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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737887/current-approaches-to-visceral-leishmaniasis-treatment-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#1
Wanessa Trindade Clemente, Paulo Henrique Orlandi Mourão, Jose María Aguado
The increasing number of transplants performed worldwide and the growing global mobility with migration and travel to and from developing countries and tropical areas are bringing new challenges for the management of transplant infectious diseases, previously less commonly seen, such as Leishmaniasis. However, in this scenario there is a lack of information and the current knowledge is based on a few studies. The selection of the most appropriate treatment depends on various factors, such as patient profile, Leishmania species, disease extent, drug availability, concomitant infections and previous treatments...
May 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715551/severe-infections-in-critically-ill-solid-organ-transplant-patients
#2
REVIEW
Andre C Kalil, Uriel Sandkovsky, Diana F Florescu
BACKGROUND: Severe infections are among the most common causes of death in immunocompromised patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these infections has evolved in the last decade. AIMS: We aim to provide a comprehensive review of these severe infections in this population. SOURCES: Review of the literature pertaining to severe infections in critically ill solid organ transplant (SOT) patients...
April 28, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668123/nocardia-infections-in-the-transplanted-host
#3
M Hemmersbach-Miller, J E Stout, M H Woodworth, G M Cox, J L Saullo
BACKGROUND: Nocardia are uncommon pathogens that disproportionately afflict the immunocompromised host. Epidemiology and outcome data of Nocardia infections in transplant recipients are limited. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients at Duke University Hospital with a history of solid organ transplant (SOT) or hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and at least one positive culture for Nocardia between 1996-2013. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of Nocardia infections in the transplanted host...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668122/aspergillus-infection-of-the-larynx-in-a-solid-organ-transplant-recipient
#4
Andrea Wisniowski-Yáñez, Jaqueline Ramírez-Anguiano, Rodrigo Rosado-Canto, Adolfo Valdivia-Cayoja, Teresa Pérez-Gutiérrez, Jennifer Cuellar-Rodriguez
Primary laryngeal aspergillosis is a rare condition. Only a few cases have been reported in the past years. Most of them have been reported in healthy patients or with a mild immunocompromised state. We report a case of primary laryngeal aspergillosis in a solid-organ transplant recipient (SOT), an infection not previously described in this population; we reviewed the published literature in all populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668074/a-20-year-experience-with-nocardiosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-sot-recipients-in-the-southwestern-united-states-a-single-center-study
#5
Aneela Majeed, Norman Beatty, Ahmad Iftikhar, Adeela Mushtaq, Julia Fisher, Pryce Gaynor, Jeeyong C Kim, Jose Luis Marquez, Francisco E Mora, Anca Georgescu, Tirdad Zangeneh
BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection. Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at higher risk (incidence 0.04% to 3.5%) of developing nocardiosis. Rate of nocardiosis in the Southwestern US may be high due to environmental factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review study on 54 SOT patients diagnosed with Nocardia between 1997 and 2016 at our center. To explore the association of various risk factors with both the development of disseminated disease and mortality, a series of Fisher's exact tests was used...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668068/epidemiology-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-in-the-swiss-transplant-cohort-study
#6
D Neofytos, O Chatzis, D Nasioudis, E Boely Janke, T Doco Lecompte, C Garzoni, C Berger, A Cussini, K Boggian, N Khanna, O Manuel, N J Mueller, C van Delden
BACKGROUND: There is lack of recent multicenter epidemiological data on invasive aspergillosis (IA) among solid organ transplant recipient (SOTr) in the mold-acting antifungal era. We describe the epidemiology and outcomes of IA in a contemporary cohort of SOTr using the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. METHODS: All consecutive SOTr with proven or probable IA between 01.05.2008 and 31.12.2014 were included. A case-control study to identify IA predictors was performed: 1-case was matched with 3-controls based on SOT type, transplant center, and time post-SOT...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656530/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-after-solid-organ-transplantation-a-review-of-more-than-2000-cases
#7
Cybele Lara R Abad, Raymund R Razonable
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a common pathogen worldwide, and it may cause significant infection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). We reviewed all reported TB cases to provide an update on its epidemiology, clinical presentation, management and outcome after SOT. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID were reviewed from January 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 2016 using key words tuberculosis and solid organ transplant or transplantation. RESULTS: There were 187 publications reporting 2082 cases of TB among kidney (n=1719), liver (n=253), heart (n=77), lung (n=25), and kidney-pancreas (n=8) recipients...
April 15, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603514/sexual-acquisition-of-hiv-infection-after-solid-organ-transplantation-late-presentation-and-potentially-fatal-complications
#8
M P Cristelli, M A Mazolin, C Manzardo, M S J Ribeiro, F Cofán, D W C Santos, M A Castel, H Tedesco-Silva, A Moreno, F Diekman, J M Miro, J O Medina-Pestana
INTRODUCTION: While the growing knowledge on HIV among solid organ transplant recipients (SOT) is limited to either pretransplant infection or allograft transmission, there are only sparse reports describing HIV-infection after transplantation through sexual route, the primary mode of transmission in the general population. METHODS: From two different centers, we report nine new cases of HIV infection in SOT recipients attributed to sexual acquisition: eight cases of kidney-transplant recipients and one heart-transplant recipient...
March 30, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553007/the-impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-on-future-outcomes-of-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#9
Ruihong Luo, Janice M Weinberg, Tamar F Barlam
OBJECTIVEClostridium difficile infection (CDI) is common in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, but few studies have examined long-term outcomes. We studied the impact of CDI after SOT on mortality and transplant organ complication-related hospitalizations (TOH).METHODSSOT recipients ≥18 years of age with at least 1 year of posttransplant data were analyzed using the MarketScan database for 2007-2014. Patients who died within one year of transplant were followed until death. Patients were grouped as early CDI (ie, first occurrence ≤90 days posttransplant), late CDI (ie, first occurrence >90 days posttransplant) and controls (ie, no CDI occurrence during follow-up)...
May 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546064/hepatitis-e-update-on-prevention-and-control
#10
REVIEW
Juliana Gil Melgaço, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Vinicius da Motta de Mello, Mariana Leal, Lia Laura Lewis-Ximenez, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common etiology of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Recombinant HEV vaccines have been developed, but only one is commercially available and licensed in China since 2011. Epidemiological studies have identified genotype 3 as the major cause of chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals. Ribavirin has been shown to be effective as a monotherapy to induce HEV clearance in chronic patients who have undergone solid organ transplant (SOT) under immunosuppressive therapy. Efforts and improvements in prevention and control have been made to reduce the instances of acute and chronic hepatitis E in endemic and nonendemic countries...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538674/a-multicenter-consortium-to-define-the-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-pediatric-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-with-inpatient-respiratory-virus-infection
#11
Lara Danziger-Isakov, William J Steinbach, Grant Paulsen, Flor M Munoz, Leigh R Sweet, Michael Green, Marian G Michaels, Janet A Englund, Alastair Murray, Natasha Halasa, Daniel E Dulek, Rebecca Pellett Madan, Betsy C Herold, Brian T Fisher
Background: Respiratory virus infection (RVI) in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients poses a significant risk; however, the epidemiology and effects of an RVI after pediatric SOT in the era of current molecular diagnostic assays are unclear. Methods: A retrospective observational cohort of pediatric SOT recipients (January 2010 to June 2013) was assembled from 9 US pediatric transplant centers. Charts were reviewed for RVI events associated with hospitalization within 1 year after the transplant...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518251/low-5-year-cumulative-incidence-of-post-transplant-lymphoproliferative-disorders-after-solid-organ-transplantation-in-switzerland
#12
Raphael Steiner, Robert Kridel, Emiliano Giostra, Thomas McKee, Rita Achermann, Nicolas Mueller, Oriol Manuel, Michael Dickenmann, Macé M Schuurmans, Laurence de Leval, Thomas Fehr, Marianne Tinguely, Isabelle Binet, Sergio Cogliatti, Eugenia Haralamvieva, Michael Koller, The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study Stcs, Pierre-Yves Dietrich
BACKGROUND: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a potentially life-threatening complication of transplantation occurring in the setting of immunosuppression and oncogenic viral infections. However, little is known about the cumulative incidence, histological subtypes, risk determinants and outcome of PTLD in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients in Switzerland. METHODS: This retrospective observational study investigated adult SOT recipients from two sequential cohorts, the pre-SCTS (Swiss Transplant Cohort Study) series, with data collected from January 1986 to April 2008, and the STCS series, with data collected from May 2008 to December 2014 in Switzerland...
March 8, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512868/lymphopenia-is-associated-with-late-onset-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#13
W A Werbel, M G Ison, M P Angarone, A Yang, V Stosor
BACKGROUND: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) affected 5%-15% of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients prior to universal prophylaxis, classically with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Guidelines generally recommend 6-12 months of prophylaxis post-SOT, yet optimal duration and robust PJP risk stratification have not been established. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center, case-control study of PJP among SOT recipients from January 1998 to December 2013 was conducted...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512280/reduction-in-mortality-associated-with-secondary-cytomegalovirus-prophylaxis-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#14
M Serrano-Alonso, F Guillen-Grima, P Martin-Moreno, G Rabago, J Manrique, M Garcia-Del-Barrio, G Reina, J Torre-Cisneros, M Fernandez-Alonso, J I Herrero
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most important viral pathogen in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. The role of secondary CMV prophylaxis in this population remains unclear. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in a single center. SOT recipients treated for CMV infection from 2007 to 2014 were studied to determine the efficacy and safety of secondary prophylaxis and its impact on graft loss and mortality. The outcome variable was CMV replication in the first 3 months after the end of therapy...
March 7, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427966/do-higher-cut-off-values-for-tuberculin-skin-test-increase-the-specificity-and-diagnostic-agreement-with-interferon-gamma-release-assays-in-immunocompromised-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccinated-patients
#15
Serhat Erol, Fatma Arslan Ciftci, Aydin Ciledag, Akin Kaya, Ozlem Ozdemir Kumbasar
PURPOSE: Immunocompromised patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at high risk of progression to active tuberculosis. Detection and treatment of LTBI in this group of patients are very important to control active tuberculosis. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are two methods for detection of LTBI. Diagnostic agreement between two tests are poor especially in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated immunocompromised patients. In this study, we tried to figure out if the use of a higher cut-off for TST increases diagnostic agreement with IGRAs and TST specificity and or not...
February 7, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407296/oral-vancomycin-monotherapy-versus-combination-therapy-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-with-uncomplicated-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
G B Korayem, K Eljaaly, K R Matthias, T T Zangeneh
INTRODUCTION: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at high risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and CDI recurrence due to their suppressed immune systems and antibiotic exposure. A combination of metronidazole and oral vancomycin is often prescribed for SOT recipients with uncomplicated CDI despite any clinical practice guidelines supporting the need for combination therapy. This study aims to compare the CDI recurrence rates of metronidazole/vancomycin combination therapy to oral vancomycin monotherapy in SOT recipients after a first episode of uncomplicated CDI...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381647/recommendations-for-management-of-endemic-diseases-and-travel-medicine-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-and-donors-latin-america
#17
Wanessa Trindade Clemente, Lígia Camera Pierrotti, Edson Abdala, Michele I Morris, Luiz S Azevedo, Rogelio López-Vélez, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella, Julian Torre-Cisneros, Eskild Petersen, Luis Fernando A Camargo, Alissa Jade Wright, Nicholas J Beeching, Eduardo Garcia Vilela, Guilherme Santoro-Lopes, Oscar Len, Raquel S B Stucchi, Oriol Manuel, Luciana Costa Faria, Hakan Leblebicioglu, Shirish Huprikar, Israel Molina, Paulo Henrique Orlandi Mourão, Camille N Kotton, José María Aguado
The Recommendations for Management of Endemic Diseases and Travel Medicine in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients and Donors: Latin America clinical practice guideline is intended to guide clinicians caring for solid-organ transplant (SOT) donors, candidates and recipients regarding infectious diseases (ID) issues related to this geographical region, mostly located in the tropics. These recommendations are based on both systematic reviews of relevant literature and expert opinion from both transplant ID and travel medicine specialists...
February 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380226/infections-in-liver-and-lung-transplant-recipients-a-national-prospective-cohort
#18
Carlo Gagliotti, Filomena Morsillo, Maria Luisa Moro, Lucia Masiero, Francesco Procaccio, Francesca Vespasiano, Annalisa Pantosti, Monica Monaco, Giulia Errico, Andrea Ricci, Paolo Grossi, Alessandro Nanni Costa
Infections are a major complication of solid organ transplants (SOTs). This study aimed to describe recipients' characteristics, and the frequency and etiology of infections and transplant outcome in liver and lung SOTs, and to investigate exposures associated to infection and death in liver transplant recipients. The study population included recipients of SOTs performed in Italy during a 1-year period in ten Italian lung transplant units and eight liver transplant units. Data on comorbidities, infections, retransplantation, and death were prospectively collected using a web-based system, with a 6-month follow-up...
March 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360250/impact-of-electronic-health-record-based-pharmacist-driven-valganciclovir-dose-optimization-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#19
David Hensler, Chad L Richardson, Joslyn Brown, Christine Tseng, Phyllis J DeCamp, Amy Yang, Anna Pawlowski, Bing Ho, Michael G Ison
BACKGROUND: Prophylaxis with valganciclovir reduces the incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection following solid organ transplant (SOT). Under-dosing of valganciclovir is associated with an increased risk of CMV infection and development of ganciclovir-resistant CMV. METHODS: An automated electronic health record (EHR)-based, pharmacist-driven program was developed to optimize dosing of valganciclovir in solid organ transplant recipients at a large transplant center...
April 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349869/clostridium-difficile-infection-is-associated-with-graft-loss-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#20
A Cusini, C Béguelin, S Stampf, K Boggian, C Garzoni, M Koller, O Manuel, P Meylan, N J Mueller, H H Hirsch, M Weisser, C Berger, C van Delden
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea in solid organ transplant recipients (SOT). We aimed to assess incidence, risk factors, and outcome of CDI within the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS). We performed a case-control study of SOT recipients in the STCS diagnosed with CDI between May 2008 and August 2013. We matched 2 control subjects per case by age at transplantation, sex, and transplanted organ. A multivariable analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression to identify risk factors and evaluate outcome of CDI...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
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