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Megan Brafford May, Ashley E Glode
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is one of the most common symptoms feared by patients, but may be prevented or lessened with appropriate medications. Several antiemetic options exist to manage CINV. Corticosteroids, serotonin receptor antagonists, and neurokinin receptor antagonists are the classes most commonly used in the prevention of CINV. There are many alternative drug classes utilized for the prevention and management of CINV such as antihistamines, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, cannabinoids, and dopamine receptor antagonists...
2016: Cancer Management and Research
Christine A Rabinak, Mike Angstadt, Maryssa Lyons, Shoko Mori, Mohammed R Milad, Israel Liberzon, K Luan Phan
Pre-extinction administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely occurs via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers...
September 2014: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Christine A Rabinak, Mike Angstadt, Chandra S Sripada, James L Abelson, Israel Liberzon, Mohammed R Milad, K Luan Phan
A first-line approach to treat anxiety disorders is exposure-based therapy, which relies on extinction processes such as repeatedly exposing the patient to stimuli (conditioned stimuli; CS) associated with the traumatic, fear-related memory. However, a significant number of patients fail to maintain their gains, partly attributed to the fact that this inhibitory learning and its maintenance is temporary and conditioned fear responses can return. Animal studies have shown that activation of the cannabinoid system during extinction learning enhances fear extinction and its retention...
January 2013: Neuropharmacology
James J Cortright, Daniel S Lorrain, Jeff A Beeler, Wei-Jen Tang, Paul Vezina
Previous exposure to amphetamine leads to enhanced locomotor and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) dopamine (DA) responding to the drug as well as enhanced amphetamine self-administration. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannibinol (Δ(9)-THC) on behavioral and biochemical responding to amphetamine. Rats in different groups received five exposure injections of vehicle or one of five doses of Δ(9)-THC (0.4, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 mg/kg i.p.) and were tested 2 days and 2 weeks later...
June 2011: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Jeremy Davey, James Freeman
OBJECTIVE: Random roadside oral fluid testing is becoming increasingly popular as an apprehension and deterrence-based countermeasure to reduce drug driving. This article outlines research conducted to provide an estimate of the extent of drug driving in a sample of drivers in Brisbane, Queensland. METHODS: Oral fluid samples were collected from 1587 drivers who volunteered to participate at random breath testing (RBT) sites. Illicit substances tested for included cannabis (delta 9 tetrahydrocannibinol [THC]), meth/amphetamines, and cocaine...
June 2009: Traffic Injury Prevention
J Davey, N Leal, J Freeman
Police Services in a number of Australian states have indicated random roadside drug testing will be implemented to target drug driving. This paper outlines research conducted to provide an estimate of the prevalence of drug driving in a sample of Queensland drivers. Oral fluid samples were collected from 781 drivers who volunteered to participate at Random Breath Testing (RBT) sites in a large Queensland regional area. Illicit substances tested for included cannabis (delta 9 tetrahydrocannibinol [THC]), amphetamine type substances, heroin and cocaine...
May 2007: Drug and Alcohol Review
Nissar A Darmani
This chapter briefly describes the physiological neural mechanisms by which diverse neurotransmitter receptor systems control several aspects of gastrointestinal functions such as motility, secretion, feeding, and emesis. The current techniques used to study the effects of cannabinoids on these gastrointestinal functions are then sequentially described, starting with isolated gastrointestinal muscle preparations and ultimately evolving to whole animal models. Both delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol (delta9-THC) and well-studied representatives of other classes of exogenous cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptor agonists inhibit gastrointestinal motility, peristalsis, defecation, and secretions via cannabinoid CB1 receptors since the CB1 (SR141716A)- and not the CB2 (SR144528)-receptor antagonist reverses these effects in a dose-dependent manner...
2006: Methods in Molecular Medicine
David L Burrows, Andrea Nicolaides, Peter J Rice, Michelle Dufforc, David A Johnson, Kenneth E Ferslew
The estimated number of employees in the United Stated screened annually for illicit drugs is approximately 20 million, with marijuana being the most frequently abused drug. Urine adulterants provide an opportunity for illicit drug users to obtain a false-negative result on commonly used primary drug screening methods such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique and the fluorescence polarized immunoassay technique (FPIA). Typical chemical adulterants such as nitrites are easily detected or render the urine specimen invalid as defined in the proposed SAMHSA guidelines for specimen validity testing based on creatinine, specific gravity, and pH...
July 2005: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
J T Cody, S Valtier
Stealth is an adulterant advertised as being undetectable by adulteration tests. It has been described as peroxidase and peroxide, which, when added to urine samples, are intended to prevent a positive drug test. Characterization of the effect of Stealth on urine samples and immunoassay results was undertaken to assist in detection of this adulterant. Stealth was added to a number of urine matrices, and various parameters were evaluated including pH, specific gravity, color, creatinine, chloride, urea, blood, glucose, and nitrite...
September 2001: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
S L Ford, R R Steiner, R Thiericke, R Young, W H Soine
An unknown red substance was being sold and used with other drugs of abuse in Virginia (often being used in conjunction with marihuana). The red substance was identified as Dragon's Blood incense from Daemonorops draco. In bioassays, Dragon's Blood incense exhibited a low, but measurable cytotoxicity in in vitro cell lines. Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood had no adverse effect on mouse motor performance based on the inclined screen and rotorod tests. delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) produced a dose-related decline in mouse performance on the rotorod test...
January 1, 2001: Forensic Science International
B R Martin, D R Compton, S F Semus, S Lin, G Marciniak, J Grzybowska, A Charalambous, A Makriyannis
One aspect of cannabinoid structure-activity relationships (SARs) that has not been thoroughly investigated is the aromatic (A) ring. Although halogenation of the side chain enhances potency, our recent observation that iodination of the A ring also enhanced activity was surprising. The purpose of this investigation was to establish the steric and electrostatic requirements at these sites of the cannabinoid molecule via molecular modeling, while determining pharmacological activity. Molecular modeling was performed using the Tripos molecular mechanics force field and the semiempirical quantum mechanical package AM1...
October 1993: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
S R Childers, M A Pacheco, B A Bennett, T A Edwards, R E Hampson, J Mu, S A Deadwyler
The recent discovery and cloning of cannabinoid receptors has provided a major breakthrough in the understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of action of delta 9-tetrahydrocannibinol (delta 9-THC). Cannabinoid receptors are coupled to G-proteins and inhibit adenylyl cyclase in a variety of systems. In the brain, cannabinoid-inhibited adenylyl cyclase and the receptors are particularly prevalent in the cerebellum, where they are localized to cerebellar granule cells (Fig. 1). In these cells, cannabinoid receptors are co-localized with other Gi/o-linked receptors such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAB) receptors, where they share common effector systems (adenylyl cyclase catalytic units) but not common G-proteins...
1993: Biochemical Society Symposium
I Cavero, M F Lokhandwala, J P Buckley, B S Jandhyala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1974: European Journal of Pharmacology
H Rosenkrantz, R J Grant, R W Fleischman, J R Baker
Few teratogenic studies in animals have been performed simulating marihuana smoking in man. An inhalation marihuana teratology study was conducted in albino rabbits utilizing a modified automatic smoking machine originally developed for rats and mice. Appropriate numbers of dams were exposed to 4 puffs (0.14 mg/kg), 8 puffs (0.72 mg/kg), or 16 puffs (1.44 mg/kg) once daily during gestation Days 6 to 18, and sacrificed on Day 28. Control dams were exposed to 12 puffs of placebo cigarettes or sham-treated for a similar duration in the absence of any smoke...
August 1986: Fundamental and Applied Toxicology: Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
S H Berryman, R A Anderson, J Weis, A Bartke
The mutagenic potential of chronic treatments of male CF-1 mice with ethanol and delta 9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), and their comutagenic potential with a known mutagenic agent, Trenimon, were examined. This was accomplished by measuring the frequency of dominant lethal mutations arising from mating of treated males with nontreated females. Adult male mice were treated with 5% (v/v) ethanol as part of a liquid diet (28% ethanol-derived calories) for five weeks; 10 mg/kg body weight (p.o.) THC every two days for five weeks; a single injection of Trenimon (0...
January 1992: Mutation Research
J D Teale, J M Clough, E M Piall, L J King, V Marks
An antiserum raised in sheep against a conjugate of tetrahydrocannabinol with bovine serum albumin has been used as the basis of a radioimmunoassay for cannabinoids in the blood of rabbits given tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol or cannabidiol by rapid intravenous injection. In the case of both 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol plasma cannabinoid concentrations fell exponentially from an initial peak plasma level attained immediately after the completion of intravascular distribution of the injected bolus...
June 1975: Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology
A B Rawitch, G S Schultz, K E Ebner, R M Vardaris
Direct competition experiments with delta 9 -tetrahydrocannibinol (delta 9-THC) and estradiol in binding assays with rat uterine cytosol estrogen receptors showed that delta 9-THC was a weak, but nevertheless significant, competitor for binding to cytoplasmic estrogen receptors. These data support, at the molecular level, the observations that delta 9-THC has a weak estrogenic activity (at least the ability to bind to estrogen receptors). Moreover, estrogen-like binding suggests that delta 9-THC, acting at the level of estrogen receptor, causes a primary estrogenic effect rather than an indirect or secondary phenomenon...
September 16, 1977: Science
K M Johnson, W L Dewey
The effects of a 30-min pretreatment with varying doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol (delta9-THC) on the synthesis of 5-[3H]hydroxytryptamine (5-[3H]HT) from an intravenous 10-min pulse of L-[3H]tryptophan ([3H]try) were measured in the mouse brain. We also determined the effects of delta9-THC on several parameters believed to influence the synthesis of brain 5-HT, including total and free plasma tryptophan and the high-affinity synaptosomal uptake of tryptophan. Delta9-THC was found to increase the amount of [3H]try accumulated by the brain as well as the amount of 5-[3H]HT synthesized...
October 1978: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
D Rosenthal, T M Harvey, J T Bursey, D R Brine, M E Wall
A method for the identification of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol by gas chromatography mass spectrometry has been developed, and this method has been compared with other techniques, such as detection via thin-layer chromatography using tritium labeled delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol and a dual gas chromatographic method. The gas chromatographic mass spectrometric method was found to be equal or superior to other techniques and has the added advantage of being highly specific for the compound analyzed. An alternate approach using chemical ionization is also described; however, this procedure does not show significant advantages over the electron impact method...
April 1978: Biomedical Mass Spectrometry
M Natale, P Zeidenberg, J Jaffe
This study examined the effects of delta 9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) on defensive, primary-process, and secondary-process language. Four male volunteers provided 5-minute monologues in three conditions: Round 1,placebo; Round 2, 15 mg THC; Round 3, recovery. THC was found to attenuate defensive language behavior (retractors, qualifiers, direct references) and to increase the use of secondary-process (intellectualizing) vocabulary.
October 1979: International Journal of the Addictions
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