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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707626/performance-of-neural-networks-for-localizing-moving-objects-with-an-artificial-lateral-line
#1
Luuk H Boulogne, Ben J Wolf, Marco A Wiering, Sietse M van Netten
Fish are able to sense water flow velocities relative to their body with their mechanoreceptive lateral line organ. This organ consists of an array of flow detectors distributed along the fish body. Using the excitation of these individual detectors, fish can determine the location of nearby moving objects. Inspired by this sensory modality, it is shown here how neural networks can be used to extract an object's location from simulated excitation patterns, such as can be measured along arrays of stationary artificial flow velocity sensors...
July 14, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702846/characterization-of-the-encoding-properties-of-intraspinal-mechanosensory-neurons-in-the-lamprey
#2
Nicole Massarelli, Allan L Yau, Kathleen A Hoffman, Tim Kiemel, Eric D Tytell
Proprioceptive sensory inputs are an integral part of the closed-loop system of locomotion. In the lamprey, a model organism for vertebrate locomotion, such sensory inputs come from intraspinal mechanosensory cells called "edge cells". These edge cells synapse directly onto interneurons in the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) circuit and allow the CPG to adjust the motor output according to how the body is bending. However, the encoding properties of the edge cells have never been fully characterized...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700578/a-novel-mechanism-for-mechanosensory-based-rheotaxis-in-larval-zebrafish
#3
Pablo Oteiza, Iris Odstrcil, George Lauder, Ruben Portugues, Florian Engert
When flying or swimming, animals must adjust their own movement to compensate for displacements induced by the flow of the surrounding air or water. These flow-induced displacements can most easily be detected as visual whole-field motion with respect to the animal's frame of reference. Despite this, many aquatic animals consistently orient and swim against oncoming flows (a behaviour known as rheotaxis) even in the absence of visual cues. How animals achieve this task, and its underlying sensory basis, is still unknown...
July 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698387/cortical-and-subcortical-coordination-of-visual-spatial-attention-revealed-by-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-recording
#4
Jessica J Green, Carsten N Boehler, Kenneth C Roberts, Ling-Chia Chen, Ruth M Krebs, Allen W Song, Marty G Woldorff
Visual spatial attention has been studied in humans with both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) individually. However, due to the intrinsic limitations of each of these methods used alone, our understanding of the systems-level mechanisms underlying attentional control remains limited. Here, we examined trial-to-trial covariations of concurrently recorded EEG and fMRI in a cued visual spatial-attention task in humans, which allowed delineation of both the generators and modulators of the cue-triggered event-related oscillatory brain activity underlying attentional-control function...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693812/predictions-precision-and-agentive-attention
#5
REVIEW
Andy Clark
Ransom, Fazelpour, and Mole (this journal - 2017) raise an important puzzle for the 'prediction error minimization' account of cognitive processing. That account depicts all cognitive processing as fundamentally in the business of minimizing prediction errors concerning the evolving flow of sensory information. One of the cornerstones of these highly ambitious, would-be unifying accounts is their depiction of attention as nothing other than the process of optimizing the precision (inverse variance) of critical prediction error signals...
July 7, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679792/hydrodynamic-sensory-threshold-in-harbour-seals-phoca-vitulina-for-artificial-flatfish-breathing-currents
#6
Benedikt Niesterok, Guido Dehnhardt, Wolf Hanke
Harbour seals have the ability to detect benthic fish such as flatfish using the water currents these fish emit through their gills (breathing currents). We investigated the sensory threshold in harbour seals for this specific hydrodynamic stimulus under conditions which are realistic for seals hunting in the wild. We used an experimental platform where an artificial breathing current was emitted through one of eight different nozzles. Two seals were trained to search for the active nozzle. Each experimental session consisted of eight test trials of a particular stimulus intensity and 16 supra-threshold trials of high stimulus intensity...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674847/a-new-integrated-dual-time-point-amyloid-pet-mri-data-analysis-method
#7
Diego Cecchin, Henryk Barthel, Davide Poggiali, Annachiara Cagnin, Solveig Tiepolt, Pietro Zucchetta, Paolo Turco, Paolo Gallo, Anna Chiara Frigo, Osama Sabri, Franco Bui
PURPOSE: In the initial evaluation of patients with suspected dementia and Alzheimer's disease, there is no consensus on how to perform semiquantification of amyloid in such a way that it: (1) facilitates visual qualitative interpretation, (2) takes the kinetic behaviour of the tracer into consideration particularly with regard to at least partially correcting for blood flow dependence, (3) analyses the amyloid load based on accurate parcellation of cortical and subcortical areas, (4) includes partial volume effect correction (PVEC), (5) includes MRI-derived topographical indexes, (6) enables application to PET/MRI images and PET/CT images with separately acquired MR images, and (7) allows automation...
July 4, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674167/mesoscale-mapping-of-mouse-cortex-reveals-frequency-dependent-cycling-between-distinct-macroscale-functional-modules
#8
Matthieu P Vanni, Allen W Chan, Matilde Balbi, Gergely Silasi, Timothy H Murphy
Connectivity mapping based on resting state activity in mice has revealed functional motifs of correlated activity. However, the rules by which motifs organize into larger functional modules that lead to hemisphere wide spatial-temporal activity sequences is not clear. We explore cortical activity parcellation in head-fixed, quiet awake GCaMP6 mice from both sexes by using mesoscopic calcium imaging. Spectral decomposition of spontaneous cortical activity revealed the presence of two dominant frequency modes (<1Hz and ∼3Hz), each of them associated with a unique spatial signature of cortical macro-parcellation not predicted by classical cytoarchitectonic definitions of cortical areas...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673710/improved-proprioceptive-function-by-application-of-subsensory-electrical-noise-effects-of-aging-and-task-demand
#9
Diana R Toledo, José A Barela, André F Kohn
The application of subsensory noise stimulation over the lower limbs has been shown to improve proprioception and postural control under certain conditions. Whereas the effect specificity seems to depend on several factors, studies are still needed to determine the appropriate method for training and rehabilitation purposes. In the current study, we investigated whether the application of subsensory electrical noise over the legs improves proprioceptive function in young and older adults. We aimed to provide evidence that stronger and age-related differential effects occur in more demanding tasks...
June 30, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665460/ischemic-monomelic-neuropathy-a-long-term-follow-up-of-two-cases
#10
Vikas Singh, Huzaif Qaisar, Avais Masud, Sushil Mehandru, Elmer Sadiang-Abay, Eric J Costanzo, Loay Salman
INTRODUCTION: Ischemic monomelic neuropathy (IMN) is the most dreaded complication of an arteriovenous access creation. While uncommon, it can lead to pain, paresthesia or/and hand weakness. Creation of an arteriovenous connection causing a sudden diversion of blood away from the nerves can lead to ischemic injury to the neural tissue and cause IMN. Immediate surgical ligation has been traditionally recommended to limit ongoing neural tissue injury. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present two diabetic patients who developed IMN after the creation of a left upper extremity brachial-cephalic fistula and refused to undergo surgical ligation...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659463/integration-of-visual-and-tactile-information-in-reproduction-of-traveled-distance
#11
Jan Churan, Johannes Paul, Steffen Klingenhoefer, Frank Bremmer
In the natural world, self-motion always stimulates several different sensory modalities. Here we investigated the interplay between a visual optic flow stimulus simulating self-motion and a tactile stimulus (air flow resulting from self-motion) while human observers were engaged in a distance reproduction task. We found that adding congruent tactile information (i.e. speed of the air flow and speed of visual motion are directly proportional) to the visual information significantly improves the precision of the actively reproduced distances...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659200/-an-unrecognized-cause-of-dyspnoea
#12
A Brys, A Wijers, M de Vries, N Bouwman, R Borghans
BACKGROUND: Neuralgic amyotrophy is characterised by pain in the neck or shoulder region, followed by neuropathy of both motor and sensory nerves of the brachial plexus. The incidence of this condition is estimated at 1/1000 per year. In a rare variant of the syndrome, involvement of both phrenic nerves can occur, leading to diaphragmatic paralysis and severe orthopnoea. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 67-year-old woman was referred to us with acute orthopnoea. Imaging studies showed bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, and electromyography (EMG) confirmed neuropathy of both phrenic nerves...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658272/sensing-of-minute-airflow-motions-near-walls-using-pappus-type-nature-inspired-sensors
#13
Christoph H Bruecker, Vladimir Mikulich
This work describes the development and use of pappus-like structures as sensitive sensors to detect minute air-flow motions. We made such sensors from pappi taken from nature-grown seed, whose filiform hairs' length-scale is suitable for the study of large-scale turbulent convection flows. The stem with the pappus on top is fixated on an elastic membrane on the wall and tilts under wind-load proportional to the velocity magnitude in direction of the wind, similar as the biological sensory hairs found in spiders, however herein the sensory hair has multiple filiform protrusions at the tip...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638373/interactions-between-food-additive-silica-nanoparticles-and-food-matrices
#14
Mi-Ran Go, Song-Hwa Bae, Hyeon-Jin Kim, Jin Yu, Soo-Jin Choi
Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely utilized in the food industry as additives with their beneficial characteristics, such as improving sensory property and processing suitability, enhancing functional and nutritional values, and extending shelf-life of foods. Silica is used as an anti-caking agent to improve flow property of powered ingredients and as a carrier for flavors or active compounds in food. Along with the rapid development of nanotechnology, the sizes of silica fall into nanoscale, thereby raising concerns about the potential toxicity of nano-sized silica materials...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626441/teaching-improvisation-through-processes-applications-in-music-education-and-implications-for-general-education
#15
REVIEW
Michele Biasutti
Improvisation is an articulated multidimensional activity based on an extemporaneous creative performance. Practicing improvisation, participants expand sophisticated skills such as sensory and perceptual encoding, memory storage and recall, motor control, and performance monitoring. Improvisation abilities have been developed following several methodologies mainly with a product-oriented perspective. A model framed under the socio-cultural theory of learning for designing didactic activities on processes instead of outcomes is presented in the current paper...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622417/the-antimigraine-butterbur-ingredient-isopetasin-desensitises-peptidergic-nociceptors-via-the-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-channel
#16
Silvia Benemei, Francesco De Logu, Simone Li Puma, Ilaria Maddalena Marone, Elisabetta Coppi, Filippo Ugolini, Wolfgang Liedtke, Pollastro Federica, Giovanni Appendino, Pierangelo Geppetti, Serena Materazzi, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The mechanism of the antimigraine action of butterbur [Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn.] is unknown. Here, we investigated the ability of isopetasin, a major butterbur constituent, to specifically target the transient receptor ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel and to affect functional responses relevant to migraine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Single cell calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings in human and rodent TRPA1-expressing cells, neurogenic motor responses in isolated rat/mouse urinary bladder, release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from mouse spinal cord in vitro, and facial rubbing in mice and meningeal blood flow in rat were examined...
June 16, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620181/hair-bundles-of-cochlear-outer-hair-cells-are-shaped-to-minimize-their-fluid-dynamic-resistance
#17
Nikola Ciganović, Amanuel Wolde-Kidan, Tobias Reichenbach
The mammalian sense of hearing relies on two types of sensory cells: inner hair cells transmit the auditory stimulus to the brain, while outer hair cells mechanically modulate the stimulus through active feedback. Stimulation of a hair cell is mediated by displacements of its mechanosensitive hair bundle which protrudes from the apical surface of the cell into a narrow fluid-filled space between reticular lamina and tectorial membrane. While hair bundles of inner hair cells are of linear shape, those of outer hair cells exhibit a distinctive V-shape...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612936/sensory-feedback-from-the-urethra-evokes-state-dependent-lower-urinary-tract-reflexes-in-rat
#18
Zachary C Danziger, Warren M Grill
Lower urinary tract reflexes are mediated by peripheral afferents from the bladder (primarily in the pelvic nerve) and the urethra (in the pudendal and pelvic nerves) to maintain continence or initiate micturition. If fluid enters the urethra at low bladder volumes, reflexes relax the bladder and evoke external urethral sphincter (EUS) contraction (guarding reflex) to maintain continence. Conversely, urethral flow at high bladder volumes, excites the bladder (micturition reflex) and relaxes the EUS (augmenting reflex)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608924/sensory-texture-analysis-of-thickened-liquids-during-ingestion
#19
Edgar Chambers, Alicia Jenkins, Jane Mertz Garcia
Practitioners support the use of thickened liquids for many patients with disordered swallowing. Although physical measures have highlighted differences among products there are questions about the ability of the measures to fully explain the sensory texture effects during swallowing of thickened liquids. This study used a trained sensory panel to describe the textural aspects of liquids during ingestion and swallowing. The lexicon was able to characterize differences in beverages, thickeners, and thickness levels with the most important attribute being viscosity, which loaded heavily in the almost one-dimensional space that resulted from the sensory analysis of these beverages...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595050/inference-in-the-brain-statistics-flowing-in-redundant-population-codes
#20
REVIEW
Xaq Pitkow, Dora E Angelaki
It is widely believed that the brain performs approximate probabilistic inference to estimate causal variables in the world from ambiguous sensory data. To understand these computations, we need to analyze how information is represented and transformed by the actions of nonlinear recurrent neural networks. We propose that these probabilistic computations function by a message-passing algorithm operating at the level of redundant neural populations. To explain this framework, we review its underlying concepts, including graphical models, sufficient statistics, and message-passing, and then describe how these concepts could be implemented by recurrently connected probabilistic population codes...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
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