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Heart-brain axis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760011/global-longitudinal-strain-and-strain-rate-in-type-two-diabetes-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure-relevance-to-osteoprotegerin
#1
Peter Kruzliak, Alexander Berezin, Alexander Kremzer, Tatyana Samura, Roman Benacka, Ioana Mozos, Emmanuel Egom, Luis Rodrigo
BACKGROUND: Biomechanical stress and inflammatory biomarkers relate to global contractility dysfunction; however, adding these biomarkers into a risk model constructed on clinical data does not improve its prediction value in chronic heart failure (CHF). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether biomarkers predict declining of left ventricular global contractility function in diabetic patients with ischemia-induced CHF. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study retrospectively evolved 54 diabetic patients who had systolic or diastolic ischemia-induced CHF that was defined as left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% or 46-55% respectively assessed by quantitative echocardiography and other conventional criteria according to current clinical guidelines...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609370/cardiac-and-carotid-markers-link-with-accelerated-brain-atrophy-the-ages-reykjavik-study-age-gene-environment-susceptibility-reykjavik
#2
Behnam Sabayan, Mark A van Buchem, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Qian Zhang, Osorio Meirelles, Tamara B Harris, Vilmundur Gudnason, Andrew E Arai, Lenore J Launer
OBJECTIVE: Pathologies in the heart-brain axis might, independently or in combination, accelerate the process of brain parenchymal loss. We aimed to investigate the association of serum N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), as a marker of cardiac dysfunction, and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of carotid atherosclerosis burden, with structural brain changes. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In the longitudinal population-based AGES-Reykjavik study (Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik), we included 2430 subjects (mean age, 74...
November 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27572147/anisotropic-engineered-heart-tissue-made-from-laser-cut-decellularized-myocardium
#3
Jonas Schwan, Andrea T Kwaczala, Thomas J Ryan, Oscar Bartulos, Yongming Ren, Lorenzo R Sewanan, Aaron H Morris, Daniel L Jacoby, Yibing Qyang, Stuart G Campbell
We have developed an engineered heart tissue (EHT) system that uses laser-cut sheets of decellularized myocardium as scaffolds. This material enables formation of thin muscle strips whose biomechanical characteristics are easily measured and manipulated. To create EHTs, sections of porcine myocardium were laser-cut into ribbon-like shapes, decellularized, and mounted in specialized clips for seeding and culture. Scaffolds were first tested by seeding with neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. EHTs beat synchronously by day five and exhibited robust length-dependent activation by day 21...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553202/getting-to-the-heart-of-intracellular-glucocorticoid-regeneration-11%C3%AE-hsd1-in-the-myocardium
#4
REVIEW
Gillian A Gray, Christopher I White, Raphael F P Castellan, Sara J McSweeney, Karen E Chapman
Corticosteroids influence the development and function of the heart and its response to injury and pressure overload via actions on glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Systemic corticosteroid concentration depends largely on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but glucocorticoid can also be regenerated from intrinsically inert metabolites by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), selectively increasing glucocorticoid levels within cells and tissues...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507004/the-adamts13-von-willebrand-factor-axis-is-involved-in-the-pathophysiology-of-kidney-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Myung-Gyu Kim, Sung Yoon Lim, Yoon Sook Ko, Hee Young Lee, Sang-Kyung Jo, Won Yong Cho
AIM: The ADAMTS13-von Willebrand factor (vWF) axis has been suggested to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the heart or brain. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether this axis was involved in the pathophysiology of IRI-induced acute kidney injury. METHODS: We performed renal IRI in ADAMTS13 knockout (KO) or wild type (WT) mice. Functional and histological kidney damage, and inflammation were compared and the effect of anti-vWF antibodies in ADAMTS13 KO mice was assessed...
August 10, 2016: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284532/touch-free-measurement-of-body-temperature-using-close-up-thermography-of-the-ocular-surface
#6
Benjamin Vogel, Heike Wagner, Johanna Gmoser, Anja Wörner, Anna Löschberger, Laura Peters, Anna Frey, Ulrich Hofmann, Stefan Frantz
In experimental animal research body temperature (BT) is measured for the objective determination of an animals' physiological condition. Invasive, probe-based measurements are stressful and can influence experimental outcome. Alternatively BT can be determined touch-free from the emitted heat of the organism at a single spot using infrared thermometers [1]. To get visual confirmation and find more appropriate surfaces for measurement a hand-held thermal imager was equipped with a self-made, cheap, 3D-printable close-up lens system that reproducibly creates eight-time magnified thermal images and improves sensitivity...
2016: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265751/lrrk2-knockdown-in-zebrafish-causes-developmental-defects-neuronal-loss-and-synuclein-aggregation
#7
Shubhangi Prabhudesai, Fatima Zahra Bensabeur, Rashed Abdullah, Indranil Basak, Solange Baez, Guido Alves, Nathalia G Holtzman, Jan Petter Larsen, Simon Geir Møller
Although mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson's disease, their function is largely unknown. LRRK2 is pleiotropic in nature, shown to be involved in neurodegeneration and in more peripheral processes, including kidney functions, in rats and mice. Recent studies in zebrafish have shown conflicting evidence that removal of the LRRK2 WD40 domain may or may not affect dopaminergic neurons and/or locomotion. This study shows that ∼50% LRRK2 knockdown in zebrafish causes not only neuronal loss but also developmental perturbations such as axis curvature defects, ocular abnormalities, and edema in the eyes, lens, and otic vesicles...
August 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217924/parachute-jumping-induces-more-sympathetic-activation-than-cortisol-secretion-in-first-time-parachutists
#8
Giovanni Messina, Sergio Chieffi, Andrea Viggiano, Domenico Tafuri, Giuseppe Cibelli, Anna Valenzano, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, Antonietta Messina, Vincenzo De Luca, Marcellino Monda
BACKGROUND: The word "stress" describes the status of the body affected by external or internal forces, or "stressors", threatening to alter its dynamic balance or homeostasis. The adaptive changes which occur in reply to stressors are either behavioral or physical. Once a given threshold is surpassed, a systemic reaction takes place involving the "stress system" in the brain together with its peripheral components, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic sympathetic. OBJECTIVES: Stress induces an activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
March 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110876/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-stimulation-by-clofibrate-favors-an-antioxidant-and-vasodilator-environment-in-a-stressed-left-ventricle
#9
Luz Ibarra-Lara, Leonardo Del Valle-Mondragón, Elizabeth Soria-Castro, Juan C Torres-Narváez, Francisca Pérez-Severiano, María Sánchez-Aguilar, Margarita Ramírez-Ortega, Luz G Cervantes-Pérez, Gustavo S Pastelín-Hernández, Víctor H Oidor-Chan, Gabriela Zarco-Olvera, Alicia Sánchez-Mendoza
BACKGROUND: Arterial high blood pressure is a risk factor for target organ damage; the most susceptible organs are the arteries, brain, kidneys, and heart. The damage mechanisms include oxidative stress and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) overactivity. Therefore, our aim was to study whether clofibrate-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) stimulation is able to prevent alterations in cardiac functioning derived from RAS overstimulation in the left ventricle of rats with hypertension secondary to aortic coarctation and to improve antioxidant defenses...
August 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010234/vagal-tone-effects-on-sensitivity-motility-and-inflammation
#10
REVIEW
B Bonaz, V Sinniger, S Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is a key element of the autonomic nervous system. As a mixed nerve, the VN contributes to the bidirectional interactions between the brain and the gut, i.e., the brain-gut axis. In particular, after integration in the central autonomic network of peripheral sensations such as inflammation and pain via vagal and spinal afferents, an efferent response through modulation of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and/or preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord is able to modulate gastrointestinal nociception, motility, and inflammation...
April 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006525/why-current-doppler-ultrasound-methodology-is-inaccurate-in-assessing-cerebral-venous-return-the-alternative-of-the-ultrasonic-jugular-venous-pulse
#11
REVIEW
Paolo Zamboni
Assessment of cerebral venous return is growing interest for potential application in clinical practice. Doppler ultrasound (DUS) was used as a screening tool. However, three meta-analyses of qualitative DUS protocol demonstrate a big heterogeneity among studies. In an attempt to improve accuracy, several authors alternatively measured the flow rate, based on the product of the time average velocity with the cross-sectional area (CSA). However, also the quantification protocols lacked of the necessary accuracy...
2016: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26920654/chronic-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-crohn-s-disease-a-6-month-follow-up-pilot-study
#12
B Bonaz, V Sinniger, D Hoffmann, D Clarençon, N Mathieu, C Dantzer, L Vercueil, C Picq, C Trocmé, P Faure, J-L Cracowski, S Pellissier
The vagus nerve (VN) is a link between the brain and the gut. The VN is a mixed nerve with anti-inflammatory properties through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by its afferents and by activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway through its efferents. We have previously shown that VN stimulation (VNS) improves colitis in rats and that the vagal tone is blunted in Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We thus performed a pilot study of chronic VNS in patients with active CD. Seven patients under VNS were followed up for 6 months with a primary endpoint to induce clinical remission and a secondary endpoint to induce biological (CRP and/or fecal calprotectin) and endoscopic remission and to restore vagal tone (heart rate variability)...
June 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903060/-change-in-serum-follistatin-like-protein-1-and-its-clinical-significance-in-children-with-chronic-heart-failure
#13
Bing-Lu Li, Jin-Dou An, Song Feng, Wei Ge
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the change in the serum level of follistatin-like protein 1 (FSTL1) in children with chronic heart failure and its correlation with left ventricular remodeling. METHODS: A total of 45 children with chronic heart failure (CHF) between May 2014 and May 2015 were selected as the CHF group, among whom 21 had endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) and 24 had dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); another 30 healthy children were selected as the control group...
February 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26759609/exenatide-infusion-decreases-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-levels-by-reducing-cardiac-filling-pressures-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-with-decompensated-congestive-heart-failure
#14
David Nathanson, Mats Frick, Bengt Ullman, Thomas Nyström
BACKGROUND: The vascular effects exerted by GLP-1 are mediated by several synergistic mechanisms such as involvement of nitric oxide and natriuresis. Recently, it was demonstrated that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is essential for the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-stimulated vascular smooth muscle relaxation that mediates anti-hypertensive action in rodents. Therefore a GLP-1-ANP axis has been suggested. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this effect can be demonstrated in patients with type 2 diabetes and congestive heart failure...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26749902/-structure-and-function-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-health-and-disease-130-years-after-theodor-escherich
#15
REVIEW
Seppo Meri, Willem de Vos
Since early life we are colonized by developing communities of microbes that dominate our body in great numbers. In the intestinal tract they constitute the largest microbial ecosystem close to our heart: our microbes inside. Recent studies have shown that these microbes, collectively termed microbiota, are essential for our health through interacting with our gut, gut-liver and gut-brain axis, and our immune system. Hence this contribution deals with these aspects and provides an overview of the structure and function of the microbiota as well as the impact on future therapies ranging from fecal transplantations to the use of a synthetic microbiome...
2015: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26715569/an-88-year-old-man-with-syncope-and-an-alternating-axis
#16
Yun-Tao Zhao, Yen Shu Huang, Zhong Yi
CLINICAL INTRODUCTION: An 88-year-old man, admitted to the emergency room (ER) after three episodes of syncope within 1 day, reported a precursory of syndrome of light-headedness with rapid palpitations that led to an abrupt loss of consciousness. After undergoing percutaneous and surgical revascularisation, he started complaining of chest and back discomfort for the past 20 years and searching for help from Chinese medicine, Fuzi. He had history of chronic renal failure and heart failure, but denied neither taking digitalis nor having family history related to sudden death...
May 15, 2016: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26491703/emergence-of-a-metalloproteinase-phospholipase-a2-axis-of-systemic-inflammation
#17
Carlos Fernandez-Patron, Dickson Leung
We review select aspects of the biology of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) with a focus on the modulation of inflammatory responses by MMP-2. MMP-2 is a zinc- and calcium-dependent endoprotease with substrates including extracellular matrix proteins, vasoactive peptides and chemokines. Humans and mice with MMP-2 deficiency exhibit a predominantly inflammatory phenotype. Recent research shows that MMP-2 deficient mice display elevated activity of a secreted phospholipase A2 in the heart. Additionally, MMP-2 deficient mice exhibit abnormally high prostaglandin E2 levels in various organs (i...
August 13, 2015: Metalloproteinases in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26461208/p2rx7-purinoceptor-a-therapeutic-target-for-ameliorating-the-symptoms-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#18
Anthony Sinadinos, Christopher N J Young, Rasha Al-Khalidi, Anna Teti, Paweł Kalinski, Shafini Mohamad, Léonore Floriot, Tiphaine Henry, Gianluca Tozzi, Taiwen Jiang, Olivier Wurtz, Alexis Lefebvre, Mikhail Shugay, Jie Tong, David Vaudry, Stephen Arkle, Jean-Claude doRego, Dariusz C Górecki
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most common inherited muscle disease, leading to severe disability and death in young men. Death is caused by the progressive degeneration of striated muscles aggravated by sterile inflammation. The pleiotropic effects of the mutant gene also include cognitive and behavioral impairments and low bone density. Current interventions in DMD are palliative only as no treatment improves the long-term outcome. Therefore, approaches with a translational potential should be investigated, and key abnormalities downstream from the absence of the DMD product, dystrophin, appear to be strong therapeutic targets...
October 2015: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26356168/-a-role-of-stress-induced-neuroendocrine-disorders-and-tissue-hypoxia-in-the-thanatogenesis-of-traumatic-intracranial-hematomas
#19
Yu I Kravtsov, K V Shevchenko, E Yu Kravtsova
AIM: To study the dynamics of plasma concentration of stress hormones (ACTH and cortisol) and lactate as well as the integrative stress level indicator at neuroreanimation stage of severe cranial-brain injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Authors examined 34 patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas including 19 patients who died during the first two weeks after admission to the hospital and 15 patients who were discharged for outpatient treatment. To assess stress level, we used the indicator of stress level estimated as body mass x 1/3 x heart rate frequency x pulse pressure x 0,000126...
2015: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26351525/brain-heart-axis-review-article
#20
REVIEW
M M Manea, M Comsa, A Minca, D Dragos, Constantin Popa
UNLABELLED: There has been a large confirmation over the last decades that stroke may produce cardiac changes (echocardiographic, electrocardiographic, enzymatic). In ischemic stroke, systolic dysfunction is associated with a high risk of mortality during hospitalization. A recent study demonstrated that cardiac diastolic dysfunction could also accompany acute stroke besides the systolic dysfunction already pointed out by previous studies, being a predictive marker of acute cerebrovascular events...
July 2015: Journal of Medicine and Life
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