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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821142/manufacture-of-requeij%C3%A3-o-cremoso-processed-cheese-with-galactooligosaccharide
#1
P C Belsito, M V S Ferreira, L P Cappato, R N Cavalcanti, V A S Vidal, T C Pimentel, E A Esmerino, C F Balthazar, R P C Neto, M I B Tavares, P B Zacarchenco, M Q Freitas, M C Silva, R S L Raices, G M Pastore, M A R Pollonio, A G Cruz
The addition of galactooligosaccharide, (GOS, 0, 1.5, 3 or 4g/100g) on the quality parameters of requeijão cremoso was investigated. Chemical characteristics (pH, moisture, fat and protein), color (L*, a*, b*), water mobility by TD- nuclear magnetic resonance, rheology (flow curve and oscillatory tests), microstructure and sensory acceptance (consumer test) were evaluated. The addition of GOS provided a denser and compact structure and reduced number and size of fat globules. Increased GOS level (3 and 4g/100g) improved the softness and spreadability (decrease of G', G″ and apparent viscosity and an increase of tan δ and melting index) and impacted positively on the aroma and taste of the requeijão cremoso...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807414/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-expressing-macrophages-and-keratinocytes-contribute-differentially-to-allergic-and-nonallergic-chronic-itch
#2
Jialie Luo, Jing Feng, Guang Yu, Pu Yang, Madison R Mack, Junhui Du, Weihua Yu, Aihua Qian, Yujin Zhang, Shenbin Liu, Shijin Yin, Amy Xu, Jizhong Cheng, Qingyun Liu, Roger G O'Neil, Yang Xia, Liang Ma, Susan M Carlton, Brian S Kim, Kenneth Renner, Qin Liu, Hongzhen Hu
BACKGROUND: Chronic itch is a highly debilitating symptom that underlies many medical disorders with no universally effective treatments. Although unique neuronal signaling cascades in the sensory ganglia and spinal cord have been shown to critically promote the pathogenesis of chronic itch, the role of skin-associated cells remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the cutaneous mechanisms underlying transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4)-mediated allergic and nonallergic chronic itch...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807144/regulation-of-l-type-cav1-3-channel-activity-and-insulin-secretion-by-the-cgmp-pkg-signaling-pathway
#3
Alejandro Sandoval, Paz Duran, María A Gandini, Arturo Andrade, Angélica Almanza, Simon Kaja, Ricardo Felix
cGMP is a second messenger widely used in the nervous system and other tissues. One of the major effectors for cGMP is the serine/threonine protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of a variety of proteins including ion channels. Previously, it has been shown that the cGMP-PKG signaling pathway inhibits Ca(2+) currents in rat vestibular hair cells and chromaffin cells. This current allegedly flow through voltage-gated CaV1.3L-type Ca(2+) channels, and is important for controlling vestibular hair cell sensory function and catecholamine secretion, respectively...
September 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797199/the-power-of-projectomes-genetic-mosaic-labeling-in-the-larval-zebrafish-brain-reveals-organizing-principles-of-sensory-circuits
#4
Estuardo Robles
In no vertebrate species do we possess an accurate, comprehensive tally of neuron types in the brain. This is in no small part due to the vast diversity of neuronal types that comprise complex vertebrate nervous systems. A fundamental goal of neuroscience is to construct comprehensive catalogs of cell types defined by structure, connectivity, and physiological response properties. This type of information will be invaluable for generating models of how assemblies of neurons encode and distribute sensory information and correspondingly alter behavior...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794465/the-mechanical-representation-of-temporal-delays
#5
Raz Leib, Amir Karniel, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi
When we knock on a door, we perceive the impact as a collection of simultaneous events, combining sound, sight, and tactile sensation. In reality, information from different modalities but from a single source is flowing inside the brain along different pathways, reaching processing centers at different times. Therefore, interpreting different sensory modalities which seem to occur simultaneously requires information processing that accounts for these different delays. As in a computer-based robotic system, does the brain use some explicit estimation of the time delay, to realign the sensory flows? Or does it compensate for temporal delays by representing them as changes in the body/environment mechanics? Using delayed-state or an approximation for delayed-state manipulations between visual and proprioceptive feedback during a tracking task, we show that tracking errors, grip forces, and learning curves are consistent with predictions of a representation that is based on approximation for delay, refuting an explicit delayed-state representation...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794101/modulation-of-taste-processing-by-temperature
#6
Christian H Lemon
Taste stimuli have a temperature that can stimulate thermosensitive neural machinery in the mouth during gustatory experience. Although taste and oral temperature are sometimes discussed as different oral sensory modalities, there is a body of literature that demonstrates temperature is an important component and modulator of the intensity of gustatory neural and perceptual responses. Available data indicate that the influence of temperature on taste, herein referred to as "thermogustation", can vary across taste qualities, can also vary among stimuli presumed to share a common taste quality, and is conditioned on taste stimulus concentration, with neuronal and psychophysical data revealing larger modulatory effects of temperature on gustatory responding to weakened taste solutions compared to concentrated...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766750/using-food-comfortability-to-compare-food-s-sensory-characteristics-expectations-of-elderly-people-with-or-without-oral-health-problems
#7
Mathilde Vandenberghe-Descamps, Claire Sulmont-Rossé, Chantal Septier, Gilles Feron, Hélène Labouré
Food consumption is by far the most important point where food's organoleptic properties can be perceived and can elicit sensory pleasure. Ageing is often accompanied by oral impairments. Those impairments may impact food perception by changing texture perception and the release of flavor components, which have a significant impact on food acceptability. The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of oral health on the perception of food comfortability in an elderly population. This was achieved by asking elderly people with a good oral health and elderly people with poor oral health to rate six cereal products and six meat products using a food comfortability questionnaire...
August 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760859/sound-evoked-activity-influences-myelination-of-brainstem-axons-in-the-trapezoid-body
#8
James L Sinclair, Matthew J Fischl, Olga Alexandrova, Martin Heß, Benedikt Grothe, Christian Leibold, Conny Kopp-Scheinpflug
Plasticity of myelination represents a mechanism to tune the flow of information by balancing functional requirements with metabolic and spatial constraints. The auditory system is heavily myelinated and operates at the upper limits of action potential generation frequency and speed observed in the mammalian CNS. This study aimed to characterize the development of myelin within the trapezoid body, a central auditory fiber tract, and determine the influence sensory experience has on this process in mice of both sexes...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743454/convergence-of-primary-sensory-cortex-and-cerebellar-nuclei-pathways-in-the-whisker-system
#9
REVIEW
Carmen B Schäfer, Freek E Hoebeek
To safely maneuver through the environment the brain needs to compare active sensory information with ongoing motor programs. This process occurs at various levels in the brain: at the lower level, i.e., in the spinal cord, reflexes are generated for the most primitive motor responses; at the intermediate level, i.e., in the brainstem, various nuclei co-process sensory- and motor-related inputs; and, at the higher level cerebellum and thalamo-cortical networks individually compute suitable commands for fine-tuned motor output...
July 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738310/postural-response-to-predictable-and-nonpredictable-visual-flow-in-children-and-adults
#10
Mark A Schmuckler
Children's (3-5years) and adults' postural reactions to different conditions of visual flow information varying in its frequency content was examined using a moving room apparatus. Both groups experienced four conditions of visual input: low-frequency (0.20Hz) visual oscillations, high-frequency (0.60Hz) oscillations, multifrequency nonpredictable visual input, and no imposed visual information. Analyses of the frequency content of anterior-posterior (AP) sway revealed that postural reactions to the single-frequency conditions replicated previous findings; children were responsive to low- and high-frequency oscillations, whereas adults were responsive to low-frequency information...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735649/dystonia-as-a-patterned-motor-malflow
#11
Takahiro Mezaki
The definition of dystonia has been renewed repeatedly but always within the context of overactive muscle contractions. In dystonia the muscles unnecessary for a motion fail to be adequately suppressed because of the loss of central motor control, resulting in inappropriate movements or abnormal postures ("overflow phenomenon"). This represents, however, only one side of the disrupted motor control. Some patients complain of the inability to activate muscles necessary for the intended task despite the lack of motor paresis, as best exemplified by the apraxia of eyelid opening...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735452/characterization-of-polymeric-substance-classes-in-cereal-based-beverages-using-asymmetrical-flow-field-flow-fractionation-with-a-multi-detection-system
#12
Georg Krebs, Thomas Becker, Martina Gastl
Cereal-based beverages contain a complex mixture of various polymeric macromolecules including polysaccharides, peptides, and polyphenols. The molar mass of polymers and their degradation products affect different technological and especially sensory parameters of beverages. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and refractive index detection (dRI) or UV detection (UV) is a technique for structure and molar mass distribution analysis of macromolecules commonly used for pure compound solutions...
July 22, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728939/autonomic-dysreflexia-somatosympathetic-and-viscerosympathetic-vasoconstrictor-responses-to-innocuous-and-noxious-sensory-stimulation-below-lesion-in-human-spinal-cord-injury
#14
Rachael Brown, Alexander R Burton, Vaughan G Macefield
Autonomic dysreflexia is a dangerous elevation in blood pressure in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), produced by a spinally-mediated reflex activation of sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurones supplying skeletal muscle and the gut. Current dogma states that, apart from visceral inputs - such as those originating from a distended bladder or impacted colon - autonomic dysreflexia is triggered by noxious inputs below the lesion. However, while selective stimulation of small-diameter afferents in muscle or skin evokes a sustained increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure, and a transient increase in skin sympathetic nerve activity and decrease in skin blood flow in able-bodied subjects, such noxious inputs have no effects on blood pressure and skin blood flow in SCI individuals...
July 13, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707626/performance-of-neural-networks-for-localizing-moving-objects-with-an-artificial-lateral-line
#15
Luuk H Boulogne, Ben J Wolf, Marco A Wiering, Sietse M van Netten
Fish are able to sense water flow velocities relative to their body with their mechanoreceptive lateral line organ. This organ consists of an array of flow detectors distributed along the fish body. Using the excitation of these individual detectors, fish can determine the location of nearby moving objects. Inspired by this sensory modality, it is shown here how neural networks can be used to extract an object's location from simulated excitation patterns, such as can be measured along arrays of stationary artificial flow velocity sensors...
July 14, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702846/characterization-of-the-encoding-properties-of-intraspinal-mechanosensory-neurons-in-the-lamprey
#16
Nicole Massarelli, Allan L Yau, Kathleen A Hoffman, Tim Kiemel, Eric D Tytell
Proprioceptive sensory inputs are an integral part of the closed-loop system of locomotion. In the lamprey, a model organism for vertebrate locomotion, such sensory inputs come from intraspinal mechanosensory cells called "edge cells". These edge cells synapse directly onto interneurons in the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) circuit and allow the CPG to adjust the motor output according to how the body is bending. However, the encoding properties of the edge cells have never been fully characterized...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700578/a-novel-mechanism-for-mechanosensory-based-rheotaxis-in-larval-zebrafish
#17
Pablo Oteiza, Iris Odstrcil, George Lauder, Ruben Portugues, Florian Engert
When flying or swimming, animals must adjust their own movement to compensate for displacements induced by the flow of the surrounding air or water. These flow-induced displacements can most easily be detected as visual whole-field motion with respect to the animal's frame of reference. Despite this, many aquatic animals consistently orient and swim against oncoming flows (a behaviour known as rheotaxis) even in the absence of visual cues. How animals achieve this task, and its underlying sensory basis, is still unknown...
July 27, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698387/cortical-and-subcortical-coordination-of-visual-spatial-attention-revealed-by-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-recording
#18
Jessica J Green, Carsten N Boehler, Kenneth C Roberts, Ling-Chia Chen, Ruth M Krebs, Allen W Song, Marty G Woldorff
Visual spatial attention has been studied in humans with both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) individually. However, due to the intrinsic limitations of each of these methods used alone, our understanding of the systems-level mechanisms underlying attentional control remains limited. Here, we examined trial-to-trial covariations of concurrently recorded EEG and fMRI in a cued visual spatial-attention task in humans, which allowed delineation of both the generators and modulators of the cue-triggered event-related oscillatory brain activity underlying attentional-control function...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693812/predictions-precision-and-agentive-attention
#19
REVIEW
Andy Clark
Ransom, Fazelpour, and Mole (this journal - 2017) raise an important puzzle for the 'prediction error minimization' account of cognitive processing. That account depicts all cognitive processing as fundamentally in the business of minimizing prediction errors concerning the evolving flow of sensory information. One of the cornerstones of these highly ambitious, would-be unifying accounts is their depiction of attention as nothing other than the process of optimizing the precision (inverse variance) of critical prediction error signals...
July 7, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679792/hydrodynamic-sensory-threshold-in-harbour-seals-phoca-vitulina-for-artificial-flatfish-breathing-currents
#20
Benedikt Niesterok, Guido Dehnhardt, Wolf Hanke
Harbour seals have the ability to detect benthic fish such as flatfish using the water currents these fish emit through their gills (breathing currents). We investigated the sensory threshold in harbour seals for this specific hydrodynamic stimulus under conditions which are realistic for seals hunting in the wild. We used an experimental platform where an artificial breathing current was emitted through one of eight different nozzles. Two seals were trained to search for the active nozzle. Each experimental session consisted of eight test trials of a particular stimulus intensity and 16 supra-threshold trials of high stimulus intensity...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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