Read by QxMD icon Read

sensory flow

Soyoung Kwon, Masataka Watanabe, Elvira Fischer, Andreas Bartels
Attention allows our brain to focus its limited resources on a given task. It does so by selective modulation of neural activity and of functional connectivity (FC) across brain-wide networks. While there is extensive literature on activity changes, surprisingly few studies examined brain-wide FC modulations that can be cleanly attributed to attention compared to matched visual processing. In contrast to prior approaches, we used an ultra-long trial design that avoided transients from trial onsets, included slow fluctuations (<0...
October 9, 2016: NeuroImage
Laura Laguna, Grace Farrell, Michael Bryant, Ardian Morina, Anwesha Sarkar
This study aims to investigate the relationship between rheological and tribological properties of commercial full fat and fat-free/low fat versions of liquid and soft solid colloidal systems (milk, yoghurt, soft cream cheese) with their sensory properties. Oscillatory measurements (strain, frequency), flow curves and tribological measurements (lubrication behaviour using Stribeck analysis) were conducted. Oral condition was mimicked using artificial saliva at 37 (○)C. Discrimination test was conducted by 63 untrained consumers, followed by a qualitative questionnaire...
September 22, 2016: Food & Function
Elena M Galeano Weber, Tim Hahn, Kirsten Hilger, Christian J Fiebach
Limitations in visual working memory (WM) quality (i.e., WM precision) may depend on perceptual and attentional limitations during stimulus encoding, thereby affecting WM capacity. WM encoding relies on the interaction between sensory processing systems and fronto-parietal 'control' regions, and differences in the quality of this interaction are a plausible source of individual differences in WM capacity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the coupling between perceptual and attentional systems affects the quality of WM encoding...
October 6, 2016: NeuroImage
K Kessler, R A Seymour, G Rippon
Although atypical social behaviour remains a key characterisation of ASD, the presence of sensory and perceptual abnormalities has been given a more central role in recent classification changes. An understanding of the origins of such aberrations could thus prove a fruitful focus for ASD research. Early neurocognitive models of ASD suggested that the study of high frequency activity in the brain as a measure of cortical connectivity might provide the key to understanding the neural correlates of sensory and perceptual deviations in ASD...
October 5, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Liang Hu, Anle Ge, Xixian Wang, Shanshan Wang, Yue Gao, Xiaojun Feng, Wei Du, Bi-Feng Liu
Studies of chemo-sensing in C. elegans to fluctuating gaseous cues are limited due to the lack of a method of precise gas control. In this paper, we describe a microfluidic-based on-demand gas segmented flow generator for performing fluctuating gaseous stimulations to worms. This highly versatile and programmable micro-device integrated with pneumatic valves for flexible and stable gas flow control and worm immobilization enabled us to examine the temporal features of neuronal response to multiple gas pulses with sub-second precision...
October 5, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Vincent Jacob, Akinori Mitani, Taro Toyoizumi, Kevin Fox
Whisker trimming causes substantial reorganisation of neuronal response properties in barrel cortex. However, little is known about experience-dependent rerouting of sensory processing following sensory deprivation. To address this, we performed in vivo intracellular recordings from L2/3, L4, L5-regular-spiking (L5RS), and L5-intrinsic-bursting (L5IB) neurones and measured their multi-whisker receptive field at the level of spiking activity, membrane potential and synaptic conductance before and after sensory deprivation...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Zhenpeng Gao, Zhifang Yu, Tianli Yue, Siew Young Quek
BACKGROUND: Separation of polyphenols from kiwifruit juice is essential to enhance sensory properties and to prevent browning reaction in juice during processing and storage. RESULTS: This research studied the dynamic adsorption and desorption of polyphenols in kiwifruit juice using AB-8 resin. The model obtained could be successfully applied to predict the experimental results of dynamic adsorption capacity (DAC) and dynamic desorption quantity (DDQ). The results showed that dynamic adsorption of polyphenols could be optimised in juice concentration of 19 °Brix, feed flow-rate of 1...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Akikazu Kamiyama, Kazuhisa Fujita, Yoshiki Kashimori
Visual recognition involves bidirectional information flow, which consists of bottom-up information coding from retina and top-down information coding from higher visual areas. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of early visual areas such as primary visual area (V1) in recognition and memory formation. V1 neurons are not passive transformers of sensory inputs but work as adaptive processor, changing their function according to behavioral context. Top-down signals affect tuning property of V1 neurons and contribute to the gating of sensory information relevant to behavior...
September 28, 2016: Bio Systems
Clément Provost, Giulia Piccinini, Sophie Tasseel-Ponche, Pierre Lozeron, Bertrand Arnulf, Alain Yelnik
OBJECTIVE: As proposed after stroke, the study of reactions to a sensory stimulation allows to a better understanding of postural strategies. Below, we provide the analysis in chronic acquired demyelinating polyneuropathies (CADP). MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective study of 25 healthy subjects (57±12years, 8M, 17F) and 25 CADP (66±14years, 20M, 5F) on stabilometric platform (Techno-Concept(®), France). Proprioception was disturbed by tendon vibration on Triceps Surae (TS) and Tibialis Anterior (TA)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Rinaldo David D'Souza, Andrew Max Meier, Pawan Bista, Quanxin Wang, Andreas Burkhalter
Diverse features of sensory stimuli are selectively processed in distinct brain areas. The relative recruitment of inhibitory and excitatory neurons within an area controls the gain of neurons for appropriate stimulus coding. We examined how such a balance of inhibition and excitation is differentially recruited across multiple levels of a cortical hierarchy by mapping the locations and strengths of synaptic inputs to pyramidal and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing neurons in feedforward and feedback pathways interconnecting primary (V1) and two higher visual areas...
September 26, 2016: ELife
Martin Ulrich, Johannes Keller, Georg Grön
Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that the experience of flow aligns with a relative increase in activation of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and relative activation decreases of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and of the amygdala (AMY). In the present study, Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) was used to explore effective connectivity between those brain regions. To test our hypothesis that the DRN causally down-regulates activity of the MPFC and/or of the AMY, 23 healthy male students solved mental arithmetic tasks of varying difficulty during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Andrej Kral, Prasandhya A Yusuf, Rüdiger Land
The theory of predictive coding assumes that higher-order representations influence lower-order representations by generating predictions about sensory input. In congenital deafness, one identified dysfunction is a reduced activation of deep layers in the auditory cortex. Since these layers play a central role for processing top-down influences, congenital deafness might interfere with the integration of top-down and bottom-up information flow. Studies in humans suggest more deficits in higher-order than in primary cortical areas in congenital deafness...
September 13, 2016: Hearing Research
Michael Shoykhet, Jason W Middleton
Normal maturation of sensory information processing in the cortex requires patterned synaptic activity during developmentally regulated critical periods. During early development, spontaneous synaptic activity establishes required patterns of synaptic input, and during later development it influences patterns of sensory experience-dependent neuronal firing. Thalamocortical neurons occupy a critical position in regulating the flow of patterned sensory information from the periphery to the cortex. Abnormal thalamocortical inputs may permanently affect the organization and function of cortical neuronal circuits, especially if they occur during a critical developmental window...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Kyle R Biesecker, Anja I Srienc, Angela M Shimoda, Amit Agarwal, Dwight E Bergles, Paulo Kofuji, Eric A Newman
UNLABELLED: The brain is critically dependent on the regulation of blood flow to nourish active neurons. One widely held hypothesis of blood flow regulation holds that active neurons stimulate Ca(2+) increases in glial cells, triggering glial release of vasodilating agents. This hypothesis has been challenged, as arteriole dilation can occur in the absence of glial Ca(2+) signaling. We address this controversy by imaging glial Ca(2+) signaling and vessel dilation in the mouse retina. We find that sensory stimulation results in Ca(2+) increases in the glial endfeet contacting capillaries, but not arterioles, and that capillary dilations often follow spontaneous Ca(2+) signaling...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Susanne Hoffmann, Tomas Vega-Zuniga, Wolfgang Greiter, Quirin Krabichler, Alexandra Bley, Mariana Matthes, Christiane Zimmer, Uwe Firzlaff, Harald Luksch
The midbrain superior colliculus (SC) commonly features a retinotopic representation of visual space in its superficial layers, which is congruent with maps formed by multisensory neurons and motor neurons in its deep layers. Information flow between layers is suggested to enable the SC to mediate goal-directed orienting movements. While most mammals strongly rely on vision for orienting, some species such as echolocating bats have developed alternative strategies, which raises the question how sensory maps are organized in these animals...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Alice Meunier, Juliette Azimzadeh
Many animal cells assemble single cilia involved in motile and/or sensory functions. In contrast, multiciliated cells (MCCs) assemble up to 300 motile cilia that beat in a coordinate fashion to generate a directional fluid flow. In the human airways, the brain, and the oviduct, MCCs allow mucus clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and egg transportation, respectively. Impairment of MCC function leads to chronic respiratory infections and increased risks of hydrocephalus and female infertility. MCC differentiation during development or repair involves the activation of a regulatory cascade triggered by the inhibition of Notch activity in MCC progenitors...
August 31, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Basavaraju G Sanganahalli, Peter Herman, Douglas L Rothman, Hal Blumenfeld, Fahmeed Hyder
Interpretation of regional blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is contingent on whether local field potential (LFP) and multi-unit activity (MUA) is either dissociated or associated. To examine whether neural-hemodynamic associated and dissociated areas have different metabolic demands, we recorded sensory-evoked responses of BOLD signal, blood flow (CBF), and blood volume (CBV), which with calibrated fMRI provided oxidative metabolism (CMRO2) from rat's ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus (VPL) and somatosensory forelimb cortex (S1FL) and compared these neuroimaging signals to neurophysiological recordings...
October 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Natasha Bray, Fiona E Burrows, Myles Jones, Jason Berwick, Stuart M Allan, Ingo Schiessl
BACKGROUND: Neurovascular coupling describes the mechanism by which the energy and oxygen demand arising from neuronal activity is met by an increase in regional blood flow, known as the haemodynamic response. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an important mediator of neuronal injury, though mechanisms through which IL-1 exerts its effects in the brain are not fully understood. In this study, we set out to investigate if increased cerebral levels of IL-1 have a negative effect on the neurovascular coupling in the cortex in response to sensory stimulation...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Xian-Wei Li, Xiao-Hui Li, Jie Du, Dai Li, Yuan-Jian Li, Chang-Ping Hu
We have found that eIF3a plays an important role in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and up-regulation of eIF3a induced by TGF-β1 is mediated via the ERK1/2 pathway. Whether ERK1/2 - eIF3a signal pathway is involved in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-mediated pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis remains unknown. Pulmonary fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (5 mg/kg) in rats. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts were cultured to investigate the proliferation by BrdU incorporation method and flow cytometry...
May 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Elgar Kanhere, Nan Wang, Ajay Giri Prakash Kottapalli, Mohsen Asadnia, Vignesh Subramaniam, Jianmin Miao, Michael Triantafyllou
Passive mechanosensing is an energy-efficient and effective recourse for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for perceiving their surroundings. The passive sensory organs of aquatic animals have provided inspiration to biomimetic researchers for developing underwater passive sensing systems for AUVs. This work is inspired by the 'integumentary sensory organs' (ISOs) which are dispersed on the skin of crocodiles and are equipped with slowly adapting (SA) and rapidly adapting (RA) receptors. ISOs assist crocodiles in locating the origin of a disturbance, both on the water surface and under water, thereby enabling them to hunt prey even in a dark environment and turbid waters...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"