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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911112/treatment-of-alpha-and-beta-herpesvirus-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#1
C L Abad, R R Razonable
Human herpesviruses frequently cause infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the clinical impact of alpha and beta herpesviruses and highlight the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical indications, and adverse effects of antiviral drugs for the management of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus. We comprehensively evaluated key clinical trials that led to drug approval, and served as the foundation for management guidelines...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882457/cytomegalovirus-vaccines-current-status-and-future-prospects
#2
REVIEW
K M Anderholm, C J Bierle, M R Schleiss
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can result in severe and permanent neurological injury in newborns, and vaccine development is accordingly a major public health priority. HCMV can also cause disease in solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, and a vaccine would be valuable in prevention of viremia and end-organ disease in these populations. Currently there is no licensed HCMV vaccine, but progress toward this goal has been made in recent clinical trials...
November 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875016/cryptococcal-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-over-a-15-year-period-at-a-state-transplant-center
#3
Ian Gassiep, David McDougall, Joel Douglas, Ross Francis, Elliott G Playford
BACKGROUND: The aim of this research paper is to determine the incidence, risk factors and clinical outcome of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients diagnosed and treated for cryptococcosis at our institution. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with SOT diagnosed and treated for cryptococcal infection occurring between January 2001 and December 2015. RESULTS: Of 102 patients diagnosed with cryptococcal infection, 23 were SOT recipients...
November 22, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849440/use-of-cidofovir-for-cytomegalovirus-disease-refractory-to-ganciclovir-in-solid-organ-recipients
#4
Hugo Bonatti, Costi D Sifri, Clara Larcher, Stefan Schneeberger, Camille Kotton, Christian Geltner
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplantation (SOT) frequently is complicated by cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Cidofovir (CDV) is active against CMV, including many ganciclovir (GCV)-resistant mutants, but often is considered to be too nephrotoxic for use after organ transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven males and two females (median age 50.1 years), including two kidney/pancreas, four lung, one small bowel, and two hand recipients, received CDV for refractory CMV disease...
November 16, 2016: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809952/tuberculosis-and-transplantation
#5
José M Aguado, José Tiago Silva, Palash Samanta, Nina Singh
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major opportunistic pathogen in transplant recipients. Compared to that in the general population, the frequency of tuberculosis (TB) is 10 to 40 times higher in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients and 20 to 74 times higher in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Transplant recipients with TB are also more likely to develop disseminated disease, have longer time to definitive diagnosis, require more invasive diagnostic procedures, and experience greater anti-TB treatment-related toxicity than the general population...
November 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801541/leishmaniasis-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#6
REVIEW
Kiran Gajurel, Reshika Dhakal, Stan Deresinski
Leishmaniasis occurs in <1% of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SOT, HSCT) recipients in endemic countries in which transplants are performed. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) makes up the bulk of reported cases. The onset generally occurs months after transplantation and the mode of acquisition is often impossible to determine, but de novo vector-borne infection and reactivation of inapparent infection are thought to be the principal means. The potential role of clinically inapparent donor infection is uncertain and screening is not currently recommended, nor is it recommended for recipients from endemic areas, some of whom may have detectable circulating protozoan nucleic acid...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781101/cytomegalovirus-vaccines-under-clinical-development
#7
EDITORIAL
Mark R Schleiss
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common infectious cause of disability in newborn infants. CMV also causes serious disease in solid organ (SOT) and haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In otherwise healthy children and adults, primary CMV infection rarely causes illness. However, even asymptomatic CMV infections may predispose an individual towards an increased risk of atherosclerosis, cancer and immune senescence over the life course, although such associations remain controversial...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775205/evidence-of-hepatitis-e-virus-transmission-by-renal-graft
#8
Annabelle Pourbaix, Nacera Ouali, Patrick Soussan, Anne Marie Roque Afonso, Marie-Noelle Péraldi, Eric Rondeau, Julie Peltier
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause chronic infection among immunocompromised patients, especially solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, and can evolve to cirrhosis. Several modes of transmission are known. Here we describe the first 2 cases, to our knowledge, of HEV infection transmitted by a kidney graft from the same infected donor that led to chronic hepatitis. Consequently, systematic screening of donors by HEV serology and HEV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction, particularly in endemic regions, should be considered...
October 24, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768239/experience-with-miltefosine-for-persistent-or-relapsing-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-case-series-from-spain
#9
Maria A Pérez-Jacoiste Asín, Nerea Carrasco-Antón, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Rafael San Juan, Rodrigo Alonso-Moralejo, Esther González, Amado Andrés, Francisco López-Medrano, Jose M Aguado
BACKGROUND: The incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) after solid organ transplantation (SOT) is increasing. The optimal therapy for post-transplant VL remains unclear, as relapses after liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) are common. Miltefosine has been shown to be effective for treating VL in immunocompetent patients, although data in the specific population of SOT recipients are lacking. METHODS: In the setting of an outbreak of leishmaniasis occurring in Southwest Madrid, we reviewed our experience in 6 SOT recipients with persistent or relapsing VL who received a 28-day course of miltefosine (2...
October 21, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742318/donor-derived-strongyloidiasis-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-review-and-pooled-analysis
#10
J H Kim, D S Kim, Y K Yoon, J W Sohn, M J Kim
BACKGROUND: Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients is uncommon. Immunosuppressed SOT recipients are at risk of developing severe forms of strongyloidiasis infection through transmission from an infected donor allograft. METHODS: PubMed was searched for English-written articles published up to April 2015. Articles that reported cases of donor-derived strongyloidiasis infection in SOT recipients were reviewed for a pooled analysis...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742285/invasive-fungal-disease-in-renal-transplant-recipients-at-a-brazilian-center-local-epidemiology-matters
#11
L F A Guimarães, M Halpern, A S de Lemos, E F de Gouvêa, R T Gonçalves, M A A da Rosa Santos, M Nucci, G Santoro-Lopes
INTRODUCTION: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is an important complication after solid organ transplantation (SOT). A marked geographic variation in the epidemiology of IFD after kidney transplantation (KT) has been suggested by the results of previous studies. Nevertheless, data from Latin American centers are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to describe the epidemiology of IFD at a Brazilian KT center. METHODS: This study was a retrospective single-center cohort study that included patients who underwent KT between 1998 and 2009 and were followed up until July 2015...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703835/strongyloides-hyperinfection-syndrome-combined-with-cytomegalovirus-infection
#12
Fatehi Elnour Elzein, Mohammed Alsaeed, Sulafa Ballool, Ashraf Attia
The mortality in Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome (SHS) is alarmingly high. This is particularly common in bone marrow, renal, and other solid organ transplant (SOT) patients, where figures may reach up to 50-85%. Immunosuppressives, principally corticosteroids, are the primary triggering factor. In general, the clinical features of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection are nonspecific; therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy. Although recurrent Gram-negative sepsis and meningitis have been previously reported, the combination of both cytomegalovirus (CMV) and strongyloidiasis had rarely been associated...
2016: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699965/norovirus-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#13
Lauren Y Lee, Daniela P Ladner, Michael G Ison
BACKGROUND: Norovirus (NoV) is gaining recognition as an important cause of diarrhea among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, but existing studies have been limited by a small sample size. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of all adult SOT recipients diagnosed with NoV between 2006 and 2013 and compared their data to that of adult SOT recipients with diarrhea who tested negative for NoV during that time. RESULTS: A total of 192 patients with diarrhea had stool NoV testing as part of their work-up during the study period; of these patients, 35% (67) tested positive for NoV...
October 4, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683627/cryptosporidium-infection-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#14
REVIEW
Diana F Florescu, Uriel Sandkovsky
Diarrhea is a common complication in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and may be attributed to immunosuppressive drugs or infectious organisms such as bacteria, viruses or parasites. Cryptosporidium usually causes self-limited diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts. Although it is estimated that cryptosporidium is involved in about 12% of cases of infectious diarrhea in developing countries and causes approximately 748000 cases each year in the United States, it is still an under recognized and important cause of infectious diarrhea in SOT recipients...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681270/cryptosporidium-spp-infection-in-solid-organ-transplantation-the-nationwide-transcrypto-study
#15
Fanny Lanternier, Karima Amazzough, Loic Favennec, Marie-France Mamzer-Bruneel, Hendy Abdoul, Jérome Touret, Stéphane Decramer, Julien Zuber, Anne Scemla, Christophe Legendre, Olivier Lortholary, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent complication of solid organ transplantation. Cryptosporidiosis is classically reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and emerged as a cause of persistent diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. METHODS: Through the ANOFEL Cryptosporidium National Network and the French Transplantation Society, we collected all cryptosporidiosis cases identified in solid organ transplanted patients between 2006 and 2010 in France...
September 27, 2016: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638250/kidney-transplant-recipients-after-nonrenal-solid-organ-transplantation-show-low-alloreactivity-but-an-increased-risk-of-infection
#16
Thomas Schachtner, Maik Stein, Petra Reinke
The number of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) after nonrenal solid organ transplantation (SOT) has increased to almost 5%. Knowledge on patient and allograft outcomes, infections, and alloreactivity, however, remains scarce. We studied 40 KTRs after nonrenal SOT. 720 primary KTRs and 119 repeat KTRs were used for comparison. Samples were collected pretransplantation, at +1, +2, and +3 months posttransplantation. Alloreactive and CMV-specific T-cells were measured by interferon-γ Elispot assay. Patient survival in KTRs after SOT, primary and repeat KTRs was comparable...
September 17, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625399/travel-vaccination-recommendations-and-endemic-infection-risks-in-solid-organ-transplantation-recipients
#17
REVIEW
Jason A Trubiano, Douglas Johnson, Asma Sohail, Joseph Torresi
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are often heavily immunosuppressed and consequently at risk of serious illness from vaccine preventable viral and bacterial infections or with endemic fungal and parasitic infections. We review the literature to provide guidance regarding the timing and appropriateness of vaccination and pathogen avoidance related to the immunological status of SOT recipients. METHODS: A PUBMED search ([Vaccination OR vaccine] AND/OR ["specific vaccine"] AND/OR [immunology OR immune response OR cytokine OR T lymphocyte] AND transplant was performed...
June 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562091/primary-total-knee-arthroplasty-after-solid-organ-transplant-survivorship-and-complications
#18
Cameron K Ledford, Brian P Chalmers, Joseph M Statz, Kevin I Perry, Tad M Mabry, Arlen D Hanssen, Matthew P Abdel
BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes remain largely unknown beyond perioperative and short-term follow-up of solid organ transplant (SOT) patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Patient mortality, implant survivorship, and complications of 96 TKAs (76 patients) after SOT were retrospectively reviewed through an internal joint registry. Mean age at index arthroplasty was 66 years, and mean follow-up was 4 years. RESULTS: Overall mortality rates at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years from TKA were 2...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497936/post-operative-medical-and-surgical-complications-after-primary-total-joint-arthroplasty-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-case-series
#19
Andrew C Palmisano, Andrew W Kuhn, Andrew G Urquhart, Aidin Eslam Pour
PURPOSE: In a series of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients who underwent a subsequent primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) procedure, this study aimed to determine: (1) 90-day morbidity and mortality after primary total knee or hip arthroplasty (TKA and THA), (2) overall post-operative infection rates, and (3) how complication and infection rates compared across primary TJA procedure and type of transplant organ. METHODS: The University of Michigan Health System database was retrospectively searched using current procedural terminology codes for any primary TKA or THA performed at the institution in years 2000-2012 in a patient who previously received a successful SOT at any hospital...
August 6, 2016: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495775/outcomes-in-transplant-recipients-treated-with-foscarnet-for-ganciclovir-resistant-or-refractory-cytomegalovirus-infection
#20
Robin K Avery, Ravit Arav-Boger, Kieren A Marr, Edward Kraus, Shmuel Shoham, Laura Lees, Brandon Trollinger, Pali Shah, Rich Ambinder, Dionysios Neofytos, Darin Ostrander, Michael Forman, Alexandra Valsamakis
BACKGROUND: Antiviral-resistant or refractory cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is challenging, and salvage therapies, foscarnet, and cidofovir, have significant toxicities. Several investigational anti-CMV agents are under development, but more information is needed on outcomes of current treatments to facilitate clinical trial design for new drugs. METHODS: Records of solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients at a single center over a 10-year period were reviewed retrospectively to characterize those who had received foscarnet treatment for ganciclovir-resistant or refractory CMV infection...
October 2016: Transplantation
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