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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454814/smoking-behaviour-and-sensations-during-the-pre-quit-period-of-an-exercise-aided-smoking-cessation-intervention
#1
Stefanie De Jesus, Harry Prapavessis
INTRODUCTION: Previous research has shown reductions in cigarette consumption during the pre-quit period of exercise-aided smoking cessation interventions. Smoking topography and sensation patterns during this period is unknown and may provide valuable insight into compensation and cessation readiness. METHODS: Female smokers (N = 236, M age = 43, M cigarettes/day = 17.0) enrolled in an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention self-reported daily cigarette use and cigarette sensory experiences...
February 15, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449520/-a-case-of-hypertrophic-pachymeningitis-with-symptomatic-venous-congestion-due-to-sinus-stenosis
#2
Sho Umegaki, Shin-Ichiro Osawa, Kensuke Kimura, Toshimi Okushima, Nobuhisa Yajima, Tsuyoshi Kawamura, Teiji Tominaga
We report a patient with hypertrophic pachymeningitis and symptomatic stenosis of the superior sagittal sinus. A 71-year-old man presented with right hemiparesis, sensory-dominant aphasia, and right hemispatial neglect that had been worsening over 2 weeks. Computed tomography showed isodense crescent-shaped lesions deforming the surface of the left cerebral hemisphere, mimicking a subdural hematoma with atypical perifocal edema in the left parietal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse thickening of the dura mater with contrast enhancement of his left cerebral hemisphere...
February 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436863/proinsulin-expressing-dendritic-cells-in-type-2-neuropathic-diabetic-patients-with-and-without-foot-lesions
#3
Maria Sambataro, Luisa Sambado, Enrica Trevisiol, Matilde Cacciatore, Anna Furlan, Piero Maria Stefani, Elena Seganfreddo, Elisabetta Durante, Stefania Conte, Silvia Della Bella, Agostino Paccagnella, Angelo Paolo Dei Tos
Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and is frequently associated with foot ischemia and infection, but its pathogenesis is controversial. We hypothesized that proinsulin expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is a process relevant to this condition and could represent a link among hyperglycemia, nerve susceptibility, and diabetic foot lesions. We assessed proinsulin expression by using flow cytometry in dendritic cells from control participants and patients with type 2 diabetic with or without peripheral neuropathy or accompanied by diabetic foot...
February 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435988/a-novel-simple-economic-and-effective-method-for-retarding-maize-tortilla-staling
#4
Jose Alvarez-Ramirez, Samuel Garcia-Diaz, E Jaime Vernon-Carter, L Arturo Bello-Perez
BACKGROUND: Staling of maize tortilla is a major drawback affecting their manufacture, commercialization and consumption. The development of methods that may help retard staling of maize tortilla is an ongoing research topic. In this work a novel, simple, economic and effective method is proposed, based on adding completely gelatinized nixtamalized maize flour dispersion (GMF, g kg-1 ) to the basic masa formulation recipe (water, 600 g kg-1 ; nixtamalized maize flour (NMF), 400 g kg-1 )), in substitution of 50, 100 and 150 g kg-1 of water...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430561/the-cgrp-receptor-antagonist-bibn4096-inhibits-prolonged-meningeal-afferent-activation-evoked-by-brief-local-k-stimulation-but-not-cortical-spreading-depression-induced-afferent-sensitization
#5
Jun Zhao, Dan Levy
Introduction: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is believed to promote migraine headache by enhancing the activity and mechanosensitivity of trigeminal intracranial meningeal afferents. One putative mechanism underlying this afferent response involves an acute excitation of meningeal afferents by cortical efflux of K + and the ensuing antidromic release of proinflammatory sensory neuropeptides, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Objectives: We sought to investigate whether (1) a brief meningeal K + stimulus leads to CGRP-dependent enhancement of meningeal afferent responses and (2) CSD-induced meningeal afferent activation and sensitization involve CGRP receptor signaling...
January 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421434/differential-spinal-and-supraspinal-activation-of-glia-in-a-rat-model-of-morphine-tolerance
#6
Viljami Jokinen, Yulia Sidorova, Hanna Viisanen, Ilida Suleymanova, Henna Tiilikainen, Zhilin Li, Tuomas O Lilius, Kert Mätlik, Jenni E Anttila, Mikko Airavaara, Li Tian, Pekka V Rauhala, Eija A Kalso
Development of tolerance is a well known pharmacological characteristic of opioids and a major clinical problem. In addition to the known neuronal mechanisms of opioid tolerance, activation of glia has emerged as a potentially significant new mechanism. We studied activation of microglia and astrocytes in morphine tolerance and opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rats using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and RNA sequencing in spinal- and supraspinal regions. Chronic morphine treatment that induced tolerance and hyperalgesia also increased immunoreactivity of spinal microglia in the dorsal and ventral horns...
February 6, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401444/the-competition-between-the-noise-and-shear-motion-sensitivity-of-cochlear-inner-hair-cell-stereocilia
#7
Aritra Sasmal, Karl Grosh
Acoustical excitation of the organ of Corti induces radial fluid flow in the subtectorial space (STS) that excites the hair bundles (HBs) of the sensory inner hair cell of the mammalian cochlea. The inner hair cell HBs are bathed in endolymphatic fluid filling a thin gap in the STS between the tectorial membrane and the reticular lamina. According to the fluctuation dissipation theorem, the fluid viscosity gives rise to mechanical fluctuations that are transduced into current noise. Conversely, the stochastic fluctuations of the mechanically gated channels of the HBs also induce dissipation...
January 23, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392278/the-relative-contributions-of-various-viewpoint-oscillation-frequencies-to-the-perception-of-distance-traveled
#8
Martin Bossard, Daniel R Mestre
Humans and most animals are able to navigate in their environment, which generates sensorial information of various kinds, such as proprioceptive cues and optic flow. Previous research focusing on the visual effects of walking (bob, sway, and lunge head motion) has shown that the perception of forward self-motion experienced by static observers can be modulated by adding simulated viewpoint oscillations to the radial flow. In three experimental studies, we examined the effects of several viewpoint oscillation frequencies on static observers' perception of the distance traveled, assuming the assessment of distance traveled to be part of the path integration process...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391908/obesity-and-brain-positron-emission-tomography
#9
REVIEW
Kyoungjune Pak, Seong-Jang Kim, In Joo Kim
Obesity, an increasingly common problem in modern societies, results from energy intake chronically exceeding energy expenditure. This imbalance of energy can be triggered by the internal state of the caloric equation (homeostasis) and non-homeostatic factors, such as social, cultural, psychological, environmental factors or food itself. Nowadays, positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been examined to understand the cerebral control of food intake in humans. Using 15O-H2 PET, changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) coupled to neuronal activity were reported in states of fasting, satiation after feeding, and sensory stimulation...
February 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391824/altered-perfusion-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex-in-patients-with-cervical-spondylotic-myelopathy-an-arterial-spin-labeling-study
#10
Fuqing Zhou, Muhua Huang, Lin Wu, Yongming Tan, Jianqiang Guo, Yong Zhang, Laichang He, Honghan Gong
Objective: Advanced magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown functional plasticity or reorganization and metabolite alterations of N-acetyl aspartate in the sensorimotor cortex (SMC), a hallmark region and key brain network, in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, the nature of perfusion in the SMC and the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), motor function scores, and structural damage of the cervical cord in patients with CSM are not fully understood...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391641/preparation-of-omega-3-rich-oral-supplement-using-dairy-and-non-dairy-based-ingredients
#11
Gunvantsinh Rathod, Narsaiah Kairam
Fish oil is a rich source of omega 3 fatty acids, an essential fatty acid, vital for the functioning of the human body. But the undesirable flavour is an inherent limitation of fish oil which reduces its acceptability. Masking its fish flavour can increase acceptability of fish oil. The present study was focused on double encapsulation of fish oil to mask its distinct flavour. Fish oil was emulsified using soya lecithin where emulsifier to fat ratio was kept 1:4. The emulsion droplets were in the size range of 172...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367275/vibration-guided-mate-searching-in-treehoppers-directional-accuracy-and-sampling-strategies-in-a-complex-sensory-environment
#12
Jeremy S Gibson, Reginald B Cocroft
Animal movement decisions involve an action-perception cycle in which sensory flow influences motor output. Key aspects of the action-perception cycle involved in movement decisions can be identified by integrating path information with measurement of environmental cues. We studied mate searching in insects for which the primary sensory cues are mechanical vibrations traveling through the tissues of living plants. We mapped search paths of male thornbug treehoppers locating stationary females through an exchange of vibrational signals...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362373/streamlined-sensory-motor-communication-through-cortical-reciprocal-connectivity-in-a-visually-guided-eye-movement-task
#13
Takahide Itokazu, Masashi Hasegawa, Rui Kimura, Hironobu Osaki, Urban-Raphael Albrecht, Kazuhiro Sohya, Shubhodeep Chakrabarti, Hideaki Itoh, Tetsufumi Ito, Tatsuo K Sato, Takashi R Sato
Cortical computation is distributed across multiple areas of the cortex by networks of reciprocal connectivity. However, how such connectivity contributes to the communication between the connected areas is not clear. In this study, we examine the communication between sensory and motor cortices. We develop an eye movement task in mice and combine it with optogenetic suppression and two-photon calcium imaging techniques. We identify a small region in the secondary motor cortex (MOs) that controls eye movements and reciprocally connects with a rostrolateral part of the higher visual areas (VRL/A/AL)...
January 23, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340757/comparing-brain-activity-patterns-during-spontaneous-exploratory-and-cue-instructed-learning-using-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-spect-imaging-of-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-freely-behaving-rats
#14
A Mannewitz, J Bock, S Kreitz, A Hess, J Goldschmidt, H Scheich, Katharina Braun
Learning can be categorized into cue-instructed and spontaneous learning types; however, so far, there is no detailed comparative analysis of specific brain pathways involved in these learning types. The aim of this study was to compare brain activity patterns during these learning tasks using the in vivo imaging technique of single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During spontaneous exploratory learning, higher levels of rCBF compared to cue-instructed learning were observed in motor control regions, including specific subregions of the motor cortex and the striatum, as well as in regions of sensory pathways including olfactory, somatosensory, and visual modalities...
January 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334075/classifying-vortex-wakes-using-neural-networks
#15
Brendan Colvert, Mohamad Alsalman, Eva Kanso
Unsteady flows contain information about the objects creating them. Aquatic organisms offer intriguing paradigms for extracting flow information using local sensory measurements. In contrast, classical methods for flow analysis require global knowledge of the flow field. Here, we train neural networks to classify flow patterns using local vorticity measurements. Specifically, we consider vortex wakes behind an oscillating airfoil and we evaluate the accuracy of the network in distinguishing between three wake types, 2S, 2P+2S and 2P+4S...
January 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328505/substance-p-as-a-putative-efferent-transmitter-mediates-gabaergic-inhibition-in-mouse-taste-buds
#16
Anthony Y Huang, Sandy Y Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Capsaicin-mediated modulation on taste nerve responses is thought to be produced indirectly by actions of neuropeptides, e.g., calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), onto taste cells implying playing a role in taste sensitivity. During processing gustatory information in taste buds, CGRP shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling. The underlying assumption has been that SP exerts its effects on taste transmitter secretion in taste buds of mice...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326114/biomechanics-of-swimming-in-developing-larval-fish
#17
REVIEW
Cees J Voesenek, Florian T Muijres, Johan L van Leeuwen
Most larvae of bony fish are able to swim almost immediately after hatching. Their locomotory system supports several vital functions: fish larvae make fast manoeuvres to escape from predators, aim accurately during suction feeding and may migrate towards suitable future habitats. Owing to their small size and low swimming speed, larval fish operate in the intermediate hydrodynamic regime, which connects the viscous and inertial flow regimes. They experience relatively strong viscous effects at low swimming speeds, and relatively strong inertial effects at their highest speeds...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314061/sensory-quality-of-milk-fat-with-low-cholesterol-content-fractioned-by-molecular-distillation
#18
Julia Berti, Nelson R Grosso, Héctor Fernandez, María C Pramparo, María F Gayol
BACKGROUND: Anhydrous Milk Fat (AMF) is a valuable ingredient in several industries, but its cholesterol content is a disadvantage because it is associated to several diseases. The objective of this study was to remove the largest amount possible of cholesterol from anhydrous milk fat (AMF), using molecular distillation, and to analyze the sensory properties of the obtained product. AMF was subjected to various molecular distillation arrangements. RESULTS: The first set of experiments involved molecular distillations performed over a range of evaporation temperatures...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296629/alterations-in-neurovascular-coupling-following-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Hyounguk Jang, Stanley Huang, Daniel X Hammer, Lin Wang, Harmain Rafi, Meijun Ye, Cristin G Welle, Jonathan A N Fisher
Following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), timely transport to a hospital can significantly improve the prognosis for recovery. There is, however, a dearth of quantitative biomarkers for brain injury that can be rapidly acquired and interpreted in active, field environments in which TBIs are frequently incurred. We explored potential functional indicators for TBI that can be noninvasively obtained through portable detection modalities, namely optical and electrophysiological approaches. By combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy with colocalized electrophysiological measurements in a mouse model of TBI, we observed concomitant alterations in sensory-evoked cerebral blood flow (CBF) and electrical potentials following controlled cortical impact...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295924/motion-parallax-in-electric-sensing
#20
Federico Pedraja, Volker Hofmann, Kathleen M Lucas, Colleen Young, Jacob Engelmann, John E Lewis
A crucial step in forming spatial representations of the environment involves the estimation of relative distance. Active sampling through specific movements is considered essential for optimizing the sensory flow that enables the extraction of distance cues. However, in electric sensing, direct evidence for the generation and exploitation of sensory flow is lacking. Weakly electric fish rely on a self-generated electric field to navigate and capture prey in the dark. This electric sense provides a blurred representation of the environment, making the exquisite sensory abilities of electric fish enigmatic...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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