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sensory flow

Jie Li, Elizabeth Serafin, Mark L Baccei
Highly correlated presynaptic and postsynaptic activity evokes spike timing-dependent long-term potentiation (t-LTP) at primary afferent synapses onto spinal projection neurons. While prior evidence indicates that t-LTP depends upon an elevation in intracellular Ca2+ within projection neurons, the downstream signaling pathways that trigger the observed increase in glutamate release from sensory neurons remain poorly understood. Using in vitro patch clamp recordings from female mouse lamina I spino-parabrachial (PB) neurons, the present study demonstrates a critical role for prostaglandin synthesis in the generation of t-LTP...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Koji Shimonaga, Takafumi Mitsuhara, Masahiro Hosogai, Tomohiro Kawasumi
We report a case of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome accompanied by postoperative intracerebral hemorrhage following blood flow reconstruction for quasi-moyamoya disease associated with Graves' disease that had caused cerebral infarctions. A 44-year-old woman presented with repeated sensory impairment of the fingers on the left hand and weakness of the right lower limb and multiple cerebral infarctions developed in the bilateral frontal lobes. Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography suggested quasi-moyamoya disease...
June 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Jiqiang He, Ding Pan, Panfeng Wu, Juyu Tang
A 37-year-old man complained of a refractory posterior malleolar ulceration on his left ankle. He was diagnosed with Werner syndrome according to the progeroid clinical features and genetic testing. To approach the ulceration, a free flow-through right anterolateral thigh perforator flap with anterolateral thigh cutaneous nerve was harvested. One year later, he was readmitted due to a new ulceration on his right ankle. We harvested the left anterolateral thigh perforator flap with anterolateral thigh cutaneous nerve to reconstruct the defect...
June 2018: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
Alexei A Kamshilin, Maxim A Volynsky, Olga Khayrutdinova, Dilyara Nurkhametova, Laura Babayan, Alexander V Amelin, Oleg V Mamontov, Rashid Giniatullin
BACKGROUND: The non-invasive biomarkers of migraine can help to develop the personalized medication of this disorder. In testing of the antimigraine drugs the capsaicin-induced skin redness with activated TRPV1 receptors in sensory neurons associated with the release of the migraine mediator CGRP has already been widely used. METHODS: Fourteen migraine patients (mean age 34.6 ± 10.2 years) and 14 healthy volunteers (mean age 29.9 ± 9.7 years) participated in the experiment...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Heli Aho, Timo Kauppila, Maija Haanpää
Background and aims As far as we know, the range of issues particular to social work, when working with clients at a pain clinic has not been previously researched. Methods A retrospective study of referrals at the multidisciplinary Pain Clinic of Helsinki University Central Hospital was conducted based on medical records, focusing on pain conditions, treatments and patient flow. Variables used were age, gender, pain conditions, treatment interventions, pain duration and intensity, disruption in everyday life due to pain, psychiatric co-morbidities, referrals, outside care providers, post-treatment care and health habits...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Torsten Gordh, Bertil Vinnars, Håkan Fischer, Hans Blomberg, Jan Modig, Mats Fredrikson, Per Hartvig
Background Brain activation resulting from acute postoperative pain has to our knowledge not previously been studied using positron emission tomography, except from one case study. The aim of this study was to monitor activation in brain sensory pathways during acute pain after surgery of the hand. A secondary aim was to compare brain activation in clinical postoperative pain to that previously reported, by the same research group, for a model of experimental pain from the same body area. Increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is presumed to indicate neuronal activation and decrease in blood flow decreased neuronal firing...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Silvia Lo Vecchio, Lars J Petersen, Thomas Graven-Nielsen, Sara Finocchietti, Parisa Gazerani, Lars Arendt-Nielsen
Background/aims The ultraviolet B (UVB) inflammatory pain model is often used to induce a steady hyperalgesic area in human skin. UVB causes a well-described erythema, developing maximal response within about 24 h. The aim of the present study was to investigate if cutaneous UVB irradiation can influence both superficial and deep-tissue mechanical pain thresholds in the site of irradiation and in the surrounding area. Methods An area of 3 cm × 4 cm, located on the low back of 16 healthy volunteers, was irradiated by UVB (Medlight, Germany; 3xMED: Minimal Erythema Dose)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Yuki Yamada, Yasuaki Kokubo, Kanako Kawanami, Hiroshi Itagaki, Shinji Sato, Yukihiko Sonoda
Background: Decompression of an anomalous vertebral artery (VA) may effectively treat cervical myelopathy/radiculopathy due to resultant spinal cord or nerve compression. Here we report a case of C2 radiculopathy induced by neck flexion due to cord compression of the C2 segmental type VA relieved by microvascular decompression. Case Description: A 30-year-old female presented with left occipitalgia, sensory abnormalities in the left upper and lower extremities, and neck pain induced by neck flexion...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Pavel Slaby, Premysl Bartos, Jakub Karas, Radek Netusil, Kateřina Tomanova, Martin Vacha
Diverse animal species perceive Earth's magnetism and use their magnetic sense to orientate and navigate. Even non-migrating insects such as fruit flies and cockroaches have been shown to exploit the flavoprotein Cryptochrome (Cry) as a likely magnetic direction sensor; however, the transduction mechanism remains unknown. In order to work as a system to steer insect flight or control locomotion, the magnetic sense must transmit the signal from the receptor cells to the brain at a similar speed to other sensory systems, presumably within hundreds of milliseconds or less...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Melissa J Black, Adam A Lucero, Philip W Fink, Lee Stoner, Sarah P Shultz, Sally D Lark, David S Rowlands
The increased risk of falls associated with advancing age has increased demand for methods to improve balance and mobility. The primary purpose of the study was to determine whether wearing Aqua Titan-treated stockings could improve balance and walking performance in an older population; secondary was to elucidate the mechanisms. In a randomized, double-blind crossover, 16 healthy older adults (age, 67.9 ± 4.2 years; BMI, 24.8 ± 3.1 kg/m²) performed two 4-day trials composed of baseline measures and fatiguing exercise on Day 1, with recovery measures at 14, 38 and 62 h post-exercise, wearing Aqua Titan and control stockings...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Wei-Yi Ong, Christian S Stohler, Deron R Herr
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is not only important in executive functions, but also pain processing. The latter is dependent on its connections to other areas of the cerebral neocortex, hippocampus, periaqueductal gray (PAG), thalamus, amygdala, and basal nuclei. Changes in neurotransmitters, gene expression, glial cells, and neuroinflammation occur in the PFC during acute and chronic pain, that result in alterations to its structure, activity, and connectivity. The medial PFC (mPFC) could serve dual, opposing roles in pain: (1) it mediates antinociceptive effects, due to its connections with other cortical areas, and as the main source of cortical afferents to the PAG for modulation of pain...
June 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Lucia Manni, Chiara Anselmi, Paolo Burighel, Margherita Martini, Fabio Gasparini
Tunicates, the sister group of vertebrates, possess a mechanoreceptor organ, the coronal organ, which is considered the best candidate to address the controversial issue of vertebrate hair cell evolution. The organ, located at the base of the oral siphon, controls the flow of seawater into the organism and can drive the "squirting" reaction, i.e., the rapid body muscle contraction used to eject dangerous particles during filtration. Coronal sensory cells are secondary mechanoreceptors and share morphological, developmental and molecular traits with vertebrate hair cells...
June 4, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Günther Pass
Insect wings consist almost entirely of lifeless cuticle; yet their veins host a complex multimodal sensory apparatus and other tissues that require a continuous supply of water, nutrients and oxygen. This review provides a survey of the various living components in insect wings, as well as the specific contribution of the circulatory and tracheal systems to provide all essential substances. In most insects, hemolymph circulates through the veinal network in a loop flow caused by the contraction of accessory pulsatile organs in the thorax...
May 30, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Qiqiang Dong, Guojun Gu, Lijun Wang, Keda Fu, Shuqiang Xie, Songjian Zhang, Huafeng Zhang, Zhaosen Wu
Objective: To investigate the application of modified adjustable skin stretching and secure wound-closure system in repairing of skin and soft tissue defect. Methods: Between March 2016 and April 2017, 21 cases of skin and soft tissue defects were repaired with the modified adjustable skin stretching and secure wound-closure system (the size of regulating pressure and the times of adjustment were determined according to the color, temperature, capillary response, and swelling degree of the skin edge)...
December 1, 2017: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Hyun Jung Lee, Juhui Choe, Ji Won Yoon, Seonjin Kim, Hyemin Oh, Yohan Yoon, Cheorun Jo
We investigated microbial and quality changes in wrap-packaged dry-aged beef after completion of aging and subsequent storage in a refrigerator. After 28 days of dry aging (temperature, 4°C; RH, approximately 75%; air flow velocity, 2.5 m/s), sirloins were trimmed, wrap-packaged, and stored at 4°C for 7 days. Analyses of microbial growth, pH, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TABRS), and instrumental color, myoglobin, and sensory evaluation were conducted on days 0, 3, 5, and 7...
April 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Michael Lohse, Victoria M Bajo, Andrew J King
Ray Guillery was a neuroscientist known primarily for his ground-breaking studies on the development of the visual pathways and subsequently on the nature of thalamocortical processing loops. The legacy of his work, however, extends well beyond the visual system. Thanks to Ray Guillery's pioneering anatomical studies, the ferret has become a widely used animal model for investigating the development and plasticity of sensory processing. This includes our own work on the auditory system, where experiments in ferrets have revealed the role of sensory experience during development in shaping the neural circuits responsible for sound localization, as well as the capacity of the mature brain to adapt to changes in inputs resulting from hearing loss...
May 27, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Andrew J Shepherd, Aaron D Mickle, Lisa A McIlvried, Robert W Gereau, Durga P Mohapatra
Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) is associated with advanced tumor growth and metastasis, especially in breast, prostate and myeloma cancers that metastasize to bones, resulting in debilitating chronic pain conditions. Our recent studies revealed that the receptor for PTHrP, PTH1R, is expressed in mouse DRG neurons, and its activation leads to flow-activation and modulation of TRPV1 channel function, resulting in peripheral heat and mechanical hypersensitivity. In order to verify the translatability of our findings in rodents to humans, we explored if this signaling axis operates in primary human DRG sensory neurons...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Swagata Dey, Krishanu Ray
Cholinergic activity is essential for cognitive functions and neuronal homeostasis. Choline Acetyltransferase (ChAT), a soluble protein that synthesizes acetylcholine at the presynaptic compartment, is transported in bulk in the axons by the heterotrimeric Kinesin-2 motor. Axonal transport of soluble proteins is described as a constitutive process assisted by occasional, non-specific interactions with moving vesicles and motor proteins. Here, we report that an increase in the influx of Kinesin-2 motor and association between ChAT and the motor during a specific developmental period enhances the axonal entry, as well as the anterograde flow of the protein, in the sensory neurons of intact Drosophila nervous system...
May 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexander Leitner, Verena Maier-Kiener, Daniel Kiener
Nanoporous metals have attracted attention in various research fields in the past years since their unique microstructures make them favorable for catalytic, sensory or microelectronic applications. Moreover, the refinement of the ligaments down to the nanoscale leads to an exceptionally high strength. To guarantee a smooth implementation of nanoporous metals into modern devices their thermo-mechanical behavior must be properly understood. Within this study the mechanical flow properties of nanoporous Au were investigated at elevated temperatures up to 300 °C...
May 24, 2018: Nanomaterials
Yanmao Wang, Tianyi Wu, Shengdi Lu, Wanrun Zhong, Chengfang Hu, Gen Wen, Yimin Chai
BACKGROUND: Destruction of digits from trauma results in a much more significant influence on patients' mental state and quality of life than do injuries to other parts. The purpose of this study was to describe a novel modification of medial plantar venous flap for soft tissue defects in the hands and digits. METHODS: Nine patients received medial plantar venous flap to resurface soft tissue defects in the hands or digits between January 2015 and February 2017...
May 23, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
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