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Sprint -athlete

Hidenori Otani, Mitsuharu Kaya, Akira Tamaki, Heita Goto, Takayuki Goto, Minayuki Shirato
Active individuals often perform exercises in the heat following heat stress exposure (HSE) regardless of the time-of-day and its variation in body temperature. However, there is no information concerning the diurnal effects of a rise in body temperature after HSE on subsequent exercise performance in a hot environnment. This study therefore investigated the diurnal effects of prior HSE on both sprint and endurance exercise capacity in the heat. Eight male volunteers completed four trials which included sprint and endurance cycling tests at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity...
March 21, 2018: Chronobiology International
Katherine Kornei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Scientific American
Jarred G Gillett, Glen A Lichtwark, Roslyn N Boyd, Lee A Barber
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of a 12-week combined functional anaerobic and strength training program on neuromuscular properties and functional capacity in young adults with spastic-type CP. METHODS: 17 young adults (21±4 years, 9 males, GMFCS I=11, II=6) were randomized to 12 weeks, 3 sessions per week, of high intensity functional anaerobic and progressive resistance training of the lower limbs (n=8), or a waitlist control group (n=9). Pre- and post-training plantar flexor and tibialis anterior muscle volumes and composition, passive and active plantar flexor muscle properties, and functional capacity outcomes were assessed...
March 20, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Samuel A Pullinger, Juha Oksa, Emma L Brocklehurst, Reece P Iveson, Antonia Newlove, Jatin G Burniston, Dominic A Doran, James M Waterhouse, Ben J Edwards
The present study investigated whether increasing morning rectal temperatures (Trec ) to resting.evening levels, or decreasing evening Trec or muscle (Tm ) temperatures to morning values, would influence repeated sprint (RS) performance in a causal manner. Twelve trained males underwent five sessions [age (mean ± SD) 21.8 ± 2.6 yr, peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] peak) 60.6 ± 4.6 mL kg min-1 , stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m and body mass 76.0 ± 6.3 kg]. These included a control morning (M, 07:30 h) and evening (E, 17:30 h) session (5-min warm-up), and three further sessions consisting of a warm-up morning trial (ME , on a motorised treadmill) until Trec reached evening levels; and two cool-down evening trials (in 16-17°C water) until Trec (EMrec ) or Tm (EMmuscle ) values reached morning temperatures, respectively...
March 20, 2018: Chronobiology International
Carlos Pomares-Noguera, Francisco Ayala, Francisco Javier Robles-Palazón, Juan F Alomoto-Burneo, Alejandro López-Valenciano, José L L Elvira, Sergio Hernández-Sánchez, Mark De Ste Croix
Objective: To analyze the training effects of the FIFA 11+ kids on several parameters of physical performance in male youth football players. Materials and methods: Twenty-three youth players were randomized within each team into two groups (control vs. intervention). The intervention group performed the FIFA 11+ kids programme 2 times a week for 4 weeks; the control groups completed their normal warm-up routines. Thirteen physical performance measures {range of motion (hip, knee, and ankle joints), dynamic postural control (measured throughout the Y balance test), 20 m sprint time, slalom dribble with a ball, agility, vertical jumping height [counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ)], horizontal jump distance, accuracy when volleying a ball [measured throughout the Wall Volley test]} were assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Morten Kristoffersen, Øyvind Sandbakk, Espen Tønnessen, Ida Svendsen, Gøran Paulsen, Elisabeth Ersvær, Irene Nygård, Kari Rostad, Anita Ryningen, Vegard V Iversen, Knut Skovereng, Bent R Rønnestad, Hilde Gundersen
Purpose: Although strength and sprint training are widely used methods in competitive cycling, no previous studies have compared the acute responses and recovery rates following such sessions among highly trained cyclists. The primary aim of the current study was to compare power production and biochemical markers of metabolic stress and muscle damage following a session of heavy strength (HS) and short-sprint training (SS). Methods: Eleven well-trained male cyclists (18 ± 2 years with maximal oxygen uptake of 67...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Olaf Prieske, Tom Krüger, Markus Aehle, Erik Bauer, Urs Granacher
Power training programs have proved to be effective in improving components of physical fitness such as speed. According to the concept of training specificity, it was postulated that exercises must attempt to closely mimic the demands of the respective activity. When transferring this idea to speed development, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of resisted sprint (RST) vs. traditional power training (TPT) on physical fitness in healthy young adults. Thirty-five healthy, physically active adults were randomly assigned to a RST ( n = 10, 23 ± 3 years), a TPT ( n = 9, 23 ± 3 years), or a passive control group ( n = 16, 23 ± 2 years)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mark Waldron, Francesca Knight, Jamie Tallent, Stephen Patterson, Owen Jeffries
This study investigated the effects of taurine on repeated sprint exercise, performed after fixed incremental ramp exercise to exhaustion at isokinetic high (90 r/min) or low (50 r/min) cadences. In a double-blind, repeated measures design, nine females completed an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion, followed by 2 min active recovery and 6 × 10 s sprints on a cycle ergometer, in one of four conditions: high cadence (90 r/min) + taurine (50 mg/kg body mass); high cadence + placebo (3 mg/kg body mass maltodextrin); low cadence (50 r/min) + taurine; low cadence + placebo...
March 17, 2018: Amino Acids
Nikita Woodhead, Kelly M Hare, Alison Cree
The existence of sex differences in digit-length ratio (especially between the second and fourth digits, 2D:4D) is well established for humans from fetal life onwards, and has been linked with later performance. In rodents, the ratio is affected prenatally by exposure to androgens and estrogens, with some research suggesting an influence from sex of the neighbouring intrauterine fetus. However, the ubiquity and ontogenetic development of sexual dimorphism in digit ratios is not well established among wild amniotes...
March 15, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Christian Møller Madsen, Benjamin Badault, Lars Nybo
Badminton-specific speed and endurance performance was evaluated in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of elite youth players and compared to the physiological capacities of world top-50 singles players.The cross-sectional study involved ten males in the category U15 (<15 years), ten U17, nine U19 and four senior elite players. They performed 30-m sprint, counter-movement jump (CMJ) and badminton-specific speed (B-SPEED) and endurance (B-ENDURANCE) tests. The longitudinal data were collected for ten U15 players with 1- and 2-year follow-up measures...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Esther Morencos, Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Carlo Castagna, David Casamichana
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of match period on the movement patterns of hockey players according to their playing position under the introduction of quarters. METHODS: Sixteen sub-elite level Spanish National League male hockey players participated in the study (age: 25.5 ± 2.9 years; body mass: 74.6 ± 5.5 kg). Global Positioning Systems (GPS) devices were used to monitor players running performance during 17 competitive matches (113 match-play profiles)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Marcus J Colby, Brian Dawson, Peter Peeling, Jarryd Heasman, Brent Rogalski, Michael K Drew, Jordan Stares
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of multiple high risk scenario (HRS) exposures on non-contact injury prediction in elite Australian footballers. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Sessional workload data (session-rating of perceived exertion; GPS-derived distance, sprint distance, maximum velocity) from one club (n= 60 players) over 3 seasons were collated; several established HRS were also defined. Accumulated HRS sessional exposures were calculated retrospectively (previous 1-8 weeks)...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Naser Naser, Ajmol Ali, Paul Macadam
Futsal, the 5-a-side version of soccer (i.e. 1 goalkeeper and 4 outfield players), was introduced in 1930 and continues to grow in popularity around the world. Competitive games comprise of two 20-min periods of high-intensity and intermittent activities requiring substantial physical, tactical, and technical efforts from the players. A greater understanding of the physical and skill requirements will aid the development of futsal and enable practitioners to undertake appropriate training regimes for the demands of the sport...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Jason McGahan, Con Burns, Seán Lacey, Tim Gabbett, Cian O' Neill
PURPOSE: This study investigated the positional running demands of elite Gaelic football players during match-play and compared these demands with typical training activities used to prepare players for competition. METHODS: Global positioning system (GPS) data was obtained from thirty elite Gaelic football players (26.9 ± 3.5 years, 182.8 ± 6.1 cm, 84.6 ± 8.1 kg) across a full season (13 competitive games and 78 training sessions). Only players who completed the full match and respective training sessions were included (n = 107 match files and n = 1,603 training files)...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Liam Bagley, Nasser Al-Shanti, Steven Bradburn, Osamah Baig, Mark Slevin, Jamie S McPhee
BACKGROUND: Regular sprint interval training (SIT) improves whole-body aerobic capacity and muscle oxidative potential, but very little is known about knee extensor anabolic or fatigue resistance adaptations, or whether effects are similar for males and females. The purpose of this study was to compare sex-related differences in knee extensor size, torque-velocity relationship and fatigability adaptations to 12 weeks SIT. METHODS: Sixteen males and fifteen females (mean (SEM) age: 41 (±2...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Yan Gong, Steven M Smith, Eileen M Handberg, Carl J Pepine, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff
The objective of this analysis is to determine the effect of intensive (<120 mm Hg) versus standard (<140 mm Hg) systolic blood pressure (SBP) targets on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes among SPRINT participants with low-normal or high-normal fasting glucose (FG). We categorized the 5425 SPRINT participants with FG <100 mg/dL into 2 groups: <85 mg/dL (low-normal) and 85 to <100 mg/dL (high-normal). Among participants with low-normal glucose, there was no significant difference in the primary outcome (PO) between the 2 treatment arms (adjusted hazard ratio, HR: 1...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Karen C Johnson, Paul K Whelton, William C Cushman, Jeffrey A Cutler, Gregory W Evans, Joni K Snyder, Walter T Ambrosius, Srinivasan Beddhu, Alfred K Cheung, Lawrence J Fine, Cora E Lewis, Mahboob Rahman, David M Reboussin, Michael V Rocco, Suzanne Oparil, Jackson T Wright
Recent publications have stated that the blood pressure (BP) measurement technique used in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was unattended. However, the SPRINT protocol does not address the issue of attendance. A survey was conducted immediately after SPRINT closeout visits were completed to inquire whether BP measurements were usually attended or unattended by staff. There were 4082 participants at 38 sites that measured BP after leaving the participant alone the entire time (always alone), 2247 at 25 sites that had personnel in the room the entire time (never alone), 1746 at 19 sites that left the participant alone only during the rest period (alone for rest), and 570 at 6 sites that left the participant alone only during the BP readings (alone for BP measurement)...
March 12, 2018: Hypertension
Simon P Lailvaux, Andrew Z Wang, Jerry F Husak
The energetic costs of performance constitute a non-trivial component of animals' daily energetic budgets. However, we currently lack an understanding of how those costs are partitioned among the various stages of performance development, maintenance, and production. We manipulated individual investment in performance by training Anolis carolinensis lizards for endurance or sprinting ability. We then measured energetic expenditure both at rest and immediately following exercise to test whether such training alters the maintenance and production costs of performance...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Akanksha Bhatnagar, Ulrich Pein, Silke Markau, Karl Weigand, Paolo Fornara, Matthias Girndt, Eric Seibert
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We compare conventional office blood pressure measurements with automated SPRINT-study type readings in kidney transplant recipients in order to determine the impact of the white coat effect in a prospective observational study. METHODS: Adult patients with a functional renal transplant not dependent on dialysis were eligible. Readings were taken in the office in presence of the physician with an oscillometric method. Afterwards, readings were repeated with the patients resting alone in a quiet examination room with an automated blood pressure monitor...
March 6, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
A Delextrat, M Gruet, F Bieuzen
The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of small-sided game (SSG) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic fitness and muscle oxygenation during a repeated sprint (RS) sequence in elite male junior basketball players. Twenty participants (14.3 ± 0.5 years; 176.8 ± 12.5 cm; 74.5 ± 9.8 kg) performed pre- and post-tests interspersed by 6-weeks of SSG or HIIT training. Testing sessions consisted of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and a RS sequence (two bouts of 15-s)...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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