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randomized controlled trial poisoning

Ahmad Ghoochani Khorasani, Shahin Shadnia, Mohammad Mashayekhian, Mitra Rahimi, Abbas Aghabiklooei
Background. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common health care-associated infection. To prevent this complication, aspiration of subglottic secretions using Hi-Lo Evac endotracheal tube (Evac ETT) is a recommended intervention. However, there are some reports on Evac ETT dysfunction. We aimed to compare the incidence of VAP (per ventilated patients) in severely ill poisoned patients who were intubated using Evac ETT versus conventional endotracheal tubes (C-ETT) in our toxicology ICU. Materials and Methods...
2016: Scientifica
Tarik Ocak, Erdal Tekin, Mustafa Basturk, Arif Duran, Mustafa Serinken, Mucahit Emet
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specificity of the analgesic agents used to treat headache and underlying acute carbon monoxide poisoning. OBJECTIVE: To compare effectiveness of "oxygen alone" vs "metoclopramide plus oxygen" vs "metamizole plus oxygen" therapy in treating carbon monoxide-induced headache. DESIGN: A prospective, multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial. SETTING: Three emergency departments in Turkey...
August 5, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Scott Sullivan, Cameron Wolterstorff, Jeremy Johnson, Vincent Ball, Carl Skinner, Jason Bothwell
INTRODUCTION: Toxic ingestions are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. In 2013, there were nearly 2 million reported ingestions and nearly 1000 deaths from poisonings. There is no well-validated imaging study for confirming the presence of pills in the stomach of an overdose patient. There are case reports of ultrasound used for confirmation of pills in the stomach, and we are aware of one prospective trial to evaluate sonography for this application. OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of transabdominal ultrasound for visualization of ingested pills...
August 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Regina M Krohn, Rubhana Raqib, Evana Akhtar, Albert Vandenberg, Judit E G Smits
BACKGROUND: Millions of people worldwide are exposed to dangerous levels of arsenic (above the WHO water standard of 10 ppb) in drinking water and food. Lack of nutritious foods exacerbates the adverse health effects of arsenic poisoning. The micronutrient selenium is a known antagonist to arsenic, promoting the excretion of arsenic from the body. Studies are in progress examining the potential of using selenium supplement pills to counteract arsenic toxicity. We are planning a clinical trial to test whether high-selenium lentils, as a whole food solution, can improve the health of arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi villagers...
2016: Trials
Lijun Wu, Hua Zhang, Yanwei Xing, Yonghong Gao, Yanda Li, Xiaomeng Ren, Jie Li, Bo Nie, Lingqun Zhu, Hongcai Shang, Ying Gao
Xingnaojing (XNJ) is commonly extracted from Angongniuhuang, a classic Chinese emergency prescription, and widely used in the treatment of nervous system disorders including consciousness disturbance in China. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of XNJ injection, on consciousness disturbance. Seven major electronic databases were searched to retrieve randomized controlled trials designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of XNJ alone or combined with Western medicine in treating consciousness disturbance caused by conditions such as high fever, poisoning, and stroke...
February 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Lotte C G Hoegberg, Theodore C Bania, Valéry Lavergne, Benoit Bailey, Alexis F Turgeon, Simon H L Thomas, Martin Morris, Andrea Miller-Nesbitt, Bruno Mégarbane, Sheldon Magder, Sophie Gosselin
BACKGROUND: Following national and regional recommendations, intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has become established in clinical practice as a treatment for acute local anesthetic (LA) toxicity, although evidence of efficacy is limited to animal studies and human case reports. A collaborative lipid emulsion workgroup was therefore established by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology to review the evidence on the effect of ILE for LA toxicity. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature published through 15 December 2014...
March 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Michael Levine, Robert S Hoffman, Valéry Lavergne, Christine M Stork, Andis Graudins, Ryan Chuang, Samuel J Stellpflug, Martin Morris, Andrea Miller-Nesbitt, Sophie Gosselin
BACKGROUND: The use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy for the treatment of lipophilic drug toxicity is increasing. Despite this, the evidence for its effect in non-local anesthetic toxicity remains sparse. Furthermore, many case reports describe ILE use for substances in which no clear efficacy data exists. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology established a lipid emulsion workgroup. The aim of this group is to review the available evidence regarding the effect of ILE in non-LA drug poisoning and develop consensus-based recommendations on the use of this therapy...
March 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Ahmad A El-Ebiary, Rasha E Elsharkawy, Nema A Soliman, Mohammed A Soliman, Ahmed A Hashem
Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global health problem with hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Research interest in N-acetylcysteine has grown among increasing evidence of the role of oxidative stress in organophosphorus poisoning. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant treatment in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial on 30 patients suffering from acute organophosphorus poisoning, who were admitted to the Poison Control Center of Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, between April and September 2014...
August 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Keith Hawton, Katrina G Witt, Tatiana L Taylor Salisbury, Ella Arensman, David Gunnell, Ellen Townsend, Kees van Heeringen, Philip Hazell
BACKGROUND: Self-harm (SH; intentional self-poisoning or self-injury) is common in children and adolescents, often repeated, and strongly associated with suicide. This is an update of a broader Cochrane review on psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for deliberate SH first published in 1998 and previously updated in 1999. We have now divided the review into three separate reviews; this review is focused on psychosocial and pharmacological interventions for SH in children and adolescents...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lina Wang, Shuming Pan
BACKGROUND: Crude rhubarb has been used to treat critically ill patients for many years. However, no previous meta-analysis has been investigated the benefits of crude rhubarb in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). OBJECTIVE: To summarize the beneficial effects of adjuvant treatment with crude rhubarb in patients with AOPP by conducting a meta-analysis. METHODS: A literature search of the databases through Pubmed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP, and Wanfang were performed for studies published up to October 2014...
December 2015: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Eric J Lavonas, Jennie Buchanan
BACKGROUND: Lithium salts, particularly lithium carbonate, are frequently used to treat bipolar disorder and mania. Lithium poisoning, which can occur as a result of reduced renal elimination, prescribing error, drug-drug interactions, or deliberate overdosage, produces neurologic injury that can be permanent. Hemodialysis is often recommended to treat lithium poisoning. Although hemodialysis clearly enhances the elimination of lithium, it is unclear whether this translates into improved patient outcomes...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ying Yue, Xingfang Pan, Sai Zhang, Jun Jin, Wei Wang, Dongqiang Wang, Dexin Han, Guirong Wang, Qunliang Hu, Jingqing Kang, Shasha Ding, Yi Yang, Huaien Bu, Yi Guo
Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP) have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Annika Thomson, Jari Tiihonen, Jouko Miettunen, Matti Virkkunen, Nina Lindberg
BACKGROUND: High rates of attempted and completed suicide have been reported among offenders, but there has been little attention in this respect to fire setters specifically. AIM: Our aim was to investigate hospital-treated suicide attempts among male fire setters. METHODS: For each of a consecutive series of 441 pre-trial fire setters, four controls matched for age, gender and place of birth were randomly selected from the Central Population Register...
August 17, 2015: Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH
Keith Hawton, Katrina G Witt, Tatiana L Taylor Salisbury, Ella Arensman, David Gunnell, Philip Hazell, Ellen Townsend, Kees van Heeringen
BACKGROUND: Self-harm (SH; intentional self-poisoning or self-injury) is common, often repeated, and strongly associated with suicide. This is an update of a broader Cochrane review on psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for deliberate SH, first published in 1998 and previously updated in 1999. We have now divided the review into three separate reviews. This review is focused on pharmacological interventions in adults who self harm. OBJECTIVES: To identify all randomised controlled trials of pharmacological agents or natural products for SH in adults, and to conduct meta-analyses (where possible) to compare the effects of specific treatments with comparison types of treatment (e...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sangeeta Kanna, S K Hiremath, Banappa S Unger
BACKGROUND: Gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity accounts for 10-30% of the acute renal failure (ARF) among drug-induced ARF. In Ayurveda such side effects are considered as the poisonous effects of low potent poisons called gara viṣa. Bilvādi agada (BA), a classical formulation is indicated in gara viṣa and most of its ingredients have proven for their nephroprotective activity. AIM: The aim was to evaluate the effect of BA in GM-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats...
January 2015: Ancient Science of Life
Sergey Zakharov, Daniela Pelclova, Tomas Navratil, Jaromir Belacek, Martin Komarc, Michael Eddleston, Knut Erik Hovda
CONTEXT: Mass or cluster methanol poisonings are frequently reported from around the world. The comparative effectiveness of ethanol and fomepizole as antidotes for methanol poisoning is unknown due to the difficulty of performing a randomized controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: During an outbreak of mass poisonings in the Czech Republic in 2012-2014, we compared the effects of antidotes on the frequency of health sequelae and mortality. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-sectional case series and quasi-case-control study...
2015: Clinical Toxicology
Fei He, Peng Xu, Jun Zhang, Qiuling Zhang, Shuangshuang Gu, Yao Liu, Jun Wang
PURPOSE: Paraquat (PQ) is widely used in developing countries. Accidental or suicidal PQ poisoning is a public health concern due to lack of effective treatment. Because the role of pulse immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticoid and cyclophosphamide for PQ poisoning is uncertain, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of the therapy. METHOD: A systematic literature search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and other clinical studies was performed in Pub Med, Embase, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature and Retrieval System, and Chinese Medical Current Contents...
July 2015: International Immunopharmacology
Stefania Milazzo, Markus Horneber
BACKGROUND: Laetrile is the name for a semi-synthetic compound which is chemically related to amygdalin, a cyanogenic glycoside from the kernels of apricots and various other species of the genus Prunus. Laetrile and amygdalin are promoted under various names for the treatment of cancer although there is no evidence for its efficacy. Due to possible cyanide poisoning, laetrile can be dangerous. OBJECTIVES: To assess the alleged anti-cancer effect and possible adverse effects of laetrile and amygdalin...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Weizhan Wang, Jing Li, Guoying Ma, Na Li, Pu Wang, Qingmian Xiao, Baiyan Li, Yongjian Liu, Xun Gao, Wei Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of rhubarb as the main composition in the therapy for patients with acute paraquat poisoning (AP). METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. 128 patients with APP admitted to Harrison International Peace Hospital from March 2011 to December 2013 were randomly divided into western medicine control group (n = 64) and western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combination group (n = 64). All the patients were treated with repeated gastric lavage and oral kaolin...
April 2015: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Dongxu Wang, Donald Stewart, Chun Chang, Yuhui Shi
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at examining the effect of the nutrition education program on adolescents' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to nutrition in rural China. METHODS: A cluster-randomised intervention trial design was employed. Two middle schools were randomly selected and assigned to the school conducting nutrition education (NE school), or to the Control school, in Mi Yun County, Beijing. From each school 65 seventh-grade students were randomly selected to participate in the study...
July 2015: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
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