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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915151/earth-strength-magnetic-field-affects-the-rheotactic-threshold-of-zebrafish-swimming-in-shoals
#1
Alessandro Cresci, Rosario De Rosa, Nathan F Putman, Claudio Agnisola
Rheotaxis, the unconditioned orienting response to water currents, is a main component of fish behaviour. Rheotaxis is achieved using multiple sensory systems, including visual and tactile cues. Rheotactic orientation in open or low-visibility waters might also benefit from the stable frame of reference provided by the geomagnetic field, but this possibility has not been explored before. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) form shoals living in freshwater systems with low visibility, show a robust positive rheotaxis, and respond to geomagnetic fields...
November 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904881/sfr1-a-tetrahymena-thermophila-sfi1-repeat-protein-modulates-the-production-of-cortical-row-basal-bodies
#2
Westley Heydeck, Alexander J Stemm-Wolf, Janin Knop, Christina C Poh, Mark Winey
Basal bodies are essential microtubule-based structures that template, anchor, and orient cilia at the cell surface. Cilia act primarily in the generation of directional fluid flow and sensory reception, both of which are utilized for a broad spectrum of cellular processes. Although basal bodies contribute to vital cell functions, the molecular contributors of their assembly and maintenance are poorly understood. Previous studies of the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila revealed important roles for two centrin family members in basal body assembly, separation of new basal bodies, and stability...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899298/mechanisms-and-time-course-of-menthol-induced-cutaneous-vasodilation
#3
Daniel H Craighead, Nathaniel B McCartney, James H Tumlinson, Lacy M Alexander
Menthol is a vasoactive compound that is widely used in topical analgesic agents. Menthol induces cutaneous vasodilation, however the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Determining the rates of appearance and clearance of menthol in the skin is important for optimizing topical treatment formulation and dosing. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms contributing to menthol-mediated cutaneous vasodilation and to establish a time course for menthol appearance/clearance in the skin. Ten young (23±1years, 5 males 5 females) subjects participated in two protocols...
November 26, 2016: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884925/sensory-flow-as-a-basis-for-a-novel-distance-cue-in-freely-behaving-electric-fish
#4
Volker Hofmann, Juan Ignacio Sanguinetti-Scheck, Leonel Gómez-Sena, Jacob Engelmann
: The sensory input that an animal receives is directly linked to its motor activity. Behavior thus enables animals to influence their sensory input, a concept referred to as active sensing. How such behavior can serve as a scaffold for generating sensory information is of general scientific interest. In this article, we investigate how behavior can shape sensory information by using some unique features of the sensorimotor system of the weakly electric fish.Based on quantitative behavioral characterizations and computational reconstruction of sensory input, we show how electrosensory flow is actively created during highly patterned, spontaneous behavior in Gnathonemus petersii The spatiotemporal structure of the sensory input provides information for the computation of a novel distance cue, which allows for a continuous estimation of distance...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881668/restoration-of-thermoregulation-after-exercise
#5
Glen P Kenny, Ryan McGinn
Performing exercise, especially in the hot conditions, can heat the body causing significant increases in internal body temperature. To offset this increase, powerful and highly developed autonomic thermoregulatory responses (i.e., skin blood flow and sweating) are activated to enhance whole-body heat loss; a response mediated by temperature sensitive receptors in both the skin and the internal core regions of the body. Independent of thermal control of heat loss, nonthermal factors can have profound consequences on the body's ability to dissipate heat during exercise...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880004/causal-relationships-among-neurons-of-the-nucleus-incertus-and-the-hippocampal-theta-activity-in-the-rat
#6
Sergio Martínez-Bellver, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Aina Luque-García, Joana Martínez-Ricós, Alfonso Valverde-Navarro, Manuel Bataller, Juan Guerrero, Vicent Teruel-Marti
In recent years, a body of evidence has shown that the nucleus incertus (NI), in the dorsal tegmental pons, is a key node of the brainstem circuitry involved in hippocampal theta rhythmicity. Ascending reticular brainstem system activation evokes hippocampal theta rhythm with coupled neuronal activity in the NI. In a recent paper, we showed three populations of neurons in the NI with differential firings during hippocampal theta activation. The objective of this work is to better evaluate the causal relationship between the activity of NI neurons and the hippocampus during theta activation in order to further understand the role of the NI in the theta network...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872268/consistent-functional-connectivity-alterations-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-a-multisite-study
#7
Kristina C Skåtun, Tobias Kaufmann, Nhat Trung Doan, Dag Alnæs, Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Erik G Jönsson, Helena Fatouros-Bergman, Lena Flyckt, Ingrid Melle, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Agartz, Lars T Westlye
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a severe mental illness with high heritability and complex etiology. Mounting evidence from neuroimaging has implicated disrupted brain network connectivity in the pathophysiology. However, previous findings are inconsistent, likely due to a combination of methodological and clinical variability and relatively small sample sizes. Few studies have used a data-driven approach for characterizing pathological interactions between regions in the whole brain and evaluated the generalizability across independent samples...
November 21, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864046/acute-colitis-chronically-alters-immune-infiltration-mechanisms-and-sensory-neuro-immune-interactions
#8
Melissa A Campaniello, Chris Mavrangelos, Samuel Eade, Andrea M Harrington, L Ashley Blackshaw, Stuart M Brierley, Scott D Smid, Patrick A Hughes
OBJECTIVE: Little is understood regarding how disease progression alters immune and sensory nerve function in colitis. We investigated how acute colitis chronically alters immune recruitment and the impact this has on re-activated colitis. To understand the impact of disease progress on sensory systems we investigated the mechanisms underlying altered colonic neuro-immune interactions after acute colitis. DESIGN: Inflammation was compared in mouse models of health, acute tri-nitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) colitis, Remission and Reactivated colitis...
November 15, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852783/an-array-of-descending-visual-interneurons-encoding-self-motion-in-drosophila
#9
Marie P Suver, Ainul Huda, Nicole Iwasaki, Steve Safarik, Michael H Dickinson
: The means by which brains transform sensory information into coherent motor actions is poorly understood. In flies, a relatively small set of descending interneurons are responsible for conveying sensory information and higher-order commands from the brain to motor circuits in the ventral nerve cord. Here, we describe three pairs of genetically identified descending interneurons that integrate information from wide-field visual interneurons and project directly to motor centers controlling flight behavior...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843683/spinal-neuromodulation-as-a-novel-surgical-option-for-failed-back-surgery-syndrome-following-rhbmp-exuberant-bony-growth-in-instrumented-lumbar-fusion-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Ramsis F Ghaly, Alexei Lissounov, Tatiana Tverdohleb, David Kohanchi, Kenneth D Candido, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) for instrumented lumbar fusion was approved in 2002, and since then has led to an increasing incidence of BMP-related neuropathic pain. These patients are usually resistant to conventional medical therapy and frequently undergo multiple surgical revisions without any pain relief. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 58-year-old male was referred to the author's outpatient clinic after four lumbar surgeries did not provide satisfactory pain relief...
2016: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833164/periodontal-tactile-input-activates-the-prefrontal-cortex
#11
Nobuaki Higaki, Takaharu Goto, Tetsuo Ichikawa
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a role in complex cognitive behavioural planning, decision-making, and social behaviours. However, the effects of sensory integration during motor tasks on PFC activation have not been studied to date. Therefore, we investigated the effect of peripheral sensory information and external information on PFC activation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was increased around bilateral Brodmann areas 46 and 10 during visual and auditory information integration during an occlusal force (biting) task...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821327/targeting-nitrative-stress-for-attenuating-cisplatin-induced-downregulation-of-cochlear-lim-domain-only-4-and-ototoxicity
#12
Samson Jamesdaniel, Rajamani Rathinam, William L Neumann
Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity remains a primary dose-limiting adverse effect of this highly effective anticancer drug. The clinical utility of cisplatin could be enhanced if the signaling pathways that regulate the toxic side-effects are delineated. In previous studies, we reported cisplatin-induced nitration of cochlear proteins and provided the first evidence for nitration and downregulation of cochlear LIM domain only 4 (LMO4) in cisplatin ototoxicity. Here, we extend these findings to define the critical role of nitrative stress in cisplatin-induced downregulation of LMO4 and its consequent ototoxic effects in UBOC1 cell cultures derived from sensory epithelial cells of the inner ear and in CBA/J mice...
December 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821066/a-method-for-isolation-of-cone-photoreceptors-from-adult-zebrafish-retinae
#13
Antonino Glaviano, Andrew J Smith, Alfonso Blanco, Sarah McLoughlin, Maria L Cederlund, Theresa Heffernan, Beata Sapetto-Rebow, Yolanda Alvarez, Jun Yin, Breandán N Kennedy
BACKGROUND: Cone photoreceptors are specialised sensory retinal neurons responsible for photopic vision, colour perception and visual acuity. Retinal degenerative diseases are a heterogeneous group of eye diseases in which the most severe vision loss typically arises from cone photoreceptor dysfunction or degeneration. Establishing a method to purify cone photoreceptors from retinal tissue can accelerate the identification of key molecular determinants that underlie cone photoreceptor development, survival and function...
November 7, 2016: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812213/hif-stabilization-weakens-primary-cilia
#14
Andrew Resnick
Although solitary or sensory cilia are present in most cells of the body and their existence has been known since the sixties, very little is known about their functions. One suspected function is fluid flow sensing- physical bending of cilia produces an influx of Ca++, which can then result in a variety of activated signaling pathways. Defective cilia and ciliary-associated proteins have been shown to result in cystic diseases. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is a progressive disease, typically appearing in the 5th decade of life and is one of the most common monogenetic inherited human diseases, affecting approximately 600,000 people in the United States...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807802/acute-aortic-occlusion-in-a-patient-with-chronic-paralysis-due-to-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#15
Satoshi Yamamoto, Yuriko Yokomizo, Takafumi Akai, Takehiro Chiyoda, Hiroshi Goto, Yukiyoshi Masaki
Patients with spinal cord injury experience changes in the cardiovascular system and a high morbidity associated with peripheral artery disease. We report a case of acute aortic occlusion in a patient with chronic paralysis due to spinal cord injury. A 65-year-old man with chronic paralysis due to spinal cord injury developed mottling of the right extremity. Because of the complete tetraplegia, the patient had no subjective symptoms. Computed tomography revealed occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta. An emergency thromboembolectomy established adequate blood flow, and the postoperative course was uneventful...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797832/the-organization-of-mouse-and-human-cortico-hippocampal-networks-estimated-by-intrinsic-functional-connectivity
#16
Eyal Bergmann, Gil Zur, Guy Bershadsky, Itamar Kahn
While the hippocampal memory system has been relatively conserved across mammals, the cerebral cortex has undergone massive expansion. A central question in brain evolution is how cortical development affected the nature of cortical inputs to the hippocampus. To address this question, we compared cortico-hippocampal connectivity using intrinsic functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) in awake mice and humans. We found that fcMRI recapitulates anatomical connectivity, demonstrating sensory mapping within the mouse parahippocampal region...
October 25, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797808/clinicopathological-features-of-adult-onset-neuronal-intranuclear-inclusion-disease
#17
Jun Sone, Keiko Mori, Tomonori Inagaki, Ryu Katsumata, Shinnosuke Takagi, Satoshi Yokoi, Kunihiko Araki, Toshiyasu Kato, Tomohiko Nakamura, Haruki Koike, Hiroshi Takashima, Akihiro Hashiguchi, Yutaka Kohno, Takashi Kurashige, Masaru Kuriyama, Yoshihisa Takiyama, Mai Tsuchiya, Naoyuki Kitagawa, Michi Kawamoto, Hajime Yoshimura, Yutaka Suto, Hiroyuki Nakayasu, Naoko Uehara, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Makoto Takahashi, Norito Kokubun, Takuya Konno, Masahisa Katsuno, Fumiaki Tanaka, Yasushi Iwasaki, Mari Yoshida, Gen Sobue
Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by eosinophilic hyaline intranuclear inclusions in the central and peripheral nervous system, and also in the visceral organs. NIID has been considered to be a heterogeneous disease because of the highly variable clinical manifestations, and ante-mortem diagnosis has been difficult. However, since we reported the usefulness of skin biopsy for the diagnosis of NIID, the number of NIID diagnoses has increased, in particular adult-onset NIID...
December 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790554/comparison-between-thoracic-epidural-block-and-thoracic-paravertebral-block-for-post-thoracotomy-pain-relief
#18
Soniya Biswas, Reetu Verma, Vinod Kumar Bhatia, Ajay Kumar Chaudhary, Girish Chandra, Ravi Prakash
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative pain after thoracotomy is being considered one of the most severe pain and if not treated well, can result in various respiratory and other complications. AIM: Present study was conducted with the aim to compare continuous thoracic epidural infusion with continuous paravertebral infusion for postoperative pain using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and four point observer ranking. The secondary outcomes measured were pulmonary functions and any complication like hypotension, bradycardia, nausea, vomiting, urinary retention and neurological complications if any...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732887/attention-reorganizes-connectivity-across-networks-in-a-frequency-specific-manner
#19
Soyoung Kwon, Masataka Watanabe, Elvira Fischer, Andreas Bartels
Attention allows our brain to focus its limited resources on a given task. It does so by selective modulation of neural activity and of functional connectivity (FC) across brain-wide networks. While there is extensive literature on activity changes, surprisingly few studies examined brain-wide FC modulations that can be cleanly attributed to attention compared to matched visual processing. In contrast to prior approaches, we used an ultra-long trial design that avoided transients from trial onsets, included slow fluctuations (<0...
October 9, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722602/relating-rheology-and-tribology-of-commercial-dairy-colloids-to-sensory-perception
#20
Laura Laguna, Grace Farrell, Michael Bryant, Ardian Morina, Anwesha Sarkar
This study aims to investigate the relationship between rheological and tribological properties of commercial full fat and fat-free/low fat versions of liquid and soft solid colloidal systems (milk, yoghurt, soft cream cheese) with their sensory properties. Oscillatory measurements (strain, frequency), flow curves and tribological measurements (lubrication behaviour using Stribeck analysis) were conducted. Oral condition was mimicked using artificial saliva at 37 (○)C. Discrimination test was conducted by 63 untrained consumers, followed by a qualitative questionnaire...
September 22, 2016: Food & Function
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