoke Mangmool, Akiyuki Nishimura, Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Motohiro Nishida
Cardiac hypertrophy, induced by neurohumoral factors, including angiotensin II and endothelin-1, is a major predisposing factor for heart failure. These ligands can induce hypertrophic growth of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) mainly through Ca2+ -dependent calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) signaling pathways activated by diacylglycerol-activated transient receptor potential canonical 3 and 6 (TRPC3/6) heteromultimer channels. Although extracellular nucleotide, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), is also known as most potent Ca2+ -mobilizing ligand that acts on purinergic receptors, ATP never induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867721/n-terminal-pro-brain-natriuretic-peptide-and-associations-with-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-features-in-middle-age-the-cardia-brain-mri-study
#3
Ian T Ferguson, Martine Elbejjani, Behnam Sabayan, David R Jacobs, Osorio Meirelles, Otto A Sanchez, Russell Tracy, Nick Bryan, Lenore J Launer
Objective: As part of research on the heart-brain axis, we investigated the association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with brain structure and function in a community-based cohort of middle-aged adults from the Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging sub-study of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Approach and results: In a cohort of 634 community-dwelling adults with a mean (range) age of 50.4 (46-52) years, we examined the cross-sectional association of NT-proBNP to total, gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, abnormal WM load and WM integrity, and to cognitive function tests [the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), the Stroop test, and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test]...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859198/non-invasive-biomarkers-of-fetal-brain-development-reflecting-prenatal-stress-an-integrative-multi-scale-multi-species-perspective-on-data-collection-and-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Martin G Frasch, Silvia Lobmaier, Tamara Stampalija, Paula Desplats, María Eugenia Pallarés, Verónica Pastor, Marcela Brocco, Hau-Tieng Wu, Jay Schulkin, Christophe Herry, Andrew Seely, Gerlinde A S Metz, Yoram Louzoun, Marta Antonelli
Prenatal stress (PS) impacts early postnatal behavioural and cognitive development. This process of 'fetal programming' is mediated by the effects of the prenatal experience on the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). We derive a multi-scale multi-species approach to devising preclinical and clinical studies to identify early non-invasively available pre- and postnatal biomarkers of PS. The multiple scales include brain epigenome, metabolome, microbiome and the ANS activity gauged via an array of advanced non-invasively obtainable properties of fetal heart rate fluctuations...
May 30, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29794287/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-the-effects-on-state-and-trait-anxiety-and-the-autonomic-nervous-system-during-induced-rectal-distensions-an-uncontrolled-trial
#5
Hanna Edebol-Carlman, Martien Schrooten, Brjánn Ljótsson, Katja Boersma, Steven Linton, Robert Jan Brummer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is a common multifactorial gastrointestinal disorder linked to disturbances in the microbe gut-brain axis. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), in face-to-face format has showed promising results on IBS and its associated psychological symptoms. The present study explored for the first time if CBT for IBS affects the autonomic nervous system (ANS) during experimentally induced visceral pain and cognitive stress, respectively. The levels of state and trait anxiety, current and perceived stress were also evaluated...
January 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786749/long-noncoding-rna-myocardial-infarction%C3%A2-associated-transcript-is-associated-with-the-microrna%C3%A2-150%C3%A2-5p-p300-pathway-in-cardiac-hypertrophy
#6
Zhao Li, Yamin Liu, Xiaofan Guo, Guozhe Sun, Qun Ma, Ying Dai, Guangshuo Zhu, Yingxian Sun
In numerous diseases, abnormal expression of myocardial infarction‑associated transcript (MIAT) has been reported to be involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration. However, whether this long non‑coding RNA MIAT has a regulatory effect on heart hypertrophy requires further investigation. To this end, the present study evaluated MIAT in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo. Neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) were induced by isoproterenol (ISO) to create a cell hypertrophy model, and mice were intraperitoneally injected with ISO to establish an animal model...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732365/corticosteroids-in-pediatric-heart-surgery-myth-or-reality
#7
REVIEW
Daniel P Fudulu, Ben Gibbison, Thomas Upton, Serban C Stoica, Massimo Caputo, Stafford Lightman, Gianni D Angelini
Background: Corticosteroids have been administered prophylactically for more than 60 years in pediatric heart surgery, however, their use remains a matter of debate. There are three main indications for corticosteroid use in pediatric heart surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB): (1) to blunt the systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) induced by the extracorporeal circuit; (2) to provide perioperative supplementation for presumed relative adrenal insufficiency; (3) for the presumed neuroprotective effect during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest operations...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682594/the-role-of-leptin-in-maintaining-plasma-glucose-during-starvation
#8
Rachel J Perry, Gerald I Shulman
For 20 years it has been known that concentrations of leptin, a hormone produced by the white adipose tissue (WAT) largely in proportion to body fat, drops precipitously with starvation, particularly in lean humans and animals. The role of leptin to suppress the thyroid and reproductive axes during a prolonged fast has been well defined; however, the impact of leptin on metabolic regulation has been incompletely understood. However emerging evidence suggests that, in starvation, hypoleptinemia increases activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting WAT lipolysis, increasing hepatic acetyl-CoA concentrations, and maintaining euglycemia...
March 2018: Postdoc Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670580/the-roles-of-kisspeptin-system-in-the-reproductive-physiology-of-fish-with-special-reference-to-chub-mackerel-studies-as-main-axis
#9
REVIEW
Hirofumi Ohga, Sethu Selvaraj, Michiya Matsuyama
Kisspeptin, a novel neuropeptide product of the Kiss1 gene, activates the G protein-coupled membrane receptor G protein-coupled receptor 54 (now termed Kiss1r). Over the last 15 years, the importance of the kisspeptin system has been the subject of much debate in the mammalian research field. At the heart of the debate is whether kisspeptin is an absolute upstream regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, as it has been proposed to be the master molecule in reproductive events and plays a special role not only during puberty but also in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616741/avian-models-and-the-study-of-invariant-asymmetry-how-the-chicken-and-the-egg-taught-us-to-tell-right-from-left
#10
Anne H Monsoro-Burq, Michael Levin
While the external vertebrate body plan appears bilaterally symmetrical with respect to anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes, the internal organs are arranged with a striking and invariant left-right asymmetry. This laterality is important for normal body function, as alterations manifest as numerous human birth defect syndromes. The left-right axis is set up very early during embryogenesis by an initial and still poorly understood break in bilateral symmetry, followed by a cascade of molecular events that was discovered 20 years ago in the chick embryo model...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593576/vagus-nerve-as-modulator-of-the-brain-gut-axis-in-psychiatric-and-inflammatory-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Sigrid Breit, Aleksandra Kupferberg, Gerhard Rogler, Gregor Hasler
The vagus nerve represents the main component of the parasympathetic nervous system, which oversees a vast array of crucial bodily functions, including control of mood, immune response, digestion, and heart rate. It establishes one of the connections between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract and sends information about the state of the inner organs to the brain via afferent fibers. In this review article, we discuss various functions of the vagus nerve which make it an attractive target in treating psychiatric and gastrointestinal disorders...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455773/takotsubo-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Sanjiv Gupta, Madan Mohan Gupta
Takotsubo syndrome is a reversible acute heart failure frequently precipitated by an emotional or physical stress. The clinical presentation resembles acute coronary syndrome. Pathogenesis is complex and may involve brain-heart axis and neuro-hormonal stunning of the myocardium. Coronary angiography reveals normal epicardial arteries with no obstruction or spasm. NT-ProBNP maybe remarkably elevated. Regional wall motion akinesia (RWMA) of left ventricle extends beyond the territory of one coronary artery. Reduced left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and RWMA recover in 6-12 weeks...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447999/late-heartbeat-evoked-potentials-are-associated-with-survival-after-cardiac-arrest
#13
André Schulz, Pascal Stammet, Angelika M Dierolf, Claus Vögele, Stefan Beyenburg, Christophe Werer, Yvan Devaux
RATIONALE: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a serious condition characterized by high mortality rates, even after initial successful resuscitation, mainly due to neurological damage. Whether brain-heart communication is associated with outcome after CA is unknown. Heartbeat-evoked brain potentials (HEPs) represent neurophysiological indicators of brain-heart communication. The aim of this study was to address the association between HEPs and survival after CA. METHODS: HEPs were calculated from resting EEG/ECG in 55 CA patients 24 h after resuscitation...
May 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429352/-extraadrenal-glucocorticoid-synthesis
#14
REVIEW
Ágnes Szappanos, Katalin Mészáros, Zsolt Nagy, Annamária Kövesdi, István Likó, Emese Kiss, Miklós Tóth, Attila Patócs
Endogenous glucocorticoids exert a diverse array of physiological processes and play an important role in immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory responses. The secretion of cortisol by the adrenal gland is regulated through two mechanisms. Systemic regulation is substantiating by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Furthermore, a tissue-specific local regulatory system, containing the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme responsible for local glucocorticoid synthesis and the glucocorticoid receptor, has also been demonstrated...
February 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423064/melatonin-attenuated-brain-death-tissue-extract-induced-cardiac-damage-by-suppressing-damp-signaling
#15
Pei-Hsun Sung, Fan-Yen Lee, Ling-Chun Lin, Kuan-Hung Chen, Hung-Sheng Lin, Pei-Lin Shao, Yi-Chen Li, Yi-Ling Chen, Kun-Chen Lin, Chun-Man Yuen, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
We tested the hypothesis that melatonin prevents brain death (BD) tissue extract (BDEX)-induced cardiac damage by suppressing inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling in rats. Six hours after BD induction, levels of a DAMP component (HMGB1) and inflammatory markers (TLR-2, TLR-4, MYD88, IκB, NF-κB, IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) were higher in brain tissue from BD animals than controls. Levels of HMGB1 and inflammatory markers were higher in BDEX-treated H9C2 cardiac myoblasts than in cells treated with healthy brain tissue extract...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351514/the-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-mas-axis-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-focus-on-angiotensin-1-7
#16
Robson Augusto Souza Santos, Walkyria Oliveira Sampaio, Andreia C Alzamora, Daisy Motta-Santos, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader, Maria Jose Campagnole-Santos
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a key player in the control of the cardiovascular system and hydroelectrolyte balance, with an influence on organs and functions throughout the body. The classical view of this system saw it as a sequence of many enzymatic steps that culminate in the production of a single biologically active metabolite, the octapeptide angiotensin (ANG) II, by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). The past two decades have revealed new functions for some of the intermediate products, beyond their roles as substrates along the classical route...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348018/myocardial-inflammation-predicts-remodeling-and-neuroinflammation-after-myocardial-infarction
#17
James T Thackeray, Henri C Hupe, Yong Wang, Jens P Bankstahl, Georg Berding, Tobias L Ross, Johann Bauersachs, Kai C Wollert, Frank M Bengel
BACKGROUND: The local inflammatory tissue response after acute myocardial infarction (MI) determines subsequent healing. Systemic interaction may induce neuroinflammation as a precursor to neurodegeneration. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the influence of MI on cardiac and brain inflammation using noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) of the heart-brain axis. METHODS: After coronary artery ligation or sham surgery, mice (n = 49) underwent serial whole-body PET imaging of the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) as a marker of activated macrophages and microglia...
January 23, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316515/the-body-burden-and-thyroid-disruption-in-lizards-eremias-argus-living-in-benzoylurea-pesticides-contaminated-soil
#18
Jing Chang, Jitong Li, Weiyu Hao, Huili Wang, Wei Li, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Yinghuan Wang, Peng Xu
Dermal exposure is regarded as a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticides uptake in terrestrial reptiles. In this study, a native Chinese lizard was exposed to control, diflubenzuron or flufenoxuron contaminated soil (1.5 mg kg-1 ) for 35 days. Tissue distribution, liver lesions, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of most target genes were examined. The half-lives of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in the soil were 118.9 and 231.8 days, respectively. The accumulation of flufenoxuron in the liver, brain, kidney, heart, plasma and skin (1...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237468/left-ventricular-synchrony-torsion-and-recoil-mechanics-in-ebstein-s-anomaly-insights-from-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance
#19
Michael Steinmetz, Simon Usenbenz, Johannes Tammo Kowallick, Olga Hösch, Wieland Staab, Torben Lange, Shelby Kutty, Joachim Lotz, Gerd Hasenfuß, Thomas Paul, Andreas Schuster
BACKGROUND: Disease progression and heart failure development in Ebstein's Anomaly (EA) of the tricuspid valve is characterized by both right and left ventricular (LV) deterioration. The mechanisms underlying LV dysfunction and their role in heart failure development are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that LV dyssynchrony and impaired torsion and recoil mechanics induced by paradoxical movement of the basal septum may play a role in heart failure development. METHODS: 31 EA patients and 31 matched controls underwent prospective cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223873/molecular-characterization-and-expression-profiles-of-lpxrfa-at-the-brain-pituitary-gonad-axis-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis-during-ovarian-maturation
#20
Bin Wang, Quan Liu, Xuezhou Liu, Yongjiang Xu, Bao Shi
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has been characterized by its ability to inhibit either basal or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds and mammals. However, the physiological role of GnIH on the reproductive axis in fish remains inconclusive, with most studies focusing on the orders Cypriniformes and Perciformes. To gain insight into the role of GnIH in the regulation of reproduction in the order Pleuronectiformes, we first cloned the LPXRFa gene, the piscine ortholog of GnIH, in the half-smooth tongue sole...
February 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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