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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333859/multicenter-prospective-study-for-laboratory-diagnosis-of-hhv8-infection-in-solid-organ-donors-and-transplant-recipients-and-evaluation-of-the-clinical-impact-after-transplantation
#1
Angela Chiereghin, Patrizia Barozzi, Evangelia Petrisli, Giulia Piccirilli, Liliana Gabrielli, Giovanni Riva, Leonardo Potenza, Gianni Cappelli, Nicola De Ruvo, Irene Libri, Umberto Maggiore, Maria Cristina Morelli, Luciano Potena, Paola Todeschini, Dino Gibertoni, Manuel Labanti, Gabriela Sangiorgi, Gaetano La Manna, Antonio Daniele Pinna, Mario Luppi, Tiziana Lazzarotto
BACKGROUND: We performed serological and molecular pretransplant screening in solid organ transplant (SOT) donors and recipients in north-central Italy and a surveillance program for human herpes virus 8 (HHV8) infection after transplant, aiming to establish an optimal management of HHV8 infection in SOT recipients. METHODS: For pretransplant HHV8 screening in both donors and recipients, 6 serological (4 indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA) and 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) - both HHV8 lytic and latent antigen-based) and 2 molecular assays were used...
March 22, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329348/outcome-and-treatment-of-nocardiosis-after-solid-organ-transplantation-new-insights-from-a-european-study
#2
David Lebeaux, Romain Freund, Christian van Delden, Hélène Guillot, Sierk D Marbus, Marie Matignon, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Benoit Douvry, Julien De Greef, Fanny Vuotto, Leïla Tricot, Mario Fernández-Ruiz, Jacques Dantal, Cédric Hirzel, Jean-Philippe Jais, Veronica Rodriguez-Nava, Frédérique Jacobs, Olivier Lortholary, Julien Coussement
Background: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk of nocardiosis, a rare opportunistic bacterial infection, but prognosis and outcome of these patients are poorly defined. Our objectives were to identify factors associated with one-year mortality after nocardiosis and describe the outcome of patients receiving short-course antibiotics (≤120 days). Methods: We analyzed data from a multicenter European case-control study that included 117 SOT recipients with nocardiosis diagnosed between 2000 and 2014...
February 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328941/cynomolgus-monkeys-are-successfully-and-persistently-infected-with-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-hev-3-after-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy
#3
Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Juliana Rodrigues Guimarães, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Yohan Britto Kevorkian, Fernanda de Oliveira Bottino, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Aline Campos de Azevedo da Silva, Douglas Pereira Pinto, Laís Bastos da Fonseca, Leandro Schiavo Vilhena, Edilson Uiechi, Maria Cristina Carlan da Silva, Julio Moran, Renato Sérgio Marchevsky, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano Otonel, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Ana Maria Coimbra Gaspar, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276008/three-months-of-weekly-rifapentine-plus-isoniazid-for-latent-tuberculosis-treatment-in-solid-organ-transplant-candidates
#4
B M Knoll, R Nog, Y Wu, A Dhand
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid daily for 9 months is the recommended regimen for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) candidates, but its use is controversial, due to reports of hepatotoxicity and low treatment completion rates. A 12-week course of once weekly directly observed therapy (DOT) with isoniazid plus rifapentine (3HP) is a new LTBI treatment regimen. Tolerability and safety data of 3HP LTBI treatment in SOT candidates are limited. METHODS: Twelve consecutive SOT candidates who underwent DOT with 3HP for LTBI at Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, New York, USA, between January 2013 and August 2016 were prospectively evaluated for tolerability and safety of 3HP...
March 8, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255902/imaging-spectrum-of-central-nervous-system-complications-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-and-solid-organ-transplantation
#5
REVIEW
Andrés Server, Nuria Bargalló, Yngvar Fløisand, Jon Sponheim, Francesc Graus, John K Hald
Neurologic complications are common after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) and affect 30-60% of transplant recipients. The aim of this article is to provide a practical imaging approach based on the timeline and etiology of CNS abnormalities, and neurologic complications related to transplantation of specific organs. The lesions will be classified based upon the interval from HSCT procedure: pre-engraftment period <30 days, early post-engraftment period 30-100 days, late post-engraftment period >100 days, and the interval from SOT procedure: postoperative phase 1-4 weeks, early posttransplant syndromes 1-6 months, late posttransplant syndromes >6 months...
March 2, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251730/epidemiological-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-in-a-solid-organ-transplantation-department
#6
Anastasia Geladari, Theodoros Karampatakis, Charalampos Antachopoulos, Elias Iosifidis, Olga Tsiatsiou, Lida Politi, Aggeliki Karyoti, Vasilios Papanikolaou, Athanassios Tsakris, Emmanuel Roilides
BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of intensified infection control measures (ICM) on colonization and infection caused by carbapenem-resistant (CR) Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii in a Solid Organ Transplantation (SOT) Department. METHODS: A quasi-experimental methodology was followed. The study was divided in 3 periods: pre-intervention, intervention with implementation of an ICM bundle including active surveillance program (ASP) and gradually enhanced measures, and post-ASP without ASP...
March 2, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162821/safety-of-live-vaccinations-on-immunosuppressive-therapy-in-patients-with-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-solid-organ-transplantation-or-after-bone-marrow-transplantation-a-systematic-review-of-randomized-trials-observational-studies-and-case-reports
#7
REVIEW
Evelina Croce, Christoph Hatz, Emile F Jonker, L G Visser, Veronika K Jaeger, Silja Bühler
BACKGROUND: Live vaccines are generally contraindicated on immunosuppressive therapy due to safety concerns. However, data are limited to corroborate this practice. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the safety of live vaccinations in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID) or solid organ transplantation (SOT) on immunosuppressive treatment and in patients after bone-marrow transplantation (BMT). DATA SOURCES: A search was conducted in electronic databases (Cochrane, Pubmed, Embase) and additional literature was identified by targeted searches...
March 1, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131494/immunomodulation-by-hyperimmunoglobulins-after-solid-organ-transplantation-beyond-prevention-of-viral-infection
#8
REVIEW
Rogier van Gent, Herold J Metselaar, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Hyperimmunoglobulins are pharmaceutical formulations of human IgG which contain high titers of antibodies against specific viruses. They have been successfully used in solid organ transplantation (SOT) to prevent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. The introduction of effective and cheaper antiviral drugs has resulted in decreasing usage of hyperimmunoglobulins in SOT. However, it may still be attractive to combine antiviral drug therapy with hyperimmunoglobulins after SOT, as there is some evidence that hyperimmunoglobulins, similar to high doses of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIgs), might exert anti-inflammatory activity and thereby prevent immunological graft damage and improve graft and patient survival...
January 19, 2017: Transplantation Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065627/revision-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasties-after-solid-organ-transplant
#9
Cameron K Ledford, Joseph M Statz, Brian P Chalmers, Kevin I Perry, Arlen D Hanssen, Matthew P Abdel
BACKGROUND: As solid organ transplant (SOT) patients' survival improves, the number undergoing total hip (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is increasing. Accordingly, the number of revision procedures in this higher-risk group is also increasing. The goals of this study were to identify the most common failure mechanisms, associated complications, clinical outcomes, and patient survivorship of SOT patients after revision THA or TKA. METHODS: A retrospective review identified 39 revision procedures (30 revision THAs and 9 revision TKAs) completed in 37 SOT patients between 2000 and 2013...
December 11, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027829/complications-of-total-hip-arthroplasty-following-solid-organ-transplantation
#10
Mitchell R Klement, Colin T Penrose, Abiram Bala, Cynthia L Green, Richard C Mather, Samuel S Wellman, Michael P Bolognesi, Thorsten M Seyler
PURPOSE: Solid organ transplants (SOT) continue to increase with recipients living longer than ever before. The lifelong immunosuppression in these patients also may place them at increased risk for postoperative complications. The efficacy of total hip arthroplasty (THA) in this patient population is undisputed but previous studies investigating the complication profiles in these patients often are underpowered to identify rare complications as well as make comparisons between individual organs...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003351/human-microrna-responses-predict-cytomegalovirus-replication-following-solid-organ-transplantation
#11
Sang Hoon Han, D Kumar, V H Ferreira, A Egli, H H Hirsch, M Weisser, C Garzoni, C van Delden, P Y Bochud, O Manuel, P Meylan, K Boggian, S Husain, N J Mueller, A Humar
BACKGROUND: Homo sapiens mature microRNA-200b-3p and -200c-3p are predicted to bind to 3' UTR of mRNA encoding human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early protein 2 (IE2). We hypothesized that expression of these microRNAs pre-transplant could predict HCMV replication after solid organ transplantation (SOT). METHODS: 272 SOT recipients were HCMV-seropositive pre-transplant and were managed using pre-emptive therapy. Pre-transplant PBMCs were stimulated with HCMV followed by collection of RNA one day post-stimulation...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003123/chronic-norovirus-infection-among-solid-organ-recipients-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-the-netherlands-2006-2014
#12
J van Beek, A A van der Eijk, P L A Fraaij, K Caliskan, K Cransberg, M Dalinghaus, R A S Hoek, H J Metselaar, J Roodnat, H Vennema, M P G Koopmans
OBJECTIVES: Since recent years, it is known that immunocompromised patients can suffer of prolonged norovirus symptoms and viral shedding up to multiple years. Little is known about the prevalence of chronic norovirus infection among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. In this study 2182 SOT recipients were retrospectively tested for chronic norovirus infection. METHODS: The first and last norovirus positive faecal sample of SOT recipients was sequenced to distinguish between persisting and re-infection...
December 18, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983753/effectiveness-and-safety-of-tigecycline-compared-with-other-broad-spectrum-antimicrobials-in-abdominal-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-with-polymicrobial-intraabdominal-infections
#13
Tyler Liebenstein, Lucas T Schulz, Chris Viesselmann, Emma Bingen, Jackson Musuuza, Nasia Safdar, Warren E Rose
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Because patients with abdominal solid organ transplants (SOTs) are at increased risk of polymicrobial intraabdominal infections (IAIs) following transplantation, the objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness and adverse event profile of tigecycline with those of other broad-spectrum therapies for polymicrobial IAIs in this population. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large academic medical center with multiple outpatient clinics...
February 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911112/treatment-of-alpha-and-beta-herpesvirus-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#14
C L Abad, R R Razonable
Human herpesviruses frequently cause infections in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Areas covered: We provide an overview of the clinical impact of alpha and beta herpesviruses and highlight the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical indications, and adverse effects of antiviral drugs for the management of herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus and cytomegalovirus. We comprehensively evaluated key clinical trials that led to drug approval, and served as the foundation for management guidelines...
December 12, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882457/cytomegalovirus-vaccines-current-status-and-future-prospects
#15
REVIEW
K M Anderholm, C J Bierle, M R Schleiss
Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can result in severe and permanent neurological injury in newborns, and vaccine development is accordingly a major public health priority. HCMV can also cause disease in solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, and a vaccine would be valuable in prevention of viremia and end-organ disease in these populations. Currently there is no licensed HCMV vaccine, but progress toward this goal has been made in recent clinical trials...
November 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875016/cryptococcal-infections-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-over-a-15-year-period-at-a-state-transplant-center
#16
Ian Gassiep, David McDougall, Joel Douglas, Ross Francis, Elliott G Playford
BACKGROUND: The aim of this research paper was to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcome of solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients diagnosed and treated for cryptococcosis at our institution. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with SOT diagnosed and treated for cryptococcal infection occurring between January 2001 and December 2015. RESULTS: Of 102 patients diagnosed with cryptococcal infection, 23 were SOT recipients...
November 22, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849440/use-of-cidofovir-for-cytomegalovirus-disease-refractory-to-ganciclovir-in-solid-organ-recipients
#17
Hugo Bonatti, Costi D Sifri, Clara Larcher, Stefan Schneeberger, Camille Kotton, Christian Geltner
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplantation (SOT) frequently is complicated by cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Cidofovir (CDV) is active against CMV, including many ganciclovir (GCV)-resistant mutants, but often is considered to be too nephrotoxic for use after organ transplantation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven males and two females (median age 50.1 years), including two kidney/pancreas, four lung, one small bowel, and two hand recipients, received CDV for refractory CMV disease...
February 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809952/tuberculosis-and-transplantation
#18
José M Aguado, José Tiago Silva, Palash Samanta, Nina Singh
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major opportunistic pathogen in transplant recipients. Compared to that in the general population, the frequency of tuberculosis (TB) is 10 to 40 times higher in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients and 20 to 74 times higher in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Transplant recipients with TB are also more likely to develop disseminated disease, have longer time to definitive diagnosis, require more invasive diagnostic procedures, and experience greater anti-TB treatment-related toxicity than the general population...
November 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801541/leishmaniasis-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#19
REVIEW
Kiran Gajurel, Reshika Dhakal, Stan Deresinski
Leishmaniasis occurs in <1% of solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients in endemic countries in which transplants are performed. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) makes up the bulk of reported cases. The onset generally occurs months after transplantation and the mode of acquisition is often impossible to determine, but de novo vector-borne infection and reactivation of inapparent infection are thought to be the principal means. The potential role of clinically inapparent donor infection is uncertain and screening is not currently recommended, nor is it recommended for recipients from endemic areas, some of whom may have detectable circulating protozoan nucleic acid...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781101/cytomegalovirus-vaccines-under-clinical-development
#20
EDITORIAL
Mark R Schleiss
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common infectious cause of disability in newborn infants. CMV also causes serious disease in solid organ (SOT) and haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In otherwise healthy children and adults, primary CMV infection rarely causes illness. However, even asymptomatic CMV infections may predispose an individual towards an increased risk of atherosclerosis, cancer and immune senescence over the life course, although such associations remain controversial...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
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