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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618165/herpes-simplex-virus-2-transmission-following-solid-organ-transplantation-donor-derived-infection-and-transplantation-from-prior-organ-recipients
#1
Nenad Macesic, Ian J Abbott, Matthew Kaye, Julian Druce, Allan R Glanville, Paul J Gow, Peter D Hughes, Tony M Korman, William R Mulley, Phillip J O'Connell, Helen Opdam, Miranda Paraskeva, Matthew C Pitman, Stella Setyapranata, William D Rawlinson, Paul D R Johnson
BACKGROUND: Owing to limited availability of donor organs, previous solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are increasingly considered as potential organ donors. We report donor-derived transmission of herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) to two clusters of SOT recipients with transmission from the original donor and an HSV-2-infected recipient who subsequently became a donor. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of the donors and recipients in both clusters. Pre-transplant serology and virological features of HSV-2 were characterized...
June 15, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614192/perioperative-antibiotic-prophylaxis-to-prevent-surgical-site-infections-in-solid-organ-transplantation
#2
Judith A Anesi, Emily A Blumberg, Lilian M Abbo
Antibiotic prophylaxis in the perioperative period is the standard of care for nearly all surgical procedures and routinely prescribed during solid organ transplantation (SOT). The primary goal of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis is to minimize postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are a significant issue in SOT. Depending on the organ transplanted, SSIs occur in 3 to 53% of patients, with the highest rates observed in small bowel/multivisceral, liver, and pancreas transplant recipients. SOT recipients are also at increased risk of developing SSIs with antimicrobial-resistant organisms...
June 13, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599954/cmv-specific-t-cell-immunity-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-at-low-risk-of-cmv-infection-chronology-and-applicability-in-preemptive-therapy
#3
Juan Damián Mena-Romo, Pilar Pérez Romero, Cecilia Martín-Gandul, Miguel Ángel Gentil, Gonzalo Suárez-Artacho, Ernesto Lage, Magdalena Sánchez, Elisa Cordero
OBJECTIVES: To characterize whether the CMV-specific cellular immune response can be used as a predictor of the control of CMV infection and disease and determine thresholds in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients seropositive for CMV (R+). METHODS: The CMV-specific T-cell response was characterized using intracellular cytokine staining and the evolution of clinical and virological parameters were recorded during the first year after transplantation. RESULTS: Besides having positive CMV serology, only 28...
June 11, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583524/epidemiology-and-outcome-of-ganciclovir-resistant-cytomegalovirus-infection-after-solid-organ-transplantation-a-single-transplant-center-experience-in-thailand
#4
J Bruminhent, P Rotjanapan, S P Watcharananan
BACKGROUND: Data on drug-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in solid organ transplantation (SOT) are not often reported from resource-limited settings. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology and outcomes of this infection in SOT recipients at our institution. METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted from January 2012 to May 2015. We included all SOT recipients who were suspected for drug-resistant CMV infection. Genotypic assay for UL97 gene mutation was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction...
June 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562417/strongyloides-stercoralis-in-solid-organ-transplantation-early-diagnosis-gets-the-worm
#5
Constance M Mobley, Atiya Dhala, Rafik Mark Ghobrial
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Complications of infection are strongly associated with alcoholism, immunosuppression, and organ transplantation. Delayed diagnosis results in hyperinfection syndrome and disseminated strongyloidiasis leading to mortality rates approaching 80%. Early detection, and prevention of infection and transmission are key to diminish this illness. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we cover the basic concepts in immunity, immunosuppression, and disorder necessary for understanding the infectious syndromes associated with Strongyloides stercoralis infection...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561517/malakoplakia-after-kidney-transplantation-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
John Fredy Nieto-Ríos, Isabel Ramírez, Mónica Zuluaga-Quintero, Lina María Serna-Higuita, Federico Gaviria-Gil, Alejandro Velez-Hoyos
Malakoplakia is a granulomatous disease associated with an infectious etiology, usually involving the urinary tract. It reveals itself as a recurrent urinary tract infection (r-UTI), and in some cases, it is associated with impairment of renal function. Immunosuppression is one of its main associated factors, and it has been increasingly described in patients with solid organ transplantation (SOT), mainly kidney transplantation. Macroscopically, it can form masses and sometimes it may be confused with neoplasia, which is why histological findings are fundamental for the diagnosis...
May 31, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513974/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-outcomes-in-immunocompetent-and-immunocompromised-patients-a-single-center-experience
#7
Sally Alrabaa, Ripal Jariwala, Kristen Zeitler, Jose Montero
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major infectious disease focus for which fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used with success in various patient populations. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of FMT in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients to review outcomes at our center, with a focus on identifying risk factors for FMT failure in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. FMT was conducted using universal banked frozen stool via naso-duodenal tube in patients with recurrent CDI of 3 or more episodes per our institutional protocol...
May 17, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511545/fosfomycin-tromethamine-for-the-treatment-of-cystitis-in-abdominal-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-with-renal-dysfunction
#8
Luiza Kerstenetzky, Margaret R Jorgenson, Jillian L Descourouez, Glen Leverson, Warren E Rose, Robert R Redfield, Jeannina A Smith
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) after abdominal solid organ transplantation (SOT) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Fosfomycin tromethamine (FOS), a uroselective antibiotic, is FDA approved for uncomplicated UTIs in women and is used off-label for complicated UTIs and prostatitis in men. Literature supporting the use of FOS in the SOT population is limited, and efficacy is questioned in the setting of renal dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the success of FOS for the treatment of cystitis in SOT patients with renal dysfunction...
May 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505159/infectious-disease-ward-admission-positively-influences-p-jiroveci-pneumonia-pjp-outcome-a-retrospective-analysis-of-116-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-immunocompromised-patients
#9
Alessandra Ricciardi, Elisa Gentilotti, Luigi Coppola, Gaetano Maffongelli, Carlotta Cerva, Vincenzo Malagnino, Alessia Mari, Ambra Di Veroli, Federica Berrilli, Fabiana Apice, Nicola Toschi, David Di Cave, Saverio Giuseppe Parisi, Massimo Andreoni, Loredana Sarmati
P. jiroveci (Pj) causes a potentially fatal pneumonia in immunocompromised patients and the factors associated with a bad outcome are poorly understood. A retrospective analysis on Pj pneumonia (PjP) cases occurring in Tor Vergata University Hospital, Italy, during the period 2011-2015. The patients' demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics and the Pj genotypes were considered. The study population included 116 patients, 37.9% of whom had haematological malignancy or underwent haematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 22...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500792/changing-trends-in-the-aetiology-treatment-and-outcomes-of-bloodstream-infection-occurring-in-the-first-year-after-solid-organ-transplantation-a-single-centre-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Isabel Oriol, Núria Sabé, Antonella F Simonetti, Laura Lladó, Anna Manonelles, Jose González, Fe Tubau, Jordi Carratalà
To analyse trends in the aetiology, treatment and outcomes of BSI within the first year post-transplant over the last 10-year period, we prospectively recorded all episodes of BSI occurring in SOT recipients during the first year post-transplant from 2007 to 2016. Trends of factors were analysed by 2-year periods. Of 475 consecutive episodes of BSI, 218 occurred within a year of SOT in 178 SOT recipients. Gram-positive BSI decreased over time (40.5% to 2.2%). In contrast, there was a steady increase in Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) BSI (54...
May 13, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480277/epidemiology-of-cryptococcosis-and-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-a-large-retrospective-cohort-of-patients-after-solid-organ-transplantation
#11
Ige A George, Carlos A Q Santos, Margaret A Olsen, William G Powderly
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcosis is the third most common invasive fungal infection in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. There are no nationally representative data describing the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of cryptococcosis after SOT. METHODS: We assembled a large cohort of adult SOT recipients using Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification billing data from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases of Florida (2006-2012), New York (2006-2011), and California (2004-2010)...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470983/colonization-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-solid-organ-transplantation-a-meta-analysis-and-review
#12
REVIEW
Michail Alevizakos, Athanasios Kallias, Myrto Eleni Flokas, Eleftherios Mylonakis
BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) may cause severe infections, often preceded by ESBL-E gastrointestinal (GI) colonization. METHODS: We conducted a review of the literature, investigating the prevalence of ESBL-E GI colonization in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients and the risk for subsequent ESBL-E infection. We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases (to April 1, 2016) looking for studies that contained data on ESBL-E colonization among transplant patients...
May 4, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423227/a-national-survey-of-screening-and-management-of-hypogammaglobulinemia-in-canadian-transplantation-centers
#13
Samuel Bourassa-Blanchette, Greg Knoll, Jason Tay, Christopher Bredeson, Donald W Cameron, Juthaporn Cowan
BACKGROUND: Infection remains one of the most common transplant-related causes of death in patients undergoing transplantation. Secondary hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG) as a component of immune suppression and deficiency is associated with both solid organ transplantation (SOT) and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Available data and clinical experience for the supplementation of immunoglobulin (Ig) in these patients is conflicting, and differing clinical opinion accounts for non-uniform practice in the use of Ig treatment...
April 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421185/changes-in-composition-of-the-gut-bacterial-microbiome-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-pediatric-heart-transplant-patient
#14
Kyle L Flannigan, Taylor Rajbar, Andrew Moffat, Leanna S McKenzie, Frank Dicke, Kevin Rioux, Matthew L Workentine, Thomas J Louie, Simon A Hirota, Steven C Greenway
The microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important influence on human health and many of the comorbidities that affect patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) have been shown to involve changes in gut bacterial populations. Thus, microbiome changes in an individual patient may have important health implications after SOT but this area remains understudied. We describe changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome from a pediatric heart transplant recipient before and >2.5 years after he underwent repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401625/fatal-case-of-cutaneous-sparing-oro-laryngeal-zoster-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#15
Elie Helou, Matthew Grant, Marie Landry, Xinyu Wu, Jon S Morrow, Maricar F Malinis
Herpesvirus infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We report a case of herpes zoster (HZ) in a kidney transplant recipient while receiving belatacept, a CTLA-4 inhibitor that prevents acute rejection. The patient presented with oropharyngolaryngeal mucosal lesions that subsequently disseminated resulting in pneumonitis and meningo-encephalitis. Very late-onset HZ can occur and can present atypically in SOT recipients. Delayed recognition and treatment may result in poor outcomes, as illustrated by this case...
April 12, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392824/posttransplantation-lymphoproliferative-disorder-after-pediatric-solid-organ-transplantation-experiences-of-20-years-in-a-single-center
#16
Hyung Joo Jeong, Yo Han Ahn, Eujin Park, Youngrok Choi, Nam-Joon Yi, Jae Sung Ko, Sang Il Min, Jong Won Ha, Il-Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong, Hee Gyung Kang
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical spectrum of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after solid organ transplantation (SOT) in children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 18 patients with PTLD who underwent liver (LT) or kidney transplantation (KT) between January 1995 and December 2014 in Seoul National University Children's Hospital. RESULTS: Eighteen patients (3.9% of pediatric SOTs; LT:KT, 11:7; male to female, 9:9) were diagnosed as having PTLD over the last 2 decades (4...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388307/cytomegalovirus-infection-in-lung-transplant-recipients
#17
Reem S Almaghrabi, Ali S Omrani, Ziad A Memish
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. Lung transplant recipients are particularly at risk given the intense immunosuppression required. Areas covered: The Detailed review of the literature related to CMV infection, its direct and indirect effect on lung allograft function, as well as diagnosis, immune monitoring, treatment options and prevention strategies. Expert commentary: In lung transplant recipients, CMV infection is associated with pro-inflammatory and immune inhibitory effects that increase the risk of graft dysfunction and loss...
May 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369203/risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-ganciclovir-resistant-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#18
C E Fisher, J L Knudsen, E D Lease, K R Jerome, R M Rakita, M Boeckh, A P Limaye
Background: Ganciclovir-resistant (ganR)-CMV is an emerging and important problem in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Only through direct comparison of ganR- and ganciclovir-sensitive (ganS)-CMV infection can risk factors and outcomes attributable specifically to ganciclovir resistance be appropriately determined. Methods: We performed a retrospective, case-control (1:3) study of SOT recipients with genotypically-confirmed ganR-CMV (n=37) and ganS-CMV infection (n=109), matched by donor/recipient CMV serostatus, year and organ transplanted, and clinical manifestation...
March 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367350/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-occurring-in-a-kidney-transplant-patient-with-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#19
Jose Iglesias, Kandria Jumil Ledesma, Paul J Couto, Jessie Liu
Tuberculosis (TB) occurring in solid organ transplantation (SOT) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality usually due to delays in diagnosis, drug toxicity encountered with antimycobacterial therapy, and drug-drug interactions. TB in SOT patients may mimic other infectious and noninfectious posttransplant complications such as posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) and systemic cytomegalovirus infection. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a host response resulting in paradoxical worsening of an infectious disease which occurs after the employment of effective therapy and reversal of an immunosuppressed state...
2017: Case Reports in Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359845/detection-of-cytomegalovirus-drug-resistance-mutations-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-with-suspected-resistance
#20
Rubén López-Aladid, Alba Guiu, Gemma Sanclemente, Francisco López-Medrano, Frederic Cofán, M Mar Mosquera, Julián Torre-Cisneros, Elisa Vidal, Asunción Moreno, Jose Maria Aguado, Elisa Cordero, Cecilia Martin-Gandul, Pilar Pérez-Romero, Jordi Carratalá, Nuria Sabé, Jordi Niubó, Carlos Cervera, Anna Cervilla, Marta Bodro, Patricia Muñoz, Carmen Fariñas, M Gemma Codina, Maitane Aranzamendi, Miguel Montejo, Oscar Len, M Angeles Marcos
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend that treatment of resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients must be based on genotypic analysis. However, this recommendation is not systematically followed. OBJECTIVES: To assess the presence of mutations associated with CMV resistance in SOT recipients with suspected resistance, their associated risk factors and the clinical impact of resistance. STUDY DESIGN: Using Sanger sequencing we prospectively assessed the presence of resistance mutations in a nation-wide prospective study between September 2013-August 2015...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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