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Heart-brain axis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533754/the-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-mas-receptor-axis-pleiotropic-roles-in-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Juanjuan Xu, Jinshuo Fan, Feng Wu, Qi Huang, Mengfei Guo, Zhilei Lv, Jieli Han, Limin Duan, Guorong Hu, Lian Chen, Tingting Liao, Wanli Ma, Xiaonan Tao, Yang Jin
Cancer remains one of the most common causes of death and disability and represents a major economic burden in industrialized nations. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been well-recognized as one of the most important regulators of both normal and pathological physiological processes in the brain, kidney, heart, and blood vessels. The activation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mitochondrial assembly receptor [ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR] axis, which is one component of the RAS, has recently been identified as a critical component of pulmonary systems, gastric mucosa, and cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495578/expression-pattern-and-functional-analysis-of-fundc1-in-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#2
Gongyu Xu, Zhenzhen Li, Jinwen Xiao, Fangqing Li, Weiyuan Ye, Haobin Zhao, Qingchun Zhou, Xueping Zhong
Fundc1 is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and plays important roles in mitochondria fission and hypoxia-induced mitophagy in mammalian cells. However, there is no relevant report of fundc1 in fish. In the present study, we cloned a 942bp fundc1 cDNA from rare minnow. The cDNA, designated as Grfundc1 cDNA, contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 459bp which encodes a polypeptide of 152 amino acid residues. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences demonstrated that Grfundc1 was highly homologous with those of other vertebrates...
May 7, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460516/neuroendocrine-dysregulation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-a-pilot-study
#3
Cristina Stasi, Massimo Bellini, Dario Gambaccini, Emiliano Duranti, Nicola de Bortoli, Bernardo Fani, Eleonora Albano, Salvatore Russo, Isabella Sudano, Giacomo Laffi, Stefano Taddei, Santino Marchi, Rosa Maria Bruno
Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disorder, involving dysregulation of brain-gut axis. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroendocrine activity in IBS. Methods: Thirty IBS and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled. Psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaires. Urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), plasma serotonin, endothelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), plasma, and urinary cortisol levels were evaluated. Fourteen IBS subjects underwent microneurography to obtain multiunit recordings of efferent postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419104/further-characterisation-of-differences-between-tl-and-ab-zebrafish-danio-rerio-gene-expression-physiology-and-behaviour-at-day-5-of-the-larval-stage
#4
Ruud van den Bos, Wouter Mes, Pietro Galligani, Anthony Heil, Jan Zethof, Gert Flik, Marnix Gorissen
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become popular as model organism in research. Many strains are readily available, which not only differ morphologically, but also genetically, physiologically and behaviourally. Here, we focus on the AB and Tupfel long-fin (TL) strain for which we have previously shown that adults differ in baseline hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI)-axis activity (AB higher than TL) affecting inhibitory avoidance behaviour (absent in AB). To assess whether strain differences are already present in early life stages, we compared baseline HPI-axis related gene expression as well as cortisol levels, (neuro)development related as well as (innate) immune system related gene expression, and light-dark as well as startle behaviour in larvae 5 days post fertilisation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249186/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-stress-related-biomarkers
#5
S W N Vogel, D Bijlenga, J Verduijn, T I Bron, A T F Beekman, J J S Kooij, B W J H Penninx
OBJECTIVE: The current study examined whether (a) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms were associated with dysregulation of stress-related mechanisms, and (b) whether ADHD symptoms interact with affective disorders in their association with dysregulated stress-related mechanisms. METHODS: Data were obtained from 2307 subjects participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Stress-related mechanisms were reflected by the following biomarkers: (1) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis indicators (salivary cortisol awakening curve, evening cortisol, cortisol suppression after a 0...
May 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188250/mir30-galnt1-2-axis-mediated-glycosylation-contributes-to-the-increased-secretion-of-inactive-human-prohormone-for-brain-natriuretic-peptide-probnp-from-failing-hearts
#6
Yasuaki Nakagawa, Toshio Nishikimi, Koichiro Kuwahara, Aoi Fujishima, Shogo Oka, Takayoshi Tsutamoto, Hideyuki Kinoshita, Kazuhiro Nakao, Kosai Cho, Hideaki Inazumi, Hiroyuki Okamoto, Motohiro Nishida, Takao Kato, Hiroyuki Fukushima, Jun K Yamashita, Wino J Wijnen, Esther E Creemers, Kenji Kangawa, Naoto Minamino, Kazuwa Nakao, Takeshi Kimura
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that plasma levels of the biologically inactive prohormone for brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) are increased in patients with heart failure. This can contribute to a reduction in the effectiveness of circulating BNP and exacerbate heart failure progression. The precise mechanisms governing the increase in proBNP remain unclear, however. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used our recently developed, highly sensitive human proBNP assay system to investigate the mechanisms underlying the increase in plasma proBNP levels...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154104/heart-brain-axis-effects-of-neurologic-injury-on-cardiovascular-function
#7
REVIEW
Pouya Tahsili-Fahadan, Romergryko G Geocadin
A complex interaction exists between the nervous and cardiovascular systems. A large network of cortical and subcortical brain regions control cardiovascular function via the sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow. A dysfunction in one system may lead to changes in the function of the other. The effects of cardiovascular disease on the nervous system have been widely studied; however, our understanding of the effects of neurological disorders on the cardiovascular system has only expanded in the past 2 decades...
February 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143760/pretreatment-biomarkers-predicting-ptsd-psychotherapy-outcomes-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Peter J Colvonen, Lisa H Glassman, Laura D Crocker, Melissa M Buttner, Henry Orff, Dawn M Schiehser, Sonya B Norman, Niloofar Afari
Although our understanding of the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), brain structure and function, neural networks, stress-related systems, and genetics is growing, there is considerably less attention given to which biological markers predict evidence-based PTSD psychotherapy outcomes. Our systematic PRISMA-informed review of 20 studies examined biomarkers as predictors of evidence-based PTSD psychotherapy outcomes. Results provide preliminary evidence that specific structural and functional neural systems (involved in information processing), glucocorticoid sensitivity and metabolism (part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the response to stress), heart rate (involved with fear habituation), gene methylation, and certain genotypes (associated with serotonin and glucocorticoids) predicted positive response to PTSD treatment...
April 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030578/use-of-ecg-and-other-simple-non-invasive-tools-to-assess-pulmonary-hypertension
#9
Gabor Kovacs, Alexander Avian, Vasile Foris, Maria Tscherner, Xhylsime Kqiku, Philipp Douschan, Gerhard Bachmaier, Andrea Olschewski, Marco Matucci-Cerinic, Horst Olschewski
BACKGROUND: There is a broad consensus that pulmonary hypertension (PH) is to be diagnosed by right heart catheterization (RHC) and that the most important non-invasive tool is echocardiography. However, the role of simple non-invasive tools in the work-up of PH is not clearly defined. We hypothesized that the use of simple non-invasive techniques may help to guide important decisions in the diagnostics of pulmonary hypertension. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop an algorithm with the use of simple, non-invasive tools in order to identify patients with very high or very low likelihood of PH...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996318/brain-natriuretic-peptide-as-a-biomarker-of-asymptomatic-clozapine-related-heart-dysfunction-a-criterion-for-a-more-cautious-administration
#10
Vincenzo Prisco, Petrosino Monica, Germano Fiore, Annamaria Tridente, Antonietta La Rocca, Francesco Catapano, Michele Fabrazzo
Clozapine-related pericarditis is a rare side effect of the drug. We reported the clinical cases of two women, aged 22 and 28 years, affected by schizophrenia with pericarditis symptoms related to clozapine treatment of 200 mg/day. Clozapine was discontinued in both patients, resulting in normalization of the ECG changes, and echocardiography confirmed the progressive disappearance of the pericardial effusion. Interestingly, while inflammatory indices and pro-brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) plasma levels were high in both patients, only one of them showed tachycardia, subjective chest pain, shortness of breath and dyspnea, with a clinical symptomatology suggesting a cardiac involvement...
December 20, 2016: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760011/global-longitudinal-strain-and-strain-rate-in-type-two-diabetes-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-relevance-to-osteoprotegerin
#11
Peter Kruzliak, Alexander Berezin, Alexander Kremzer, Tatyana Samura, Roman Benacka, Ioana Mozos, Emmanuel Egom, Luis Rodrigo
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical stress and inflammatory biomarkers relate to global contractility dysfunction; however, adding these biomarkers into a risk model constructed on clinical data does not improve its prediction value in chronic heart failure (CHF). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether biomarkers predict declining of left ventricular global contractility function in diabetic patients with ischemia-induced CHF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study retrospectively evolved 54 diabetic patients who had systolic or diastolic ischemia-induced CHF that was defined as left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% or 46-55% respectively assessed by quantitative echocardiography and other conventional criteria according to current clinical guidelines...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609370/cardiac-and-carotid-markers-link-with-accelerated-brain-atrophy-the-ages-reykjavik-study-age-gene-environment-susceptibility-reykjavik
#12
Behnam Sabayan, Mark A van Buchem, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Qian Zhang, Osorio Meirelles, Tamara B Harris, Vilmundur Gudnason, Andrew E Arai, Lenore J Launer
OBJECTIVE: Pathologies in the heart-brain axis might, independently or in combination, accelerate the process of brain parenchymal loss. We aimed to investigate the association of serum N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), as a marker of cardiac dysfunction, and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of carotid atherosclerosis burden, with structural brain changes. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In the longitudinal population-based AGES-Reykjavik study (Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik), we included 2430 subjects (mean age, 74...
November 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572147/anisotropic-engineered-heart-tissue-made-from-laser-cut-decellularized-myocardium
#13
Jonas Schwan, Andrea T Kwaczala, Thomas J Ryan, Oscar Bartulos, Yongming Ren, Lorenzo R Sewanan, Aaron H Morris, Daniel L Jacoby, Yibing Qyang, Stuart G Campbell
We have developed an engineered heart tissue (EHT) system that uses laser-cut sheets of decellularized myocardium as scaffolds. This material enables formation of thin muscle strips whose biomechanical characteristics are easily measured and manipulated. To create EHTs, sections of porcine myocardium were laser-cut into ribbon-like shapes, decellularized, and mounted in specialized clips for seeding and culture. Scaffolds were first tested by seeding with neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. EHTs beat synchronously by day five and exhibited robust length-dependent activation by day 21...
August 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553202/getting-to-the-heart-of-intracellular-glucocorticoid-regeneration-11%C3%AE-hsd1-in-the-myocardium
#14
REVIEW
Gillian A Gray, Christopher I White, Raphael F P Castellan, Sara J McSweeney, Karen E Chapman
Corticosteroids influence the development and function of the heart and its response to injury and pressure overload via actions on glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Systemic corticosteroid concentration depends largely on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but glucocorticoid can also be regenerated from intrinsically inert metabolites by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), selectively increasing glucocorticoid levels within cells and tissues...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507004/the-adamts13-von-willebrand-factor-axis-is-involved-in-the-pathophysiology-of-kidney-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
Myung-Gyu Kim, Sung Yoon Lim, Yoon Sook Ko, Hee Young Lee, Sang-Kyung Jo, Won Yong Cho
AIM: The ADAMTS13-von Willebrand factor (vWF) axis has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the heart or brain. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether this axis was involved in the pathophysiology of IRI-induced acute kidney injury. METHODS: We performed renal IRI in ADAMTS13 knockout (KO) or wild type (WT) mice. Functional and histological kidney damage, and inflammation were compared and the effect of anti-vWF antibodies in ADAMTS13 KO mice was assessed...
August 10, 2016: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284532/touch-free-measurement-of-body-temperature-using-close-up-thermography-of-the-ocular-surface
#16
Benjamin Vogel, Heike Wagner, Johanna Gmoser, Anja Wörner, Anna Löschberger, Laura Peters, Anna Frey, Ulrich Hofmann, Stefan Frantz
In experimental animal research body temperature (BT) is measured for the objective determination of an animals' physiological condition. Invasive, probe-based measurements are stressful and can influence experimental outcome. Alternatively BT can be determined touch-free from the emitted heat of the organism at a single spot using infrared thermometers [1]. To get visual confirmation and find more appropriate surfaces for measurement a hand-held thermal imager was equipped with a self-made, cheap, 3D-printable close-up lens system that reproducibly creates eight-time magnified thermal images and improves sensitivity...
2016: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265751/lrrk2-knockdown-in-zebrafish-causes-developmental-defects-neuronal-loss-and-synuclein-aggregation
#17
Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Fatima Zahra Bensabeur, Rashed Abdullah, Indranil Basak, Solange Baez, Guido Alves, Nathalia G Holtzman, Jan Petter Larsen, Simon Geir Møller
Although mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson's disease, their function is largely unknown. LRRK2 is pleiotropic in nature, shown to be involved in neurodegeneration and in more peripheral processes, including kidney functions, in rats and mice. Recent studies in zebrafish have shown conflicting evidence that removal of the LRRK2 WD40 domain may or may not affect dopaminergic neurons and/or locomotion. This study shows that ∼50% LRRK2 knockdown in zebrafish causes not only neuronal loss but also developmental perturbations such as axis curvature defects, ocular abnormalities, and edema in the eyes, lens, and otic vesicles...
August 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217924/parachute-jumping-induces-more-sympathetic-activation-than-cortisol-secretion-in-first-time-parachutists
#18
Giovanni Messina, Sergio Chieffi, Andrea Viggiano, Domenico Tafuri, Giuseppe Cibelli, Anna Valenzano, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Antonietta Messina, Vincenzo De Luca, Marcellino Monda
BACKGROUND: The word "stress" describes the status of the body affected by external or internal forces, or "stressors", threatening to alter its dynamic balance or homeostasis. The adaptive changes which occur in reply to stressors are either behavioral or physical. Once a given threshold is surpassed, a systemic reaction takes place involving the "stress system" in the brain together with its peripheral components, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic sympathetic. OBJECTIVES: Stress induces an activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110876/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-stimulation-by-clofibrate-favors-an-antioxidant-and-vasodilator-environment-in-a-stressed-left-ventricle
#19
Luz Ibarra-Lara, Leonardo Del Valle-Mondragón, Elizabeth Soria-Castro, Juan C Torres-Narváez, Francisca Pérez-Severiano, María Sánchez-Aguilar, Margarita Ramírez-Ortega, Luz G Cervantes-Pérez, Gustavo S Pastelín-Hernández, Víctor H Oidor-Chan, Gabriela Zarco-Olvera, Alicia Sánchez-Mendoza
BACKGROUND: Arterial high blood pressure is a risk factor for target organ damage; the most susceptible organs are the arteries, brain, kidneys, and heart. The damage mechanisms include oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) overactivity. Therefore, our aim was to study whether clofibrate-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) stimulation is able to prevent alterations in cardiac functioning derived from RAS overstimulation in the left ventricle of rats with hypertension secondary to aortic coarctation and to improve antioxidant defenses...
August 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010234/vagal-tone-effects-on-sensitivity-motility-and-inflammation
#20
REVIEW
B Bonaz, V Sinniger, S Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is a key element of the autonomic nervous system. As a mixed nerve, the VN contributes to the bidirectional interactions between the brain and the gut, i.e., the brain-gut axis. In particular, after integration in the central autonomic network of peripheral sensations such as inflammation and pain via vagal and spinal afferents, an efferent response through modulation of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and/or preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord is able to modulate gastrointestinal nociception, motility, and inflammation...
April 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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