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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626441/teaching-improvisation-through-processes-applications-in-music-education-and-implications-for-general-education
#1
REVIEW
Michele Biasutti
Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622417/the-antimigraine-butterbur-ingredient-isopetasin-desensitises-peptidergic-nociceptors-via-the-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-channel
#2
Silvia Benemei, Francesco De Logu, Simone Li Puma, Ilaria Maddalena Marone, Elisabetta Coppi, Filippo Ugolini, Wolfgang Liedtke, Pollastro Federica, Giovanni Appendino, Pierangelo Geppetti, Serena Materazzi, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The mechanism of the antimigraine action of butterbur [Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn.] is unknown. Here, we investigated the ability of isopetasin, a major butterbur constituent, to specifically target the transient receptor ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel and to affect functional responses relevant to migraine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Single cell calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings in human and rodent TRPA1-expressing cells, neurogenic motor responses in isolated rat/mouse urinary bladder, release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from mouse spinal cord in vitro, and facial rubbing in mice and meningeal blood flow in rat were examined...
June 16, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620181/hair-bundles-of-cochlear-outer-hair-cells-are-shaped-to-minimize-their-fluid-dynamic-resistance
#3
Nikola Ciganović, Amanuel Wolde-Kidan, Tobias Reichenbach
The mammalian sense of hearing relies on two types of sensory cells: inner hair cells transmit the auditory stimulus to the brain, while outer hair cells mechanically modulate the stimulus through active feedback. Stimulation of a hair cell is mediated by displacements of its mechanosensitive hair bundle which protrudes from the apical surface of the cell into a narrow fluid-filled space between reticular lamina and tectorial membrane. While hair bundles of inner hair cells are of linear shape, those of outer hair cells exhibit a distinctive V-shape...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612936/sensory-feedback-from-the-urethra-evokes-state-dependent-lower-urinary-tract-reflexes-in-rat
#4
Zachary C Danziger, Warren M Grill
Lower urinary tract reflexes are mediated by peripheral afferents from the bladder (primarily in the pelvic nerve) and the urethra (in the pudendal and pelvic nerves) to maintain continence or initiate micturition. If fluid enters the urethra at low bladder volumes, reflexes relax the bladder and evoke external urethral sphincter (EUS) contraction (guarding reflex) to maintain continence. Conversely, urethral flow at high bladder volumes, excites the bladder (micturition reflex) and relaxes the EUS (augmenting reflex)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608924/sensory-texture-analysis-of-thickened-liquids-during-ingestion
#5
Edgar Chambers, Alicia Jenkins, Jane Mertz Garcia
Practitioners support the use of thickened liquids for many patients with disordered swallowing. Although physical measures have highlighted differences among products there are questions about the ability of the measures to fully explain the sensory texture effects during swallowing of thickened liquids. This study used a trained sensory panel to describe the textural aspects of liquids during ingestion and swallowing. The lexicon was able to characterize differences in beverages, thickeners, and thickness levels with the most important attribute being viscosity, which loaded heavily in the almost one-dimensional space that resulted from the sensory analysis of these beverages...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595050/inference-in-the-brain-statistics-flowing-in-redundant-population-codes
#6
REVIEW
Xaq Pitkow, Dora E Angelaki
It is widely believed that the brain performs approximate probabilistic inference to estimate causal variables in the world from ambiguous sensory data. To understand these computations, we need to analyze how information is represented and transformed by the actions of nonlinear recurrent neural networks. We propose that these probabilistic computations function by a message-passing algorithm operating at the level of redundant neural populations. To explain this framework, we review its underlying concepts, including graphical models, sufficient statistics, and message-passing, and then describe how these concepts could be implemented by recurrently connected probabilistic population codes...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591583/distinct-thalamic-reticular-cell-types-differentially-modulate-normal-and-pathological-cortical-rhythms
#7
Alexandra Clemente-Perez, Stefanie Ritter Makinson, Bryan Higashikubo, Scott Brovarney, Frances S Cho, Alexander Urry, Stephanie S Holden, Matthew Wimer, Csaba Dávid, Lief E Fenno, László Acsády, Karl Deisseroth, Jeanne T Paz
Integrative brain functions depend on widely distributed, rhythmically coordinated computations. Through its long-ranging connections with cortex and most senses, the thalamus orchestrates the flow of cognitive and sensory information. Essential in this process, the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT) gates different information streams through its extensive inhibition onto other thalamic nuclei, however, we lack an understanding of how different inhibitory neuron subpopulations in nRT function as gatekeepers...
June 6, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583457/vertebrobasilar-insufficiency-due-to-distal-posterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-compression-in-chiari-1-5
#8
M Burhan Janjua, Iryna Ivasyk, Jeffrey P Greenfield
Chiari malformation is characterized by radiographic evidence of herniation of cerebellar tonsils below the foramen magnum, and symptoms complex of headaches, breathing, swallowing or sleep difficulties, ataxia, restless, motor and/or sensory deficits. We report a case of a 34-year old female whose imaging indicated a Chiari 1.5 with brainstem (caudal medulla) herniation, and an expansive cervical syrinx. Her symptom complex showed signs both of cervical syringomyelia, as well as ones localizable to the medulla...
June 2, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576286/a-novel-hybrid-tobacco-product-that-delivers-a-tobacco-flavour-note-with-vapour-aerosol-part-1-product-operation-and-preliminary-aerosol-chemistry-assessment
#9
Simon Poynton, Joseph Sutton, Sharon Goodall, Jennifer Margham, Mark Forster, Ken Scott, Chuan Liu, Kevin McAdam, James Murphy, Christopher Proctor
Vapour products have demonstrated potential to be a lower-risk alternative to cigarettes. The present study describes a novel hybrid tobacco product that combines a warm aerosol stream generated by an electronic vaporisation mechanism with tobacco top flavour from cut tobacco. During operation, the aerosol stream released from the vapour cartomiser is passed through a bed of blended cut tobacco by the puffing flow, elevating the tobacco temperature and eluting volatile tobacco flavour components. A preliminary but comprehensive analysis of the aerosol composition of the hybrid tobacco product found that emissions were dominated by the control vapour formulation...
May 30, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573753/simulation-of-intra-ciliary-diffusion-suggests-a-novel-role-of-primary-cilia-as-a-cell-signaling-enhancer
#10
Daisuke Takao, Shinji Kamimura
Besides the role to generate a fluid flow in the surrounding medium, eukaryotic cilia have a crucial function in sensing external signals such as chemical or mechanical stimuli. A large body of work has shown that cilia are frequently found in various types of sensory cells and are closely related to many regulatory mechanisms in differentiation and development. However, we do not yet have a definitive answer to the fundamental question, "why cilia?" It has been a long-standing mystery why cells use cilia for sensing external signals...
June 2, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573728/substitution-of-modified-starch-with-hydrogen-peroxide-modified-rice-bran-in-salad-dressing-formulation-physicochemical-texture-rheological-and-sensory-properties
#11
Bahareh Maani, Mazdak Alimi, Shirin Shokoohi, Fatemeh Fazeli
Rice bran samples were treated under different conditions including hydrogen peroxide content (1, 4, and 7 wt%) and media pH (10.5, 11.5, and 12.5). Water holding capacity and color measurement results showed acceptable improvements compared with the untreated native bran confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. Optimization of modification conditions upon characterization results suggested the introduction of 7% hydrogen peroxide at pH = 12.5. Accordingly, 1, 2 and 3 wt% of the rice bran treated under the optimized conditions, was used in salad dressing formulation; as for ...
June 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559623/rheological-properties-of-reduced-fat-ice-cream-mix-containing-octenyl-succinylated-pearl-millet-starch
#12
Monika Sharma, Ashish K Singh, Deep N Yadav
The octenyl succinyl anhydride (OSA) esterified pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides) starch was evaluated as fat replacer in soft serve ice cream in comparison to other fat replacers viz. inulin, whey protein concentrate-70 and commercial starch. During temperature sweep test, the yield stress and flow behaviour index of un-pasteurized ice cream mixes increased as the temperature increased from 40 to 80 °C, while the consistency index decreased. Consistency index of aged ice cream mixes containing 2% fat replacer was higher as compared to mixes with 1% level...
May 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553233/coherent-multimodal-sensory-information-allows-switching-between-gravitoinertial-contexts
#13
Marie Barbiero, Célia Rousseau, Charalambos Papaxanthis, Olivier White
Whether the central nervous system is capable to switch between contexts critically depends on experimental details. Motor control studies regularly adopt robotic devices to perturb the dynamics of a certain task. Other approaches investigate motor control by altering the gravitoinertial context itself as in parabolic flights and human centrifuges. In contrast to conventional robotic experiments, where only the hand is perturbed, these gravitoinertial or immersive settings coherently plunge participants into new environments...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552145/natural-history-of-spinal-cavernous-malformations
#14
Marc Otten, Paul Mccormick
Spinal cavernous malformations are intramedullary vascular lesions. They have low pressure and flow, so they may take many years to present with clinical symptoms. Because of their relatively benign nature, surgical intervention is not always indicated. An understanding of the natural history of cavernous malformations helps make decisions about when and if to intervene. In patients who do not have surgery, 88.7% have stable or improved neurologic function, whereas 89.3% have these outcomes in the surgical group...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527808/short-communication-effect-of-whey-protein-addition-and-transglutaminase-treatment-on-the-physical-and-sensory-properties-of-reduced-fat-ice-cream
#15
Erfan Danesh, Mostafa Goudarzi, Hossein Jooyandeh
The effects of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment, alone and in combination, on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream were investigated. Adding whey protein with or without enzyme treatment decreased melting rate, overrun, and hardness of the reduced-fat ice cream; however, the enzyme-treated sample had a higher melting rate and overrun and softer texture. Whey protein-fortified samples showed higher melting resistance, but lower overrun and firmer texture compared with the enzyme-treated sample without added whey protein...
July 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526686/amazon-river-dolphins-inia-geoffrensis-modify-biosonar-output-level-and-directivity-during-prey-interception-in-the-wild
#16
Michael Ladegaard, Frants Havmand Jensen, Kristian Beedholm, Vera Maria Ferreira da Silva, Peter Teglberg Madsen
Toothed whales have evolved to live in extremely different habitats and yet they all rely strongly on echolocation for finding and catching prey. Such biosonar based foraging involves distinct phases of searching for, approaching, and capturing prey, where echolocating animals gradually adjust sonar output to actively shape the flow of sensory information. Measuring those outputs in absolute levels requires hydrophone arrays centred on the biosonar beam axis, but this has never been done for wild toothed whales approaching and capturing prey...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511918/molecular-imaging-of-serotonin-degeneration-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#17
Gwenn S Smith, Frederick S Barrett, Jin Hui Joo, Najlla Nassery, Alena Savonenko, Devin J Sodums, Christopher M Marano, Cynthia A Munro, Jason Brandt, Michael A Kraut, Yun Zhou, Dean F Wong, Clifford I Workman
Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions and is found in high concentrations in the serotonergic cell bodies of origin of these projections (raphe nuclei)...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508449/satellite-glial-cells-in-human-trigeminal-ganglia-have-a-broad-expression-of-functional-toll-like-receptors
#18
Johanna G Mitterreiter, Werner J D Ouwendijk, Monique van Velzen, Gijsbert P van Nierop, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Georges M G M Verjans
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) orchestrate immune responses to a wide variety of danger- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), expression profile and function of TLRs in the human peripheral nervous system (PNS) are ill-defined. We analyzed TLR expression of satellite glial cells (SGCs) and microglia, glial cells predominantly involved in local immune responses in ganglia of the human PNS and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of the CNS, respectively. Ex vivo flow cytometry analysis of cell suspensions obtained from human cadaveric trigeminal ganglia (TG) and NAWM showed that both SGCs and microglia expressed TLR1-5, TLR7, and TLR9, although expression levels varied between these cell types...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501420/manipulation-of-visual-information-affects-control-strategy-during-a-visuomotor-tracking-task
#19
Paulina J M Bank, Lucas R M Dobbe, Carel G M Meskers, Jurriaan H de Groot, Erwin de Vlugt
Proper understanding of motor control requires insight into the extent and manner in which task performance and control strategy are influenced by various aspects of visual information. We therefore systematically manipulated the visual presentation (i.e., scaling factor and optical flow density) of a visuomotor tracking task without changing the task itself, and investigated the effect on performance, effort, motor control strategy (i.e., anticipatory or corrective steering) and underlying neuromechanical parameters (i...
June 30, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494291/distribution-and-sensorial-relevance-of-volatile-organic-compounds-emitted-throughout-wastewater-biosolids-processing
#20
R M Fisher, N Le-Minh, E C Sivret, J P Alvarez-Gaitan, S J Moore, R M Stuetz
A diverse range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from wastewater biosolids processing. Odorous emissions are predominately made up of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) which are typically the only odorants measured. However, a range of VOCs are known to contribute to malodours yet previous studies often overlook the contribution of VOCs in comparison with VSCs. This study aims to evaluate how emissions are affected by different biosolids processing configurations, and if any non-sulfur VOCs should be included in odour measurement and management...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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