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Heart-brain axis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237468/left-ventricular-synchrony-torsion-and-recoil-mechanics-in-ebstein-s-anomaly-insights-from-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance
#1
Michael Steinmetz, Simon Usenbenz, Johannes Tammo Kowallick, Olga Hösch, Wieland Staab, Torben Lange, Shelby Kutty, Joachim Lotz, Gerd Hasenfuß, Thomas Paul, Andreas Schuster
BACKGROUND: Disease progression and heart failure development in Ebstein's Anomaly (EA) of the tricuspid valve is characterized by both right and left ventricular (LV) deterioration. The mechanisms underlying LV dysfunction and their role in heart failure development are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that LV dyssynchrony and impaired torsion and recoil mechanics induced by paradoxical movement of the basal septum may play a role in heart failure development. METHODS: 31 EA patients and 31 matched controls underwent prospective cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223873/molecular-characterization-and-expression-profiles-of-lpxrfa-at-the-brain-pituitary-gonad-axis-of-half-smooth-tongue-sole-cynoglossus-semilaevis-during-ovarian-maturation
#2
Bin Wang, Quan Liu, Xuezhou Liu, Yongjiang Xu, Bao Shi
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has been characterized by its ability to inhibit either basal or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced gonadotropin synthesis and release in birds and mammals. However, the physiological role of GnIH on the reproductive axis in fish remains inconclusive, with most studies focusing on the orders Cypriniformes and Perciformes. To gain insight into the role of GnIH in the regulation of reproduction in the order Pleuronectiformes, we first cloned the LPXRFa gene, the piscine ortholog of GnIH, in the half-smooth tongue sole...
December 6, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199079/nociceptive-cortical-activity-is-dissociated-from-nociceptive-behavior-in-newborn-human-infants-under-stress
#3
Laura Jones, Lorenzo Fabrizi, Maria Laudiano-Dray, Kimberley Whitehead, Judith Meek, Madeleine Verriotis, Maria Fitzgerald
Newborn infants display strong nociceptive behavior in response to tissue damaging stimuli, and this is accompanied by nociceptive activity generated in subcortical and cortical areas of the brain [1, 2]. In the absence of verbal report, these nociceptive responses are used as measures of pain sensation in newborn humans, as they are in animals [3, 4]. However, many infants are raised in a physiologically stressful environment, and little is known about the effect of background levels of stress upon their pain responses...
November 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190687/leptin-reverses-hyperglycemia-and-hyperphagia-in-insulin-deficient-diabetic-rats-by-pituitary-independent-central-nervous-system-actions
#4
Alexandre A da Silva, John E Hall, Jussara M do Carmo
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been postulated to play a major role in mediating the antidiabetic effects of leptin. We tested if the pituitary is essential for the chronic central nervous system mediated actions of leptin on metabolic and cardiovascular function in insulin-dependent diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Male 12-week-old hypophysectomized Sprague-Dawley rats (Hypo, n = 5) were instrumented with telemetry probes for determination of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) 24-hrs/day and an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula was placed into the brain lateral ventricle for continuous leptin infusion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163357/a-journey-through-the-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone-system-of-fish
#5
REVIEW
José A Muñoz-Cueto, José A Paullada-Salmerón, María Aliaga-Guerrero, Mairi E Cowan, Ishwar S Parhar, Takayoshi Ubuka
Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that belongs to the RFamide peptide family and was first identified in the quail brain. From the discovery of avian GnIH, orthologous GnIH peptides have been reported in a variety of vertebrates, including mammals, amphibians, teleosts and agnathans, but also in protochordates. It has been clearly established that GnIH suppresses reproduction in avian and mammalian species through its inhibitory actions on brain GnRH and pituitary gonadotropins...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113858/differences-in-blood-pressure-by-measurement-technique-in-neurocritically-ill-patients-a-technological-assessment
#6
Abhijit V Lele, Daren Wilson, Prabhakar Chalise, Jules Nazzaro, Vijay Krishnamoorthy, Monica S Vavilala
Blood pressure data may vary by measurement technique. We performed a technological assessment of differences in blood pressure measurement between non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) and invasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) in neurocritically ill patients. After IRB approval, a prospective observational study was performed to study differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) values measured by NIBP arm, ABP at level of the phlebostatic axis (ABP heart) and ABP at level of the external auditory meatus (ABP brain) at 30 and 45-degree head of bed elevation (HOB) using repeated measure analysis of covariance and correlation coefficients...
November 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097844/ataxia-telangiectasia-and-rad3-related-atr-promyelocytic-leukemia-protein-pml-pathway-of-the-dna-damage-response-in-the-brain-of-rats-administered-arsenic-trioxide
#7
Ryo Watanabe, Kana Unuma, Kanako Noritake, Takeshi Funakoshi, Toshihiko Aki, Koichi Uemura
To examine the in vivo responses of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) to arsenic, rats (male, 6 weeks old, Sprague Dawley) were administered a single intraperitoneal dose of 5 mg/kg arsenic trioxide (ATO). The protein was examined in the heart, lung, liver, and brain 6 and 48 hours after administration: a significant response of PML was observed in the brain. Oxidative DNA modification was also observed in the brain as revealed by increased immunoreactivity to anti-8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) antibody...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021708/effects-of-ginseng-on-stress-related-depression-anxiety-and-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#8
REVIEW
Seungyeop Lee, Dong-Kwon Rhee
Ginseng effectively regulates the immune response and the hormonal changes due to stress, thus maintaining homeostasis. In addition to suppressing the occurrence of psychological diseases such as anxiety and depression, ginseng also prevents stress-associated physiological diseases. Recent findings have revealed that ginseng is involved in adjusting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and controlling hormones, thus producing beneficial effects on the heart and brain, and in cases of bone diseases, as well as alleviating erectile dysfunction...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017156/the-missing-link-in-the-pathophysiology-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-design-of-the-heart-brain-study
#9
Astrid M Hooghiemstra, Anne Suzanne Bertens, Anna E Leeuwis, Esther E Bron, Michiel L Bots, Hans-Peter Brunner-La Rocca, Anton J M de Craen, Rob J van der Geest, Jacoba P Greving, L Jaap Kappelle, Wiro J Niessen, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Matthias J P van Osch, Albert de Roos, Albert C van Rossum, Geert Jan Biessels, Mark A van Buchem, Mat J A P Daemen, Wiesje M van der Flier
BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic balance in the heart-brain axis is increasingly recognized as a crucial factor in maintaining functional and structural integrity of the brain and thereby cognitive functioning. Patients with heart failure (HF), carotid occlusive disease (COD), and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) present themselves with complaints attributed to specific parts of the heart-brain axis, but hemodynamic changes often go beyond the part of the axis for which they primarily seek medical advice...
October 10, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984668/brain-heart-interactions-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Ayman El-Menyar, Abhishek Goyal, Rifat Latifi, Hassan Al-Thani, William Frishman
The cardiovascular manifestations associated with nontraumatic head disorders are commonly known. Similar manifestations have been reported in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the underlying mechanisms and impact on the patient's clinical outcomes are not well explored. The neurocardiac axis theory and neurogenic stunned myocardium phenomenon could partly explain the brain-heart link and interactions and can thus pave the way to a better understanding and management of TBI. Several observational retrospective studies have shown a promising role for beta-adrenergic blockers in patients with TBI in reducing the overall TBI-related mortality...
November 2017: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818859/renal-denervation-suppresses-coronary-hyperconstricting-responses-after-drug-eluting-stent-implantation-in-pigs-in-vivo-through-the-kidney-brain-heart-axis
#11
Hironori Uzuka, Yasuharu Matsumoto, Kensuke Nishimiya, Kazuma Ohyama, Hideaki Suzuki, Hirokazu Amamizu, Susumu Morosawa, Michinori Hirano, Tomohiko Shindo, Yoku Kikuchi, Kiyotaka Hao, Takashi Shiroto, Kenta Ito, Jun Takahashi, Koji Fukuda, Satoshi Miyata, Yoshihito Funaki, Hatsue Ishibashi-Ueda, Satoshi Yasuda, Hiroaki Shimokawa
OBJECTIVE: Drug-eluting stent-induced coronary hyperconstricting responses remain an important issue. The adventitia harbors a variety of components that potently modulate vascular tone, including sympathetic nerve fibers (SNF) and vasa vasorum. Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) inhibits sympathetic nerve activity. We, thus, examined whether RDN suppresses drug-eluting stent-induced coronary hyperconstricting responses, and if so, what mechanisms are involved. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Protocol 1: pigs implanted with everolimus-eluting stents into the left coronary arteries underwent coronary angiography at 1 month after implantation for assessment of coronary vasomotion and adventitial SNF formation...
October 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775014/brain-heart-interaction-cardiac-complications-after-stroke
#12
REVIEW
Zhili Chen, Poornima Venkat, Don Seyfried, Michael Chopp, Tao Yan, Jieli Chen
Neurocardiology is an emerging specialty that addresses the interaction between the brain and the heart, that is, the effects of cardiac injury on the brain and the effects of brain injury on the heart. This review article focuses on cardiac dysfunction in the setting of stroke such as ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of post-stroke deaths are attributed to neurological damage, and cardiovascular complications are the second leading cause of post-stroke mortality...
August 4, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710231/tuberin-regulates-prostaglandin-receptor-mediated-viability-via-rheb-in-mtorc1-hyperactive-cells
#13
Chenggang Li, Xiaolei Liu, Yang Liu, Erik Zhang, Kantha Medepalli, Kouhei Masuda, Na Li, Kathryn A Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Andrew Osterburg, Michael T Borchers, Elizabeth J Kopras, David R Plas, Julia Sun, David N Franz, Jamie K Capal, Maxwell Mays, Yang Sun, David J Kwiatkowski, Anya Alayev, Marina K Holz, Darcy A Krueger, Brian J Siroky, Jane J Yu
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a tumor-suppressor syndrome affecting multiple organs, including the brain, skin, kidneys, heart, and lungs. TSC is associated with mutations in TSC1 or TSC2, resulting in hyperactivation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). Clinical trials demonstrate that mTORC1 inhibitors decrease tumor volume and stabilize lung function in TSC patients; however, mTOR inhibitors are cytostatic not cytocidal, and long-term benefits and toxicities are uncertain. Previously, we identified rapamycin-insensitive upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2/COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in TSC2-deficient cells and postulated that the action of excess PGE2 and its cognate receptors (EP) contributes to cell survival...
October 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677514/-cardiologists-should-take-this-to-heart-doctors-often-do-not-recognise-stress-as-a-risk-factor-for-cardiovascular-disease
#14
P M J C Kuijpers
The strong association between distress and heart disease is frequently in the news, for example when a celebrity dies after terrible news such as death of a child. Researchers in the Netherlands found that high scores on the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire after a myocardial infarction lead to an increased risk of new cardiac events, regardless of underlying cardiac disease severity. Although the brain-heart axis is well known in literature, it is hardly a common subject in daily clinical cardiac practice. Signs and symptoms frequently lead to an 'oculostenotic reflex' instead of proper mental diagnosis...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555651/heart-failure-macrophages-take-centre-stage-in-the-heart-brain-kidney-axis
#15
Herman H W Silljé, Rudolf A de Boer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541811/future-drug-discovery-in-renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system-intervention
#16
REVIEW
Maria Tamargo, Juan Tamargo
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASIs), including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), are the cornerstone for the treatment of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Areas covered: The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify eligible full-text English language papers. Herein, the authors discuss AT2-receptor agonists and ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas-receptor axis modulators, direct renin inhibitors, brain aminopeptidase A inhibitors, biased AT1R blockers, chymase inhibitors, multitargeted drugs, vaccines and aldosterone receptor antagonists as well as aldosterone synthase inhibitors...
August 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537443/pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a-papp-a-and-the-proform-of-the-eosinophil-major-basic-protein-prombp-are-associated-with-increased-risk-of-death-in-heart-failure-patients
#17
Maja Dembic, Paula L Hedley, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Lars Køber, Michael Christiansen
Risk stratification and patient management in heart failure (HF) is difficult due to the unpredictable progression of the disease, necessitating the development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers to facilitate decision-making in clinical practice. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a marker of arteriosclerotic heart disease. PAPP-A is a serum protease, which is involved in the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis where it is inhibited by the proform of the eosinophil major basic protein (proMBP)...
May 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533754/the-ace2-angiotensin-1-7-mas-receptor-axis-pleiotropic-roles-in-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Juanjuan Xu, Jinshuo Fan, Feng Wu, Qi Huang, Mengfei Guo, Zhilei Lv, Jieli Han, Limin Duan, Guorong Hu, Lian Chen, Tingting Liao, Wanli Ma, Xiaonan Tao, Yang Jin
Cancer remains one of the most common causes of death and disability and represents a major economic burden in industrialized nations. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been well-recognized as one of the most important regulators of both normal and pathological physiological processes in the brain, kidney, heart, and blood vessels. The activation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin-(1-7)/mitochondrial assembly receptor [ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/MasR] axis, which is one component of the RAS, has recently been identified as a critical component of pulmonary systems, gastric mucosa, and cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495578/expression-pattern-and-functional-analysis-of-fundc1-in-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus
#19
Gongyu Xu, Zhenzhen Li, Jinwen Xiao, Fangqing Li, Weiyuan Ye, Haobin Zhao, Qingchun Zhou, Xueping Zhong
Fundc1 is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein and plays important roles in mitochondria fission and hypoxia-induced mitophagy in mammalian cells. However, there is no relevant report of fundc1 in fish. In the present study, we cloned a 942bp fundc1 cDNA from rare minnow. The cDNA, designated as Grfundc1 cDNA, contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 459bp which encodes a polypeptide of 152 amino acid residues. Comparisons of deduced amino acid sequences demonstrated that Grfundc1 was highly homologous with those of other vertebrates...
August 30, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460516/neuroendocrine-dysregulation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-a-pilot-study
#20
Cristina Stasi, Massimo Bellini, Dario Gambaccini, Emiliano Duranti, Nicola de Bortoli, Bernardo Fani, Eleonora Albano, Salvatore Russo, Isabella Sudano, Giacomo Laffi, Stefano Taddei, Santino Marchi, Rosa Maria Bruno
Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial disorder, involving dysregulation of brain-gut axis. Our aim was to evaluate the neuroendocrine activity in IBS. Methods: Thirty IBS and 30 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Psychological symptoms were evaluated by questionnaires. Urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, plasma serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), endothelin, and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and plasma and urinary cortisol levels were evaluated...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
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