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Nitrate AND inflammation

M Ratheesh, S Sandya, C Pramod, S Asha, Jose P Svenia, S Premlal, B GrishKumar
Kerabala (CB) is a novel ayurvedic formulation used for treating various inflammatory diseases. This formulation was made from virgin coconut oil and it comprises extracts of Sida cordifolia, coconut milk and sesame oil. The current study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of CB on carrageenan-induced acute and adjuvant-induced chronic experimental models. 5 mg/kg bwt was found to be potent dose from carrageenan model and evaluated its effect in adjuvant-induced chronic arthritic model...
November 22, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Cheng Jun Jin, Anna Janina Engstler, Cathrin Sellmann, Doreen Ziegenhardt, Marianne Landmann, Giridhar Kanuri, Hakima Lounis, Markus Schröder, Walter Vetter, Ina Bergheim
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide with universally accepted treatments still lacking. Oral supplementation of sodium butyrate (SoB) has been suggested to attenuate liver damage of various aetiologies. Our study aimed to further delineate mechanisms involved in the SoB-dependent hepatic protection using a mouse model of fructose-induced NAFLD and in in vitro models. C57BL/6J mice were either pair-fed a fructose-enriched liquid diet ±0·6 g/kg body weight per d SoB or standard chow for 6 weeks...
November 23, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Klaus Unfried, Ursula Krämer, Ulrich Sydlik, Andrea Autengruber, Andreas Bilstein, Sabine Stolz, Alessandra Marini, Tamara Schikowski, Stefanie Keymel, Jean Krutmann
BACKGROUND: Compatible solutes are natural substances that are known to stabilize cellular functions. Preliminary ex vivo and in vivo studies demonstrated that the compatible solute ectoine restores natural apoptosis rates of lung neutrophils and contributes to the resolution of lung inflammation. Due to the low toxicity and known compatibility of the substance, an inhalative application as an intervention strategy for humans suffering from diseases caused by neutrophilic inflammation, like COPD, had been suggested...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Peter J Barnes
Glucocorticosteroids are the most effective anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma but are relatively ineffective in COPD. Glucocorticoids are broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory drugs that suppress inflammation via several molecular mechanisms. Glucocorticoids suppress the multiple inflammatory genes that are activated in asthma by reversing histone acetylation of activated inflammatory genes through binding of ligand-bound glucocorticoid receptors (GR) to coactivator molecules and recruitment of histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) to the activated inflammatory gene transcription complex (trans-repression)...
October 28, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Rania R Abdelaziz, Wagdi F Elkashef, Eman Said
Silicosis is a crippling respiratory disorder characterized by massive lung inflammation and fibrosis. The current study provides evidence on the protective potential of tadalafil; a specific phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor against experimentally-induced pulmonary silicosis in rats. Silicosis was induced by intranasal instillation of crystalline silica (50mg/rat). Halofuginone hydrobromide; a standard collagen-1 synthesis inhibitor was selected as a reference anti-fibrotic. Daily oral administration of tadalafil (1mg/kg) for 8weeks significantly ameliorated silica-induced pulmonary damage...
October 18, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Catarina Francisco, João Sérgio Neves, Inês Falcão-Pires, Adelino Leite-Moreira
Adiponectin is the most abundant adipokine and exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and antidiabetic properties. Unlike other adipokines, it inversely correlates with body weight and obesity-linked cardiovascular complications. Diastolic dysfunction is the main mechanism responsible for approximately half of all heart failure cases, the so-called heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), but therapeutic strategies specifically directed towards these patients are still lacking. In the last years, a link between adiponectin and diastolic dysfunction has been suggested...
October 18, 2016: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Ammar W Ashor, Shakir Chowdhury, Clio Oggioni, Othman Qadir, Kirsten Brandt, Abbas Ishaq, John C Mathers, Gabriele Saretzki, Mario Siervo
BACKGROUND: Aging and obesity are associated with raised oxidative stress and a reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, with subsequent decline in insulin sensitivity and endothelial function. Inorganic nitrate is converted into NO via a 2-step reduction process and may be an effective nutritional intervention to modify vascular and metabolic functions. OBJECTIVES: This study tested whether inorganic nitrate supplementation improved glucose disposal and attenuated the acute effects of hyperglycemia on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular function in young and old obese participants...
November 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Randy Hunter, Uttam Ojha, Sunil Bhurtel, Guoying Bing, Dong-Young Choi
Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic inflammation plays a role in the progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration that occurs in Parkinson's disease. It has been hypothesized that inflammation mediates neuronal damage via exacerbation of a vicious cycle of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. The bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induces microglial activation and inflammation driven dopaminergic neurodegeneration. In order to test the hypothesis that LPS-induced inflammatory response might damage mitochondrial structure and function leading to nigral dopaminergic neuron loss, we injected LPS or saline into the striatum of rats...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience Research
Jorge Luis Costa Carvalho, Auriléia Aparecida de Brito, Ana Paula Ligeiro de Oliveira, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria Neto, Thiago Martini Pereira, Regiane Albertini de Carvalho, Elen Anatriello, Flávio Aimbire
Recent studies show that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has an important anti-inflammatory action in acute lung inflammation. The present work explored if laser therapy is able to antagonize eosinophils and allergic inflammation induced by oxidative stress in Balb/c mice. Forty-eight hours after challenge, the leukocyte counting, ROS and nitrite/nitrate level, RANTES, CCL3, CCL8 as well as eotaxins were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of laser-treated mice or not. Into the lung, some chemokines receptors, the iNOS activity and mRNA expression, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, gluthatione, NADPH oxidase activities and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (T-Bars) were measured...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
Shumin Wang, Ning Ma, Weilin Zhao, Kaoru Midorikawa, Shosuke Kawanishi, Yusuke Hiraku, Shinji Oikawa, Zhe Zhang, Guangwu Huang, Mariko Murata
Nitrative and oxidative DNA damage plays an important role in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. To investigate the involvement of stem cells in Epstein-Barr virus infection-related nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), we used double immunofluorescence staining to examine several cancer stem/progenitor cell markers (CD44v6, CD24, and ALDH1A1) in NPC tissues and NPC cell lines. We also measured 8-nitroguanine formation as an indicator of inflammation-related DNA lesions. The staining intensity of 8-nitroguanine was significantly higher in cancer cells and inflammatory cells in the stroma of NPC tissues than in chronic nasopharyngitis tissues...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Surbhi Gupta, Prabhat Singh, Bhupesh Sharma
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-induced chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow and vascular dementia (VaD). Brain mitochondrial potassium (adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium [KATP]) channels have a beneficial role in various brain conditions. The utility of KATP channels in CCH-induced VaD is still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of nicorandil, a selective KATP channel opener, in CCH-induced VaD. METHODS: The method of 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) was used to induce CCH in mice...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Ting Li, Xinshan Lu, Yanfei Sun, Xingbin Yang
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, has become a leading nutrition problem. Inorganic nitrate enriched in spinach has been demonstrated to reverse the pathological features of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. However, the effects of a direct intake of nitrate-enriched spinach on insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of spinach nitrate on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, endothelial function, and inflammation in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Mohamed E Shaker, Sara H Hazem, Sylvia A Ashamallah
In an attempt to explore the role of the JAK/STAT pathway in liver inflammation, we investigated the effect of intervening this pathway by ruxolitinib in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity. Ruxolitinib treatments were administered to male mice either before or after intoxication with TAA. The hepatic histopathological and serum biochemical assessment revealed that ruxolitinib pre-treatments dose-dependently reduced TAA-induced liver injury, caspase 3 cleavage and increase in number of hepatocytes positive for the pro-apoptotic Bax, as well as inflammatory cells positive for F4/80 and myeloperoxidase activity in the liver...
October 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Salome' V Ibba, Mohamed A Ghonim, Kusma Pyakurel, Matthew R Lammi, Anil Mishra, A Hamid Boulares
Although expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the lungs of asthmatics and associated nitrosative damage are established, iNOS failed as a therapeutic target for blocking airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in asthmatics. This dichotomy calls for better strategies with which the enzyme is adequately targeted. Here, we confirm iNOS expression in the asthmatic lung with concomitant protein nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. We show, for the first time, that iNOS is highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatics with uncontrolled disease, which did not correspond to protein nitration...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Rowaida Refaat, Ahmed Sakr, Mona Salama, Ashgan El Sarha
Preclinical Research The majority of studies on vildagliptin and pioglitazone have focused on their combination in glycemic control. The aim of the present study was to investigate their effects in combination on (i) hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and inflammation and (ii) on organs involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes, pancreas, kidney and liver. Type 2 diabetes was induced using low-dose streptozotocin in male Wistar rats. Diabetic rats were treated for 4 weeks, with vildagliptin (10 mg/kg/day), pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day) and their combination...
September 2016: Drug Development Research
Xiu Yu, Sulan Yu, Ling Chen, Han Liu, Jian Zhang, Haixia Ge, Yuanyuan Zhang, Boyang Yu, Junping Kou
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening syndrome that is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and increased microvascular permeability, which causes a high mortality worldwide. Here, we studied the protective effect of tetrahydroberberrubine (THBru), a berberine derivative, on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury that was established in our previous studies. The results showed that a single oral administration of THBru significantly decreased the lung wet to dry weight (W/D) ratio at doses of 2, 10 and 50mg/kg administered 1h prior to LPS challenge (30mg/kg, intravenous injection)...
August 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Brittan S Scales, Robert P Dickson, Gary B Huffnagle
Inflammation can directly and indirectly modulate the bacterial composition of the microbiome. Although studies of inflammation primarily focus on its function to negatively select against potential pathogens, some bacterial species have the ability to exploit inflammatory byproducts for their benefit. Inflammatory cells release reactive nitrogen species as antimicrobial effectors against infection, but some facultative anaerobes can also utilize the increase in extracellular nitrate in their environment for anaerobic respiration and growth...
November 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Jagdeep Kaur, Shabir Sidhu, Kanwaljit Chopra, M U Khan
CONTEXT: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) has been traditionally used in treating inflammation of internal organs, gastrointestinal tract ulcers and wound healing. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the effect of ethanol extract (95%) of Calendula officinalis flowers in l-arginine induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups: normal control, l-arginine control, Calendula officinalis extract (COE) treated and melatonin treated (positive control), which were further divided into subgroups (24 h, day 3 and 14) according to time points...
June 23, 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
P Kosutova, P Mikolka, M Kolomaznik, S Balentova, A Calkovska, D Mokra
Acute lung injury is characterized by lung edema, surfactant dysfunction, and inflammation. The main goal of our study was to evaluate effects of S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) on migration of cells into the lung and their activation, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activity, and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury (ALI) in rabbits. ALI was induced by repetitive lung lavage with saline. The animals were divided into the following groups: (1) ALI without therapy, (2) lung injury treated with SNAP (ALI + SNAP), and (3) healthy animals (Control)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Ryoma Michishita, Masanori Ohta, Masaharu Ikeda, Ying Jiang, Hiroshi Yamato
This study was designed to examine the associations of an exaggerated systolic blood pressure (SBP) response to exercise with the indices of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, oxidative stress, inflammation and arterial stiffness in normotensive females. The subjects included 84 normotensive females without a history of cardiovascular disease or stroke who were not taking any medications. Each subject performed a multistage graded submaximal exercise stress test using an electric bicycle ergometer, and their blood pressure was measured at rest and during the last minute of each stage...
June 23, 2016: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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