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"Nitrate" and "inflammation"

Catarina Francisco, João Sérgio Neves, Inês Falcão-Pires, Adelino Leite-Moreira
Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine and exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and antidiabetic properties. Unlike other adipokines, it inversely correlates with body weight and obesity-linked cardiovascular complications. Diastolic dysfunction is the main mechanism responsible for approximately half of all heart failure cases, the so-called heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but therapeutic strategies specifically directed towards these patients are still lacking. In the last years, a link between adiponectin and diastolic dysfunction has been suggested...
October 18, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Ammar W Ashor, Shakir Chowdhury, Clio Oggioni, Othman Qadir, Kirsten Brandt, Abbas Ishaq, John C Mathers, Gabriele Saretzki, Mario Siervo
BACKGROUND: Aging and obesity are associated with raised oxidative stress and a reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, with subsequent decline in insulin sensitivity and endothelial function. Inorganic nitrate is converted into NO via a 2-step reduction process and may be an effective nutritional intervention to modify vascular and metabolic functions. OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether inorganic nitrate supplementation improved glucose disposal and attenuated the acute effects of hyperglycemia on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular function in young and old obese participants...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Randy Hunter, Uttam Ojha, Sunil Bhurtel, Guoying Bing, Dong-Young Choi
Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic inflammation plays a role in the progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration that occurs in Parkinson's disease. It has been hypothesized that inflammation mediates neuronal damage via exacerbation of a vicious cycle of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induces microglial activation and inflammation driven dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In order to test the hypothesis that LPS-induced inflammatory response might damage mitochondrial structure and function leading to nigral dopaminergic neuron loss, we injected LPS or saline into the striatum of rats...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Jorge Luis Costa Carvalho, Auriléia Aparecida de Brito, Ana Paula Ligeiro de Oliveira, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria Neto, Thiago Martini Pereira, Regiane Albertini de Carvalho, Elen Anatriello, Flávio Aimbire
Recent studies show that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has an important anti-inflammatory action in acute lung inflammation. The present work explored if laser therapy is able to antagonize eosinophils and allergic inflammation induced by oxidative stress in Balb/c mice. Forty-eight hours after challenge, the leukocyte counting, ROS and nitrite/nitrate level, RANTES, CCL3, CCL8 as well as eotaxins were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of laser-treated mice or not. Into the lung, some chemokines receptors, the iNOS activity and mRNA expression, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, gluthatione, NADPH oxidase activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (T-Bars) were measured...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Shumin Wang, Ning Ma, Weilin Zhao, Kaoru Midorikawa, Shosuke Kawanishi, Yusuke Hiraku, Shinji Oikawa, Zhe Zhang, Guangwu Huang, Mariko Murata
Nitrative and oxidative DNA damage plays an important role in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. To investigate the involvement of stem cells in Epstein-Barr virus infection-related nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we used double immunofluorescence staining to examine several cancer stem/progenitor cell markers (CD44v6, CD24, and ALDH1A1) in NPC tissues and NPC cell lines. We also measured 8-nitroguanine formation as an indicator of inflammation-related DNA lesions. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine was significantly higher in cancer cells and inflammatory cells in the stroma of NPC tissues than in chronic nasopharyngitis tissues...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Surbhi Gupta, Prabhat Singh, Bhupesh Sharma
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-induced chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow and vascular dementia (VaD). Brain mitochondrial potassium (adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium [KATP]) channels have a beneficial role in various brain conditions. The utility of KATP channels in CCH-induced VaD is still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of nicorandil, a selective KATP channel opener, in CCH-induced VaD. METHODS: The method of 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) was used to induce CCH in mice...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Ting Li, Xinshan Lu, Yanfei Sun, Xingbin Yang
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, has become a leading nutrition problem. Inorganic nitrate enriched in spinach has been demonstrated to reverse the pathological features of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. However, the effects of a direct intake of nitrate-enriched spinach on insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of spinach nitrate on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, endothelial function, and inflammation in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Mohamed E Shaker, Sara H Hazem, Sylvia A Ashamallah
In an attempt to explore the role of the JAK/STAT pathway in liver inflammation, we investigated the effect of intervening this pathway by ruxolitinib in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity. Ruxolitinib treatments were administered to male mice either before or after intoxication with TAA. The hepatic histopathological and serum biochemical assessment revealed that ruxolitinib pre-treatments dose-dependently reduced TAA-induced liver injury, caspase 3 cleavage and increase in number of hepatocytes positive for the pro-apoptotic Bax, as well as inflammatory cells positive for F4/80 and myeloperoxidase activity in the liver...
October 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Salome' V Ibba, Mohamed A Ghonim, Kusma Pyakurel, Matthew R Lammi, Anil Mishra, A Hamid Boulares
Although expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the lungs of asthmatics and associated nitrosative damage are established, iNOS failed as a therapeutic target for blocking airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in asthmatics. This dichotomy calls for better strategies with which the enzyme is adequately targeted. Here, we confirm iNOS expression in the asthmatic lung with concomitant protein nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. We show, for the first time, that iNOS is highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatics with uncontrolled disease, which did not correspond to protein nitration...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Rowaida Refaat, Ahmed Sakr, Mona Salama, Ashgan El Sarha
Preclinical Research The majority of studies on vildagliptin and pioglitazone have focused on their combination in glycemic control. The aim of the present study was to investigate their effects in combination on (i) hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and (ii) on organs involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, pancreas, kidney and liver. Type 2 diabetes was induced using low-dose streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated for 4 weeks, with vildagliptin (10 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day) and their combination...
September 2016: Drug Development Research
Xiu Yu, Sulan Yu, Ling Chen, Han Liu, Jian Zhang, Haixia Ge, Yuanyuan Zhang, Boyang Yu, Junping Kou
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening syndrome that is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and increased microvascular permeability, which causes a high mortality worldwide. Here, we studied the protective effect of tetrahydroberberrubine (THBru), a berberine derivative, on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury that was established in our previous studies. The results showed that a single oral administration of THBru significantly decreased the lung wet to dry weight (W/D) ratio at doses of 2, 10 and 50mg/kg administered 1h prior to LPS challenge (30mg/kg, intravenous injection)...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Brittan S Scales, Robert P Dickson, Gary B Huffnagle
Inflammation can directly and indirectly modulate the bacterial composition of the microbiome. Although studies of inflammation primarily focus on its function to negatively select against potential pathogens, some bacterial species have the ability to exploit inflammatory byproducts for their benefit. Inflammatory cells release reactive nitrogen species as antimicrobial effectors against infection, but some facultative anaerobes can also utilize the increase in extracellular nitrate in their environment for anaerobic respiration and growth...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Jagdeep Kaur, Shabir Sidhu, Kanwaljit Chopra, M U Khan
CONTEXT: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) has been traditionally used in treating inflammation of internal organs, gastrointestinal tract ulcers and wound healing. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the effect of ethanol extract (95%) of Calendula officinalis flowers in l-arginine induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups: normal control, l-arginine control, Calendula officinalis extract (COE) treated and melatonin treated (positive control), which were further divided into subgroups (24 h, day 3 and 14) according to time points...
June 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
P Kosutova, P Mikolka, M Kolomaznik, S Balentova, A Calkovska, D Mokra
Acute lung injury is characterized by lung edema, surfactant dysfunction, and inflammation. The main goal of our study was to evaluate effects of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) on migration of cells into the lung and their activation, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activity, and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in rabbits. ALI was induced by repetitive lung lavage with saline. The animals were divided into the following groups: (1) ALI without therapy, (2) lung injury treated with SNAP (ALI + SNAP), and (3) healthy animals (Control)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ryoma Michishita, Masanori Ohta, Masaharu Ikeda, Ying Jiang, Hiroshi Yamato
This study was designed to examine the associations of an exaggerated systolic blood pressure (SBP) response to exercise with the indices of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress, inflammation and arterial stiffness in normotensive females. The subjects included 84 normotensive females without a history of cardiovascular disease or stroke who were not taking any medications. Each subject performed a multistage graded submaximal exercise stress test using an electric bicycle ergometer, and their blood pressure was measured at rest and during the last minute of each stage...
June 23, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Mina T Kelleni, Salwa A Ibrahim, Aly M Abdelrahman
Methotrexate (MTX) is a commonly used antineoplastic and anti-rheumatoid drug whose efficacy is limited by its hepatotoxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of captopril (100 mg/kg/day, p.o. for seven days), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, and telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day p.o. for seven days), an angiotensin II receptor blocker with peroxisome proliferative receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonism, in a model of MTX (single dose 20 mg/kg i.p. at the fifth day) induced hepatotoxicity in rats...
June 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Michał Błażej Ponczek
Coagulation factor XI is present in blood plasma as the zymogen, like other serine proteases of hemostatic system, but as the only coagulation factor forms 140-160kDa homodimers. Its activation is induced by thrombin, and a positive feedback increases the generation of the extra thrombin. Experimental and clinical observations confirm protective roles of factor XI deficiencies in certain types of thromboembolic disorders. Thromboembolism still causes serious problems for modern civilization. Diseases associated with the blood coagulation system are often associated with inflammation and oxidative stress...
October 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Swati Jain, Bhupesh Sharma
Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for vascular dementia. In the past, we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the efficacy of a ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and pioglitazone in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes (PaD) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Bernardo Bollen Pinto, Cristiane Ritter, Monique Michels, Nicolò Gambarotta, Manuela Ferrario, Felipe Dal-Pizzol, Mervyn Singer
Loss of heart rate variability (HRV) and autonomic dysfunction are associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. Neuronal networks comprising brainstem and hypothalamus are involved in the "flight-or-fight" response via control over the autonomic nervous system and circulation. We hypothesized that sepsis-induced inflammation in brain regions responsible for autonomic control is associated with sympathovagal imbalance and depressed contractility. Sepsis was induced by fecal slurry injection in fluid-resuscitated rats...
May 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Harsimran Singh, Shabir Sidhu, Kanwaljit Chopra, M U Khan
The current study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of trans-Chalcone in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and paracetamol (PCM) induced liver damage in rats. Administration of CCl4 and PCM (1 mL/kg, i.p., 3 days, and 2 g/kg, p.o., single dose, respectively) produced hepatic injury. Ponderal changes (percent change in body mass and relative liver mass) and biochemical parameters (serum ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin) were estimated. The markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress (TBARS, reduced GSH, nitrite and nitrate), hepatic fibrosis (TGF-β1, collagen content), hepatic inflammation (TNF-α), and histopathological study were evaluated...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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