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Children and probiotics

Shakila Asmat, Fouzia Shaukat, Raheela Asmat, Hafiz Faiq Siddique Gul Bakhat, Tauseef M Asmat
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii and lactic acid producing probiotics in addition to usual treatment regimen to cure diarrhea among children (6 months to 5 years of age). STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, from February to July 2015. METHODOLOGY: Children suffering from acute diarrhea were orally administered Saccharomyces boulardii and lactic acid producing probiotics for 5 days...
March 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Abdul Waheed, Michael Malone, Samiullah Samiullah
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common among children and cause tremendous distress for patients and families. Family physicians should know how to diagnose and manage some of the more common childhood FGIDs. These include infant regurgitation, infant colic, infant dyschezia, cyclic vomiting syndrome, functional nausea and vomiting, functional diarrhea and constipation, abdominal migraine, and nonspecific functional abdominal pain. Diagnosis requires a thorough history and physical examination to rule out red flag signs and symptoms for structural or organic etiologies...
March 2018: FP Essentials
E Verduci, F Moretti, G Bassanini, G Banderali, V Rovelli, M C Casiraghi, G Morace, F Borgo, E Borghi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Phenylalanine (Phe) restricted diet, combined with Phe-free l-amino acid supplementation, is the mainstay of treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). Being the diet a key factor modulating gut microbiota composition, the aim of the present paper was to compare dietary intakes, gut microbiota biodiversity and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in children with PKU, on low-Phe diet, and in children with mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP), on unrestricted diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 21 PKU and 21 MHP children matched for gender, age and body mass index z-score...
January 31, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Piotr Jarocki, Marcin Podleśny, Mariusz Krawczyk, Agnieszka Glibowska, Jarosław Pawelec, Elwira Komoń-Janczara, Oleksandr Kholiavskyi, Michał Dworniczak, Zdzisław Targoński
Background: Lactobacillus rhamnosus Pen is a human endogenous strain with well-documented health promoting properties that is used for production of probiotics. It has a long safety history of application, and its effectiveness in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea has also been confirmed in clinical trials. Results: Here we present the complete genome sequence of L. rhamnosus Pen, which consists of a circular 2,884,4966-bp chromosome with a GC content of 46...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Muhammad Ashraf Sultan, Zeeshan Hassan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the severity of acute gastroenteritis in paediatric population. METHODS: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted at 93 randomly selected outpatient centres with paediatric practice across Pakistan between July 2014 and January 2015, involving children between 3 to 48 months of age suffering from acute gastroenteritis. The severity of acute gastroenteritis was measured using Modified Vesikari Score. SPSS 18 was used for data analysis...
February 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Rebecca A Abbott, Alice E Martin, Tamsin V Newlove-Delgado, Alison Bethel, Rebecca S Whear, Jo Thompson Coon, Stuart Logan
OBJECTIVES: Between 4% and 25% of school-aged children complain of recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) severe enough to interfere with their daily activities. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in eleven databases and 2 trials registries from inception to June 2016. An update search was run in November 2017. All screening was performed by 2 independent reviewers. Included studies were appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the evidence assessed using GRADE...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
E A Maden, C Altun, B Ozmen, F Basak
Aim: This in vivo study was designed to compare the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing fluoride, xylitol, or xylitol-probiotic on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in 13-15-year-old children. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 60 pediatric patients who were randomly divided into three groups of 20 each. Group 1 recieved fluoride toothpaste (Colgate Max Fresh), group 2 used xylitol toothpaste (Xyliwhite), and group 3 used xylitol-probiotic toothpaste (PerioBiotic)...
February 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Etienne Nel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in our understanding of the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in a resource-limited environment are needed to improve outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTFs) made from local products and with reduced milk content lower costs and may be effective in older children. None of the therapeutic foods used to treat severely malnourished children correct long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiencies.Routine short-term antibiotic (amoxicillin) treatment, in the context of adequate healthcare supervision, does not improve the recovery rate...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Rachael Lappan, Kara Imbrogno, Chisha Sikazwe, Denise Anderson, Danny Mok, Harvey Coates, Shyan Vijayasekaran, Paul Bumbak, Christopher C Blyth, Sarra E Jamieson, Christopher S Peacock
BACKGROUND: Recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM, recurrent ear infection) is a common childhood disease caused by bacteria termed otopathogens, for which current treatments have limited effectiveness. Generic probiotic therapies have shown promise, but seem to lack specificity. We hypothesised that healthy children with no history of AOM carry protective commensal bacteria that could be translated into a specific probiotic therapy to break the cycle of re-infection. We characterised the nasopharyngeal microbiome of these children (controls) in comparison to children with rAOM (cases) to identify potentially protective bacteria...
February 20, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Patricia Iozzo, Elena Sanguinetti
Early nutrition and growth in the initial years of life are important determinants of later body weight and metabolic health in humans, and the current epidemic of obesity involving children requires a better understanding of causal and protective mechanisms and components in infant foods. This review focuses on recent evidence implicating feeding modes (e.g., breast milk and formula milk) and dietary transitions toward complementary foods in the progression of microbiota maturation in children. The literature exploring body weight outcomes of microbiota changes induced by diet in early life is limited...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Iva Hojsak, Valentina Fabiano, Tudor Lucian Pop, Olivier Goulet, Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti, Fugen Cullu Çokuğraş, Massimo Pettoello-Mantovani, Sanja Kolaček
AIM: The use of probiotics has been covered by many guidelines, position papers and evidence-based recommendations, but few have referred to specific patient groups or clinical indications. This European study summarises recommendations and scientifically credited guidelines on the use of probiotics for children and provides practice points. METHODS: An expert panel was convened by the European Paediatric Association in June 2017 to define the relevant clinical questions for using probiotics in paediatric healthcare and review and summarise the guidelines, recommendations, position papers and high-quality evidence...
February 15, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Rezvan Kazemi, Asghar Taheri-Kafrani, Ahmad Motahari, Reihane Kordesedehi
Nowadays health benefits of bioactive food constituents, known as probiotic microorganisms, are a growing awareness. Cow's milk is a nutritious food containing probiotic bacteria. However, milk allergenicity is one of the most common food allergies. The milk protein, β-lactoglobulin (BLG), is in about 80% of all main cases of milk allergies for children and infants. With the aim of screening proteolytic strains of lactic acid bacteria to evaluate their potential for the reduction of allergenicity of the major bovine milk proteins, we isolated new proteolytic strains of cocci lactic acid bacteria from traditional Iranian dairy products...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ceymi Doenyas
Recent evidence implicates immune alterations and gut microbiota dysbiosis in at least some subpopulations of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immune and gut alterations in ASD have mostly been studied separately, and the reviews and theoretical models up to now have mainly considered the immune system as one of the routes for gut-brain communication. We take a different perspective and consider possible common mechanisms of action for the gut microbiota and inflammation on the neural basis of ASD...
February 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Berkeley N Limketkai, Andrea Wolf, Alyssa M Parian
Nutritional strategies have been explored as primary or adjunct therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Exclusive enteral nutrition is effective for the induction of remission in Crohn disease and is recommended as a first-line therapy for children. Dietary strategies focus on adjusting the ratio of consumed nutrients that are proinflammatory or antiinflammatory. Treatments with dietary supplements focus on the antiinflammatory effects of the individual supplements (eg, curcumin, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) or their positive effects on the intestinal microbiome (eg, prebiotics, probiotics)...
March 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Patricia B Pavlinac, Rebecca L Brander, Hannah E Atlas, Grace C John-Stewart, Donna M Denno, Judd L Walson
BACKGROUND: Although acute diarrhea often leads to acute dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, children with diarrhea also suffer long term morbidity, including recurrent or prolonged diarrhea, loss of weight, and linear growth faltering. They are also at increased risk of post-acute mortality. The objective of this systematic review was to identify interventions that address these longer term consequences of diarrhea. METHODS: We searched Medline for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries, published between 1980 and 2016 that included children under 15 years of age with diarrhea and follow-up of at least 7 days...
February 1, 2018: BMC Public Health
Linsheng Huang, Qi Zhu, Xiao Qu, Huanlong Qin
Chronic functional constipation is a kind of common intestinal disease that occurs in children, adults and elderly people. This disease not only causes great influence to physiological function, but also results in varying degrees of psychological barriers. At present, constipation treatments continue to rely on traditional methods such as purgative therapy and surgery. However, these approaches can disrupt intestinal function. Recent research between intestinal diseases and gut microbiota has gradually revealed a connection between constipation and intestinal flora disturbance, providing a theoretical basis for microbial treatment in chronic constipation...
January 23, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Erasmo Miele, Raanan Shamir, Marina Aloi, Amit Assa, Christian Braegger, Jiri Bronsky, Lissy de Ridder, Johanna C Escher, Iva Hojsak, Sanja Kolaček, Sibylle Koletzko, Arie Levine, Paolo Lionetti, Massimo Martinelli, Frank Ruemmele, Richard K Russell, Rotem Sigall Boneh, Johan van Limbergen, Gigi Veereman, Annamaria Staiano
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A growing body of evidence supports the need for detailed attention to nutrition and diet in children with IBD. We aimed to define the steps in instituting dietary or nutritional management in light of the current evidence and to offer a useful and practical guide to physicians and dieticians involved in the care of paediatric IBD patients. METHODS: A group of 20 experts in paediatric IBD participated in an iterative consensus process including 2 face-to-face meetings, following an open call to ESPGHAN Porto, IBD Interest and Nutrition Committee...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Valerio Nobili, Lorenza Putignani, Antonella Mosca, Federica Del Chierico, Pamela Vernocchi, Anna Alisi, Laura Stronati, Salvatore Cucchiara, Marco Toscano, Lorenzo Drago
Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), considered the leading cause of chronic liver disease in children, can often progress from non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is clear that obesity is one of the main risk factors involved in NAFLD pathogenesis, even if specific mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. We investigated the distribution of intestinal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the stools of four groups of children: obese, obese with NAFL, obese with NASH, and healthy, age-matched controls (CTRLs)...
January 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Feifei Lin, Haohao Wu, Mingyong Zeng, Guangli Yu, Shiyuan Dong, Huicheng Yang
Iron fortification has been associated with a modest increase in diarrhea risk among children. Herein, we investigate the correction for this unwanted side effect with probiotic/prebiotic supplementation in weaning mice. Iron fortification with 250 ppm and 500 ppm ferrous sulfate for 30 days significantly increased the species richness of the mouse gut microbiota compared to controls. The 500 ppm-FeSO4 diet caused a significantly decreased abundance of potentially beneficial Lactobacillus. During infection with the foodborne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S...
January 22, 2018: Food & Function
Fangyi Ong, Way Seah Lee, Charlotte Lin, Ruey Terng Ng, Shin Yee Wong, Su Lin Lim, Seng Hock Quak, Marion Aw
BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been associated with adverse effects and self-imposed dietary restrictions. The prevalence of its use in Asian children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence, types, and factors associated with the use of CAM among children with IBD from Singapore and Malaysia, and to ascertain if dietary restriction was prevalent in patients who used CAM. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which parents of children with IBD attending two tertiary pediatric IBD referral centres in Singapore and Malaysia were interviewed...
December 26, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
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