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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664111/morphological-and-functional-changes-in-trpm8-expressing-corneal-cold-thermoreceptor-neurons-during-aging-and-their-impact-on-tearing-in-mice
#1
Ignacio Alcalde, Almudena Íñigo-Portugués, Omar González-González, Laura Almaraz, Enol Artime, Cruz Morenilla-Palao, Juana Gallar, Félix Viana, Jesús Merayo-Lloves, Carlos Belmonte
Morphological and functional alterations of peripheral somatosensory neurons during the aging process lead to a decline of somatosensory perception. Here, we analyze the changes occurring with aging in trigeminal ganglion (TG), TRPM8-expressing cold thermoreceptor neurons innervating the mouse cornea, which participate in the regulation of basal tearing and blinking and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dry eye disease (DED). TG cell bodies and axonal branches were examined in a mouse line (TRPM8BAC -EYFP) expressing a fluorescent reporter...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663478/superb-microvascular-imaging-of-the-median-nerve-in-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-an-electrodiagnostic-and-ultrasonographic-study
#2
Ali Yavuz Karahan, Serdar Arslan, Banu Ordahan, Suleyman Bakdik, Timur Ekiz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraneural blood flow of the median nerve using superb microvascular imaging (SMI) and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS), and to examine their correlation with electroneuromyography in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was used, and the study was conducted in the research unit of a training and research hospital. Patients diagnosed with CTS according to electroneuromyography studies were included in the study...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661478/chronic-adriamycin-treatment-impairs-cgrp-mediated-functions-of-meningeal-sensory-nerves
#3
Éva Deák, Judit Rosta, Krisztina Boros, Gyöngyi Kis, Péter Sántha, Karl Messlinger, Gábor Jancsó, Mária Dux
Adriamycin is a potent anthracycline-type antitumor agent, but it also exerts potentially serious side effects due to its cardiotoxic and neurotoxic propensity. Multiple impairments in sensory nerve functions have been recently reported in various rat models. The present experiments were initiated in an attempt to reveal adriamycin-induced changes in sensory effector functions of chemosensitive meningeal afferents. Meningeal blood flow was measured with laser Doppler flowmetry in the parietal dura mater of adult male Wistar rats...
April 10, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655755/concentration-of-natural-aroma-compounds-from-fruit-juice-hydrolates-by-pervaporation-in-laboratory-and-semi-technical-scale-part-1-base-study
#4
Anna Dawiec-Liśniewska, Antoni Szumny, Daria Podstawczyk, Anna Witek-Krowiak
The first article of a two-article series presents pervaporation (PV) of volatile aroma compounds from fruit juice hydrolates (plum, apple, blackcurrant and cherry). The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of fruit juice hydrolates separation on a laboratory scale (inert gas flow pervaporation system) and semi-technical (vacuum pervaporation system) by means of pervaporation. To create precise matrices for hydrolates before and after pervaporation for each of the separated systems, solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651418/role-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-and-its-modulation-in-renal-hypertension
#5
REVIEW
Yusuke Sata, Geoffrey A Head, Kate Denton, Clive N May, Markus P Schlaich
The kidneys are densely innervated with renal efferent and afferent nerves to communicate with the central nervous system. Innervation of major structural components of the kidneys, such as blood vessels, tubules, the pelvis, and glomeruli, forms a bidirectional neural network to relay sensory and sympathetic signals to and from the brain. Renal efferent nerves regulate renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, tubular reabsorption of sodium and water, as well as release of renin and prostaglandins, all of which contribute to cardiovascular and renal regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649060/liposuction-aspirate-fluid-ascs-injection-and-secondary-healing-in-fingertip-injury-a-pilot-study
#6
M Tarallo, P Fino, D Ribuffo, D Casella, M Toscani, C Spalvieri, W Lattanzi, G Di Taranto
BACKGROUND: Although fingertip injuries account for a high proportion of trauma patients, the correct surgical approach is still debated. This prospective study compares the traditional conservative approach and a new treatment based on the injection of liposuction aspirate fluid (LAF). METHODS: 40 consecutive patients with a fingertip injury were dichotomized into group A (control group: conservative approach) and B (treatment group). Group B underwent liposuction, followed by filtration of the lipoaspirate in a closed device (MyStemEvo®kit), allowing the nonenzymatic separation of LAF, which was then injected at injured site...
March 29, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618546/attention-selectively-gates-afferent-signal-transmission-to-area-v4
#7
Iris Grothe, David Rotermund, Simon David Neitzel, Sunita Mandon, Udo Alexander Ernst, Andreas K Kreiter, Klaus Richard Pawelzik
Selective attention allows focusing on only part of the incoming sensory information. Neurons in the extrastriate visual cortex reflect such selective processing when different stimuli are simultaneously present in their large receptive fields. Their spiking response then resembles the response to the attended stimulus when presented in isolation. Unclear is where in the neuronal pathway attention intervenes to achieve such selective signal routing and processing. To investigate this question, we tagged two equivalent visual stimuli by independent broadband luminance noise and used the spectral coherence of these behaviorally irrelevant signals with the field potential of a local neuronal population in male macaque monkeys' area V4 as a measure for their respective causal influences...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610439/soluble-tnf%C3%AE-signaling-within-the-spinal-cord-contributes-to-the-development-of-autonomic-dysreflexia-and-ensuing-vascular-and-immune-dysfunction-after-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Eugene Mironets, Patrick Osei-Owusu, Valerie Bracchi-Ricard, Roman Fischer, Elizabeth A Owens, Jerome Ricard, Di Wu, Tatiana Saltos, Eileen Collyer, Shaoping Hou, John R Bethea, Veronica J Tom
Cardiovascular disease and susceptibility to infection are leading causes of morbidity and mortality for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). A major contributor to these is autonomic dysreflexia (AD), an amplified reaction of the autonomic nervous system (hallmarked by severe hypertension) in response to sensory stimuli below the injury. Maladaptive plasticity of the spinal sympathetic reflex circuit below the SCI results in AD intensification over time. Mechanisms underlying this maladaptive plasticity are poorly understood, restricting the identification of treatments...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606595/-informative-predation-towards-a-new-species-concept
#9
Philippe Lherminier
We distinguish two types of predations: the predation of matter-energy equals the food chain, and the informative predation is the capture of the information brought by the sexual partners. The cell or parent consumes energy and matter to grow, multiply and produce offspring. A fixed amount of resources is divided by the number of organisms, so individual growth and numerical multiplication are limited by depletion resources of the environment. Inversely, fertilization does not destroy information, but instead produces news...
March 29, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587798/inhibition-of-peripheral-macrophages-by-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonists-suppresses-spinal-microglial-activation-and-neuropathic-pain-in-mice-with-peripheral-nerve-injury
#10
Norikazu Kiguchi, Daichi Kobayashi, Fumihiro Saika, Shinsuke Matsuzaki, Shiroh Kishioka
BACKGROUND: Neuro-immune interaction underlies chronic neuroinflammation and aberrant sensory processing resulting in neuropathic pain. Despite the pathological significance of both neuroinflammation-driven peripheral sensitization and spinal sensitization, the functional relationship between these two distinct events has not been understood. METHODS: In this study, we determined whether inhibition of inflammatory macrophages by administration of α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists improves neuropathic pain and affects microglial activation in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) in mice following partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL)...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579986/ohmic-heating-a-potential-technology-for-sweet-whey-processing
#11
Naiara R Costa, Leandro P Cappato, Marcus Vinicius S Ferreira, Roberto P S Pires, Jeremias Moraes, Erick A Esmerino, Ramon Silva, Roberto P C Neto, Maria Inês B Tavares, Mônica Q Freitas, Raimundo N Silveira Júnior, Flávio N Rodrigues, Rodrigo C Bisaggio, Rodrigo N Cavalcanti, Renata S L Raices, Marcia C Silva, Adriano G Cruz
The use of Ohmic Heating (OH) for sweet whey processing was investigated in this study. Whey samples were subjected to both different OH parameters (2, 4, 5, 7 and 9 V·cm-1 at 60 Hz, up to 72-75 °C/15 s) and conventional processing (72-75 °C/15 s). Physicochemical analyses (pH), color measurements (L*, a*, b*), rheological properties (flow curves and particle size distribution), microstructure (optical microscopy), bioactive compounds (ACE and antioxidant capacity), microbiological characterization (mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, and thermotolerant coliforms), water mobility (TD-magnetic resonance domain), and sensory evaluation (descriptive analysis) were carried out...
April 2018: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566759/impairment-of-microcirculation-and-vascular-responsiveness-in-adolescents-with-primary-raynaud-phenomenon
#12
Bernadett Mosdósi, Kata Bölcskei, Zsuzsanna Helyes
BACKGROUND: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a functional vascular disease, presenting with recurrent episodes of ischemia of extremities in response to cold and emotional stress. Investigating cutaneous microcirculation is an important tool in understanding the complex neuro-immuno-vascular interactions in its pathophysiological mechanisms. Since there is no available data on vascular responsiveness in RP in the paediatric population, we investigated skin perfusion and heat-induced hyperaemia in comparison with clinical severity and laboratory parameters of the disease...
March 23, 2018: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563186/inter-replicon-gene-flow-contributes-to-transcriptional-integration-in-the-sinorhizobium-meliloti-multipartite-genome
#13
George C diCenzo, Deelaka Wellappili, G Brian Golding, Turlough M Finan
Integration of newly acquired genes into existing regulatory networks is necessary for successful horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Ten percent of bacterial species contain at least two DNA replicons over 300 kilobases in size, with the secondary replicons derived predominately through HGT. The Sinorhizobium meliloti genome is split between a 3.7 Mb chromosome, a 1.7 Mb chromid consisting largely of genes acquired through ancient HGT, and a 1.4 Mb megaplasmid consisting primarily of recently acquired genes. Here, RNA-sequencing is used to examine the transcriptional consequences of massive, synthetic genome reduction produced through the removal of the megaplasmid and/or the chromid...
March 21, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559243/an-experimental-model-to-investigate-the-biomechanical-determinants-of-pharyngeal-mucosa-coating-during-swallowing
#14
Vincent Mathieu, Clément de Loubens, Chloé Thomas, Maud Panouillé, Albert Magnin, Isabelle Souchon
The development of innovative experimental approaches is necessary to gain insights in the complex biomechanics of swallowing. In particular, unraveling the mechanisms of formation of the thin film of bolus coating the pharyngeal mucosa after the ingestion of liquid or semi-liquid food products is an important challenge, with implication in dysphagia treatment and sensory perceptions. The aim here is to propose an original experimental model of swallowing (i) to simulate the peristaltic motions driving the bolus from the oral cavity to the esophagus, (ii) to mimic and vary complex physiological variables of the pharyngeal mucosa (lubrication, deformability and velocity) and (iii) to measure the thickness and the composition of the coatings resulting from bolus flow...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551943/repair-of-bone-defect-of-the-lateral-forefoot-by-double-segment-triangular-fibula-flap-with-vascular-pedicle-a-case-report
#15
Ruifu Yang, Mingwu Zhou, Chaofeng Xing, Shimin Li, Li Song, Jia Chen, Yingjie Xiong, Kai Zhang
Objective: To expound the clinical effect of a new operation by transplanting double segment triangular fibula flap with vascular pedicle to repair the forefoot with lateral bone defect, and to study how to improve the operation method in the following stage. Methods: The inclusion criteria: More than 2 phalangeal and metatarsal bones defects of the lateral forefoot, widespread skin and soft tissue defects on pelma and dorsal foot, and destruction of the anterior aspect of foot arch, which seriously affects the foot function...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548446/formulation-of-dark-chocolate-as-a-carrier-to-deliver-eicosapentaenoic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids-effects-on-product-quality
#16
Omer Said Toker, Nevzat Konar, Ibrahim Palabiyik, Haniyeh Rasouli Pirouzian, Sirin Oba, Derya Genc Polat, Ender Sinan Poyrazoglu, Osman Sagdic
In this study, dark chocolate enriched with EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) was developed using various forms and origins. Quality characteristics such as physical, thermo-gravimetric, rheological, textural and sensory properties of chocolates were investigated. The highest EPA/DHA stability was determined in samples prepared by free-flowing powder and microencapsulated forms of omega-3 fatty acids (FA). The L∗ and C∗ values varied from 32.16-33.37 and 7.45-8.09, respectively for the all samples...
July 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543678/clinical-notes-on-chiari-malformation
#17
Rajani Singh, Rajnish Arora, Raj Kumar
Chiari malformations (CMs) are variant structural setup of cerebellum and brain stem at the craniovertebral junction. Normally the cerebellum and parts of the brain stem lie above the foramen magnum. When the part of the cerebellum and/or brainstem protrudes into the upper spinal canal through foramen magnum, it is defined as CM. Chiari malformations may develop when part of the skull is smaller than normal or misshapen, due to which the cerebellum herniates into spinal canal through foramen magnum. This compresses the cerebellum and brainstem affecting functions controlled by these parts and blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539417/excitatory-neuronal-hubs-configure-multisensory-integration-of-slow-waves-in-association-cortex
#18
Satoshi Kuroki, Takamasa Yoshida, Hidekazu Tsutsui, Mizuho Iwama, Reiko Ando, Takayuki Michikawa, Atsushi Miyawaki, Toshio Ohshima, Shigeyoshi Itohara
Multisensory integration (MSI) is a fundamental emergent property of the mammalian brain. During MSI, perceptual information encoded in patterned activity is processed in multimodal association cortex. The systems-level neuronal dynamics that coordinate MSI, however, are unknown. Here, we demonstrate intrinsic hub-like network activity in the association cortex that regulates MSI. We engineered calcium reporter mouse lines based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor yellow cameleon (YC2.60) expressed in excitatory or inhibitory neurons...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537921/the-role-of-the-head-direction-signal-in-spatial-tasks-when-and-how-does-it-guide-behavior
#19
Shahaf Weiss, Dori Derdikman
Since their discovery, mammalian head-direction (HD) cells have been extensively researched in terms of sensory origins, external cue control and circuitry. However, the relationship of HD cells to behavior is not yet fully understood. In the current review, we examine the anatomical clues for information flow in the HD circuit, and an emerging body of evidence that links between neural activity of HD cells and spatial orientation. We hypothesize from results obtained in spatial orientation tasks involving HD cells, that when properly aligned with available external cues, the HD signal could be used for guiding rats to a goal location...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506535/nitrosative-damage-during-retrovirus-infection-induced-neuropathic-pain
#20
Priyanka Chauhan, Wen S Sheng, Shuxian Hu, Sujata Prasad, James R Lokensgard
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathy is currently the most common neurological complication in HIV-infected individuals, occurring in 35-50% of patients undergoing combination anti-retroviral therapy. Data have shown that distal symmetric polyneuropathy develops in mice by 6 weeks following infection with the LP-BM5 retrovirus mixture. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated that glial cells modulate antiviral T-cell effector responses through the programmed death (PD)-1: PD-L1 pathway, thereby limiting the deleterious consequences of unrestrained neuroinflammation...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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