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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212299/exogenous-and-endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-protects-gastric-mucosa-against-the-formation-and-time-dependent-development-of-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-acute-lesions-progressing-into-deeper-ulcerations
#1
Marcin Magierowski, Katarzyna Magierowska, Magdalena Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Zbigniew Sliwowski, Robert Pajdo, Grzegorz Ginter, Slawomir Kwiecien, Tomasz Brzozowski
Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is an endogenous mediator, synthesized from l-cysteine by cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) or 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). The mechanism(s) involved in H₂S-gastroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) lesions and their time-dependent progression into deeper gastric ulcerations have been little studied. We determined the effect of l-cysteine, H₂S-releasing NaHS or slow H₂S releasing compound GYY4137 on gastric blood flow (GBF) and gastric lesions induced by 30 min of I followed by 3, 6, 24 and 48 h of R...
February 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193425/black-tea-volatiles-fingerprinting-by-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-combined-with-high-concentration-capacity-sample-preparation-techniques-toward-a-fully-automated-sensomic-assessment
#2
Federico Magagna, Chiara Cordero, Cecilia Cagliero, Erica Liberto, Patrizia Rubiolo, Barbara Sgorbini, Carlo Bicchi
Tea prepared by infusion of dried leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, is the second world's most popular beverage, after water. Its consumption is associated with its chemical composition: it influences its sensory and nutritional quality addressing consumer preferences, and potential health benefits. This study aims to obtain an informative chemical signature of the volatile fraction of black tea samples from Ceylon by applying the principles of sensomics. In particular, several high concentration capacity (HCC) sample preparation techniques were tested in combination with GC×GC-MS to investigate chemical signatures of black tea volatiles...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191033/algorithm-and-software-to-automatically-identify-latency-and-amplitude-features-of-local-field-potentials-recorded-in-electrophysiological-investigation
#3
Maria Rubega, Claudia Cecchetto, Stefano Vassanelli, Giovanni Sparacino
BACKGROUND: Local field potentials (LFPs) evoked by sensory stimulation are particularly useful in electrophysiological research. For instance, spike timing and current transmembrane current flow estimated from LFPs recorded in the barrel cortex in rats and mice are exploited to investigate how the brain represents sensory stimuli. Recent improvements in microelectrodes technology enable neuroscientists to acquire a great amount of LFPs during the same experimental session, calling for algorithms for their quantitative automatic analysis...
2017: Source Code for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190358/submerged-cultivation-of-pleurotus-sapidus-with-molasses-aroma-dilution-analyses-by-means-of-solid-phase-microextraction-and-stir-bar-sorptive-extraction
#4
Tobias Trapp, Martina Zajul, Jenny Ahlborn, Alexander Stephan, Holger Zorn, Marco Alexander Fraatz
The basidiomycete Pleurotus sapidus (PSA) was grown in submerged cultures with molasses as substrate for the production of mycelium as a protein source for food applications. The volatilomes of the substrate, the submerged culture, and the mycelia were analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-olfactometry. For compound identification, aroma dilution analyses by means of headspace solid phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction were performed via variation of the split vent flow rate...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187208/respiratory-virus-infection-up-regulates-trpv1-trpa1-and-asics3-receptors-on-airway-cells
#5
Shadia Omar, Rebecca Clarke, Haniah Abdullah, Clare Brady, John Corry, Hanagh Winter, Olivier Touzelet, Ultan F Power, Fionnuala Lundy, Lorcan P A McGarvey, S Louise Cosby
Receptors implicated in cough hypersensitivity are transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential cation channel, Subfamily A, Member 1 (TRPA1) and acid sensing ion channel receptor 3 (ASIC3). Respiratory viruses, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and measles virus (MV) may interact directly and/or indirectly with these receptors on sensory nerves and epithelial cells in the airways. We used in vitro models of sensory neurones (SHSY5Y or differentiated IMR-32 cells) and human bronchial epithelium (BEAS-2B cells) as well as primary human bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) to study the effect of MV and RSV infection on receptor expression...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159253/shelf-life-assessment-of-industrial-durum-wheat-bread-as-a-function-of-packaging-system
#6
Fabio Licciardello, Virgilio Giannone, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile, Giuseppe Muratore, Carmine Summo, Mariagrazia Giarnetti, Francesco Caponio, Vito Michele Paradiso, Antonella Pasqualone
This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, aw and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage...
June 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158932/the-association-of-neonatal-morbidity-with-long-term-neurological-outcome-in-infants-who-were-growth-restricted-and-preterm-at-birth-secondary-analyses-from-truffle-trial-of-randomized-umbilical-and-fetal-flow-in-europe
#7
A G Van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, N Marlow, C Lees, H Wolf
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between neonatal morbidity (NNM) and two-year neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in surviving children after early fetal growth restriction (FGR). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a European randomised trial (TRUFFLE) of delivery for very preterm fetuses dependent on venous Doppler or cardiotocographic criteria. SETTING: Tertiary perinatal centres, participants in TRUFFLE. POPULATION: 402 surviving children after early FGR...
February 3, 2017: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154796/continuous-vs-intermittent-neurofeedback-to-regulate-auditory-cortex-activity-of-tinnitus-patients-using-real-time-fmri-a-pilot-study
#8
Kirsten Emmert, Rotem Kopel, Yury Koush, Raphael Maire, Pascal Senn, Dimitri Van De Ville, Sven Haller
The emerging technique of real-time fMRI neurofeedback trains individuals to regulate their own brain activity via feedback from an fMRI measure of neural activity. Optimum feedback presentation has yet to be determined, particularly when working with clinical populations. To this end, we compared continuous against intermittent feedback in subjects with tinnitus. Fourteen participants with tinnitus completed the whole experiment consisting of nine runs (3 runs × 3 days). Prior to the neurofeedback, the target region was localized within the auditory cortex using auditory stimulation (1 kHz tone pulsating at 6 Hz) in an ON-OFF block design...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133727/diet-induced-obesity-enhances-trpv1-mediated-neurovascular-reactions-in-the-dura-mater
#9
Balázs Marics, Barna Peitl, Kitti Pázmándi, Attila Bácsi, József Németh, Orsolya Oszlács, Gábor Jancsó, Mária Dux
OBJECTIVE: Exploring the pathophysiological changes in transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor of the trigeminovascular system in high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet-induced obesity of experimental animals. BACKGROUND: Clinical and experimental observations suggest a link between obesity and migraine. Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolic and immunological alterations associated with obesity may potentially modulate trigeminovascular functions...
January 30, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130922/stimulus-relevance-modulates-contrast-adaptation-in-visual-cortex
#10
Andreas J Keller, Rachael Houlton, Björn M Kampa, Nicholas A Lesica, Thomas D Mrsic-Flogel, Georg B Keller, Fritjof Helmchen
A general principle of sensory processing is that neurons adapt to sustained stimuli by reducing their response over time. Most of our knowledge on adaptation in single cells is based on experiments in anesthetized animals. How responses adapt in awake animals, when stimuli may be behaviorally relevant or not, remains unclear. Here we show that contrast adaptation in mouse primary visual cortex depends on the behavioral relevance of the stimulus. Cells that adapted to contrast under anesthesia maintained or even increased their activity in awake naïve mice...
January 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129188/adaptive-tracking-control-for-robots-with-an-interneural-computing-scheme
#11
Feng-Sheng Tsai, Sheng-Yi Hsu, Mau-Hsiang Shih
Adaptive tracking control of mobile robots requires the ability to follow a trajectory generated by a moving target. The conventional analysis of adaptive tracking uses energy minimization to study the convergence and robustness of the tracking error when the mobile robot follows a desired trajectory. However, in the case that the moving target generates trajectories with uncertainties, a common Lyapunov-like function for energy minimization may be extremely difficult to determine. Here, to solve the adaptive tracking problem with uncertainties, we wish to implement an interneural computing scheme in the design of a mobile robot for behavior-based navigation...
January 24, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093855/typical-and-atypical-appearance-of-early-onset-alzheimer-s-disease-a-clinical-neuroimaging-and-neuropathological-study-symposium-fundamentals-learned-from-diversity-among-typical-and-atypical-appearances
#12
Shinobu Kawakatsu 川勝 忍, Ryota Kobayashi, Hiroshi Hayashi
The International Working Group (IWG) has classified Alzheimer's disease (AD) as two different types, the typical form and the atypical form, but clinicopathological studies of atypical AD are limited. Because atypical AD cases usually present with early-onset dementia, we investigated 12 patients with early-onset AD, including two patients with typical AD and 10 patients with atypical AD. Of these patients, six had the posterior variant, three had the frontal variant and one had the logopenic variant mixed with semantic dementia...
January 17, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077710/sensory-flow-as-a-basis-for-a-novel-distance-cue-in-freely-behaving-electric-fish
#13
Volker Hofmann, Juan Ignacio Sanguinetti-Scheck, Leonel Gómez-Sena, Jacob Engelmann
: The sensory input that an animal receives is directly linked to its motor activity. Behavior thus enables animals to influence their sensory input, a concept referred to as active sensing. How such behavior can serve as a scaffold for generating sensory information is of general scientific interest. In this article, we investigate how behavior can shape sensory information by using some unique features of the sensorimotor system of the weakly electric fish. Based on quantitative behavioral characterizations and computational reconstruction of sensory input, we show how electrosensory flow is actively created during highly patterned, spontaneous behavior in Gnathonemus petersii...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069927/impact-of-altered-cholinergic-tones-on-the-neurovascular-coupling-response-to-whisker-stimulation
#14
Clotilde Lecrux, Claire H Sandoe, Sujaya Neupane, Pascal Kropf, Xavier Toussay, Xin-Kang Tong, María Lacalle-Aurioles, Amir Shmuel, Edith Hamel
Brain imaging techniques that use vascular signals to map changes in neuronal activity rely on the coupling between electrophysiology and hemodynamics, a phenomenon referred to as "neurovascular coupling" (NVC). It is unknown whether this relationship remains reliable under altered brain states associated with acetylcholine (ACh) levels, such as attention and arousal and in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. We therefore assessed the effects of varying ACh tone on whisker-evoked NVC responses in rat barrel cortex, measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neurophysiological recordings (local field potentials, LFPs)...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069205/study-of-a-laboratory-scaled-new-method-for-the-accelerated-continuous-ageing-of-wine-spirits-by-applying-ultrasound-energy
#15
M J Delgado-González, M M Sánchez-Guillén, M V García-Moreno, M C Rodríguez-Dodero, C García-Barroso, D A Guillén-Sánchez
During the ageing of brandies, many physicochemical processes take place involving the distilled spirit and the wood of the casks. Because of these reactions, the polyphenolic content of brandies and their content of organic acids increase with the ageing. These reactions are slow, and the ageing of high-quality brandies takes several years. In this paper, the development of a system that uses the circulation of the wine distillate through encapsulated American oak chips and the application of ultrasound energy with the aim of producing aged wine spirits has been carried out, and the influences of the operation variables over the characteristics of the produced drink have been measured...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057794/purinergic-signaling-in-the-cardiovascular-system
#16
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock
There is nervous control of the heart by ATP as a cotransmitter in sympathetic, parasympathetic, and sensory-motor nerves, as well as in intracardiac neurons. Centers in the brain control heart activities and vagal cardiovascular reflexes involve purines. Adenine nucleotides and nucleosides act on purinoceptors on cardiomyocytes, AV and SA nodes, cardiac fibroblasts, and coronary blood vessels. Vascular tone is controlled by a dual mechanism. ATP, released from perivascular sympathetic nerves, causes vasoconstriction largely via P2X1 receptors...
January 6, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054311/attention-flexibly-trades-off-across-points-in-time
#17
Rachel N Denison, David J Heeger, Marisa Carrasco
Sensory signals continuously enter the brain, raising the question of how perceptual systems handle this constant flow of input. Attention to an anticipated point in time can prioritize visual information at that time. However, how we voluntarily attend across time when there are successive task-relevant stimuli has been barely investigated. We developed a novel experimental protocol that allowed us to assess, for the first time, both the benefits and costs of voluntary temporal attention when perceiving a short sequence of two or three visual targets with predictable timing...
January 4, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054034/sensory-evaluation-of-gluten-free-quinoa-whole-grain-snacks
#18
Talwinder S Kahlon, Roberto J Avena-Bustillos, Mei-Chen M Chiu
Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt...
December 2016: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053574/evaluation-of-different-commercial-feeds-on-grow-out-silver-black-porgy-sparidentex-hasta-valenciennes-for-optimum-growth-performance-fillet-quality-and-cost-of-production
#19
M A Hossain, K M Al-Abdul-Elah, S El-Dakour
The objective of the study was to find a cost-effective feed from three commercial feeds, namely, Arasco (Saudi Arabia), Skretting (Turkey), and Biomar (Greece) for commercially producing silver black porgy (sobaity bream), Sparidentex hasta in Kuwait. For confidentiality, these feeds were randomly given code names, diets 1, 2, and 3, which were known only to the investigating staffs. The trash fish (diet 4) was used as the control. The experiment was conducted for 28 wk with grow-out sobaity bream (210.0 ± 0...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043447/immediate-spinal-cord-collateral-blood-flow-during-thoracic-aortic-procedures-the-role-of-epidural-arcades
#20
Fabian A Kari, Karin Wittmann, Babak Saravi, Luisa Puttfarcken, Sonja Krause, Katharina Förster, Sven Maier, Ulrich Göbel, Friedhelm Beyersdorf
The objective of this study was to investigate the functional differences between paraspinal and intraspinal compartments of the spinal collateral network and the importance of circular epidural arcades in thoracic aortic surgery. N = 33 pigs (mean body weight: 34 ± 3kg) were included. A single-inlet-model of spinal collateral flow was created: paraspinal inflow into the collateral network was isolated by cephalad and caudal interruption of inflow into epidural arcades using laminectomies. Animals were assigned to treatment groups (Treatment "open" [patent epidural arcades, n = 10] and Treatment "closed" [closed epidural arcades, n = 10]) and Sham groups (Sham "open" n = 8 and Sham "closed" n = 5)...
July 2016: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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