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Sot infection

Maria A Pérez-Jacoiste Asín, Nerea Carrasco-Antón, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Rafael San Juan, Rodrigo Alonso-Moralejo, Esther González, Amado Andrés, Francisco López-Medrano, Jose M Aguado
BACKGROUND: The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) after solid organ transplantation (SOT) is increasing. The optimal therapy for post-transplant VL remains unclear, as relapses after liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) are common. Miltefosine has been shown to be effective for treating VL in immunocompetent patients, although data in the specific population of SOT recipients are lacking. METHODS: In the setting of an outbreak of leishmaniasis occurring in Southwest Madrid, we reviewed our experience in 6 SOT recipients with persistent or relapsing VL who received a 28-day course of miltefosine (2...
October 21, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
J H Kim, D S Kim, Y K Yoon, J W Sohn, M J Kim
BACKGROUND: Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is uncommon. Immunosuppressed SOT recipients are at risk of developing severe forms of strongyloidiasis infection through transmission from an infected donor allograft. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English-written articles published up to April 2015. Articles that reported cases of donor-derived strongyloidiasis infection in SOT recipients were reviewed for a pooled analysis...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
L F A Guimarães, M Halpern, A S de Lemos, E F de Gouvêa, R T Gonçalves, M A A da Rosa Santos, M Nucci, G Santoro-Lopes
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is an important complication after solid organ transplantation (SOT). A marked geographic variation in the epidemiology of IFD after kidney transplantation (KT) has been suggested by the results of previous studies. Nevertheless, data from Latin American centers are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to describe the epidemiology of IFD at a Brazilian KT center. METHODS: This study was a retrospective single-center cohort study that included patients who underwent KT between 1998 and 2009 and were followed up until July 2015...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Fatehi Elnour Elzein, Mohammed Alsaeed, Sulafa Ballool, Ashraf Attia
The mortality in Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome (SHS) is alarmingly high. This is particularly common in bone marrow, renal, and other solid organ transplant (SOT) patients, where figures may reach up to 50-85%. Immunosuppressives, principally corticosteroids, are the primary triggering factor. In general, the clinical features of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection are nonspecific; therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy. Although recurrent Gram-negative sepsis and meningitis have been previously reported, the combination of both cytomegalovirus (CMV) and strongyloidiasis had rarely been associated...
2016: Case Reports in Transplantation
Lauren Y Lee, Daniela P Ladner, Michael G Ison
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is gaining recognition as an important cause of diarrhea among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, but existing studies have been limited by a small sample size. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of all adult SOT recipients diagnosed with NoV between 2006 and 2013 and compared their data to that of adult SOT recipients with diarrhea who tested negative for NoV during that time. RESULTS: A total of 192 patients with diarrhea had stool NoV testing as part of their work-up during the study period; of these patients, 35% (67) tested positive for NoV...
October 4, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Diana F Florescu, Uriel Sandkovsky
Diarrhea is a common complication in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and may be attributed to immunosuppressive drugs or infectious organisms such as bacteria, viruses or parasites. Cryptosporidium usually causes self-limited diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts. Although it is estimated that cryptosporidium is involved in about 12% of cases of infectious diarrhea in developing countries and causes approximately 748000 cases each year in the United States, it is still an under recognized and important cause of infectious diarrhea in SOT recipients...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
Fanny Lanternier, Karima Amazzough, Loic Favennec, Marie-France Mamzer-Bruneel, Hendy Abdoul, Jérome Touret, Stéphane Decramer, Julien Zuber, Anne Scemla, Christophe Legendre, Olivier Lortholary, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation. Cryptosporidiosis is classically reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and emerged as a cause of persistent diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. METHODS: Through the ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network and the French Transplantation Society, we collected all cryptosporidiosis cases identified in solid organ transplanted patients between 2006 and 2010 in France...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
Thomas Schachtner, Maik Stein, Petra Reinke
The number of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) after nonrenal solid organ transplantation (SOT) has increased to almost 5%. Knowledge on patient and allograft outcomes, infections, and alloreactivity, however, remains scarce. We studied 40 KTRs after nonrenal SOT. 720 primary KTRs and 119 repeat KTRs were used for comparison. Samples were collected pretransplantation, at +1, +2, and +3 months posttransplantation. Alloreactive and CMV-specific T-cells were measured by interferon-γ Elispot assay. Patient survival in KTRs after SOT, primary and repeat KTRs was comparable...
September 17, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Jason A Trubiano, Douglas Johnson, Asma Sohail, Joseph Torresi
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are often heavily immunosuppressed and consequently at risk of serious illness from vaccine preventable viral and bacterial infections or with endemic fungal and parasitic infections. We review the literature to provide guidance regarding the timing and appropriateness of vaccination and pathogen avoidance related to the immunological status of SOT recipients. METHODS: A PUBMED search ([Vaccination OR vaccine] AND/OR ["specific vaccine"] AND/OR [immunology OR immune response OR cytokine OR T lymphocyte] AND transplant was performed...
June 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Cameron K Ledford, Brian P Chalmers, Joseph M Statz, Kevin I Perry, Tad M Mabry, Arlen D Hanssen, Matthew P Abdel
BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes remain largely unknown beyond perioperative and short-term follow-up of solid organ transplant (SOT) patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Patient mortality, implant survivorship, and complications of 96 TKAs (76 patients) after SOT were retrospectively reviewed through an internal joint registry. Mean age at index arthroplasty was 66 years, and mean follow-up was 4 years. RESULTS: Overall mortality rates at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years from TKA were 2...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
Andrew C Palmisano, Andrew W Kuhn, Andrew G Urquhart, Aidin Eslam Pour
PURPOSE: In a series of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients who underwent a subsequent primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) procedure, this study aimed to determine: (1) 90-day morbidity and mortality after primary total knee or hip arthroplasty (TKA and THA), (2) overall post-operative infection rates, and (3) how complication and infection rates compared across primary TJA procedure and type of transplant organ. METHODS: The University of Michigan Health System database was retrospectively searched using current procedural terminology codes for any primary TKA or THA performed at the institution in years 2000-2012 in a patient who previously received a successful SOT at any hospital...
August 6, 2016: International Orthopaedics
Robin K Avery, Ravit Arav-Boger, Kieren A Marr, Edward Kraus, Shmuel Shoham, Laura Lees, Brandon Trollinger, Pali Shah, Rich Ambinder, Dionysios Neofytos, Darin Ostrander, Michael Forman, Alexandra Valsamakis
BACKGROUND: Antiviral-resistant or refractory cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is challenging, and salvage therapies, foscarnet, and cidofovir, have significant toxicities. Several investigational anti-CMV agents are under development, but more information is needed on outcomes of current treatments to facilitate clinical trial design for new drugs. METHODS: Records of solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients at a single center over a 10-year period were reviewed retrospectively to characterize those who had received foscarnet treatment for ganciclovir-resistant or refractory CMV infection...
October 2016: Transplantation
J Ciricillo, D Haslam, S Blum, M-O Kim, C Liu, G Paulsen, J Courter, L Danziger-Isakov
BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality related to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased, but epidemiology and risk factors within pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are uncertain. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of SOT recipients age ≤18 years at transplantation from 2010 to 2013 was performed. Patients with CDI were compared with matched CDI-negative controls with diarrhea. RESULTS: Of 202 patients, the majority were male (58%) and Caucasian (77%)...
October 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Stephanie M Pouch, Michael J Satlin
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a major global public health concern and pose a serious threat to immunocompromised hosts, particularly patients with hematologic malignancies and solid organ (SOT) and stem cell transplant recipients. In endemic areas, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections occur in 1-18% of SOT recipients, and patients with hematologic malignancies represent 16-24% of all patients with CRE bacteremia. Mortality rates approaching 60% have been reported in these patient populations...
July 28, 2016: Virulence
Antônio Tonete Bafi, Daniere Yurie Vieira Tomotani, Flávio Geraldo Rezende de Freitas
The growing population of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is at a significantly increased risk for developing infections. In some patients, the infection can lead to a dysregulated systemic inflammatory response with acute organ dysfunction. SOT recipients with sepsis tend to have less fever and leukocytosis instances. Moreover, they have diminished symptoms and attenuated clinical and radiologic findings. The current management of sepsis is similar to general patients. It relies mainly on early recognition and treatment, including appropriate administration of antibiotics and resuscitation with intravenous fluids and vasoactive drugs when needed...
July 21, 2016: Shock
Qian Li, Shih-Yin Chen, Stuart J Burstin, Myron J Levin, Jose A Suaya
Background.  This retrospective study investigates the healthcare costs of herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with selected immune-compromised (IC) conditions in the United States (US). Methods.  Patients with incident HZ diagnosis (index date) were selected from nationwide administrative claims databases from 2005 to 2009. Baseline IC groups, analyzed separately, included adults aged 18-64 years with the following: human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), solid organ transplant (SOT), bone marrow or stem cell transplant (BMSCT), or cancer; and older adults (aged ≥65 years) with cancer...
April 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
K E B van Veen, M C Brouwer, A van der Ende, D van de Beek
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk of infections of the central nervous system. However, the incidence and clinical course of bacterial meningitis SOT recipients are unclear. We studied occurrence, disease course, and prognosis of bacterial meningitis in SOT recipients in the Netherlands. METHODS: All patients with a medical history of solid organ transplantation were selected from our nationwide prospective cohort study on community-acquired bacterial meningitis in patients over 16 years old, performed from March 1, 2006 through October 31, 2014...
July 6, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Antonio Ramos, Jorge Ortiz, Ángel Asensio, Rocío Martínez-Ruiz, Elena Múñez, Mireia Cantero, Alberto Cozar, Piedad Ussetti, José Portolés, Valentín Cuervas-Mons
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge about specific risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). METHOD: A retrospective study comparing cases of CDI in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with controls (SOT recipients who did not present CDI). RESULTS: Thirty patients with SOT from 1340 transplantation recipients had at least 1 episode of CDI (2.23%). The accumulated incidence was 3.06% in liver transplantation, 2.78% in lung transplantation, 2...
September 2016: Progress in Transplantation
Oluwatoyin Bamgbola
Among other factors, sophistication of immunosuppressive (IS) regimen accounts for the remarkable success attained in the short- and medium-term solid organ transplant (SOT) survival. The use of steroids, mycophenolate mofetil and calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) have led to annual renal graft survival rates exceeding 90% in the last six decades. On the other hand, attrition rates of the allograft beyond the first year have remained unchanged. In addition, there is a persistent high cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate among transplant recipients with functioning grafts...
June 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism
C E Burton, K E Doucette, C A Mabilangan, S S Plitt, B E Lee, J K Preiksaitis
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important causes of hepatitis and can be transmitted from organ donor to recipient. This study aimed to determine HBV and HCV serologic profiles of a population of Canadian solid organ transplant (SOT) donors and recipients, including prevalence of recipient HBV immunity. METHODS: Data on age, gender, organ transplanted, and pre-transplant HBV and HCV serology for SOT donors and recipients at a Canadian hospital from 2001 to 2011 were obtained from a transplant database...
August 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
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