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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527046/on-harm-thresholds-and-living-organ-donation-must-the-living-donor-benefit-on-balance-from-his-donation
#1
Nicola Jane Williams
For the majority of scholars concerned with the ethics of living organ donation, inflicting moderate harms on competent volunteers in order to save the lives or increase the life chances of others is held to be justifiable provided certain conditions are met. These conditions tend to include one, or more commonly, some combination of the following: (1) The living donor provides valid consent to donation. (2) Living donation produces an overall positive balance of harm-benefit for donors and recipients which cannot be obtained in a less harmful manner...
May 19, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526582/mait-cells-a-tailor-made-mate-in-the-ancient-battle-against-infectious-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Marcela de Lima Moreira, Moriya Tsuji, Alexandra Jane Corbett, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães, Jordana Grazziela Coelho-Dos-Reis
It has been almost two decades since the discovery of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT)-cells. Several advances in the field have been made such as the discovery of the antimicrobial activity of MAIT-cells, the abundance of these cells in human mucosa and in liver and the discovery of ligands able to bind MR1 and activate MAIT-cells. MAIT-cells are a unique subset of innate-like T-cells that express a canonical T-cell receptor with the alpha chain containing hAV7S2 and AJ33 in humans (TCRVα7.2Jα33) and respond to bacterial/fungus vitamin B2 metabolites by an MR1-dependent pathway...
May 16, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526294/central-amygdala-activation-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-and-age-dependent-changes-in-inflammatory-pain-sensitivity-in-mice
#3
Katelyn E Sadler, Nathan M Gartland, Jane E Cavanaugh, Benedict J Kolber
Aging populations are more sensitive to noxious stimuli as a result of altered somatosensory systems. In these experiments, we examined pain-like behaviors in young, middle-aged, and old mice during peripheral inflammation to determine if the same sensitivity exists in preclinical animal models. Immediately following injury, middle-aged and old mice exhibited more spontaneous pain-like behaviors than young mice, matching pain prevalence in clinical populations. Middle-aged and old mice also developed persistent mechanical hypersensitivity in the injured paw...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526223/delayed-cord-clamping-in-newborns-born-at-term-at-risk-for-resuscitation-a-feasibility-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Anup C Katheria, Melissa K Brown, Arij Faksh, Kasim O Hassen, Wade Rich, Danielle Lazarus, Jane Steen, Shahram Sean Daneshmand, Neil N Finer
Infants may benefit if resuscitation could be provided with an intact umbilical cord. Infants identified at risk for resuscitation were randomized to 1- or 5-minute cord clamping. The 5-minute group had greater cerebral oxygenation and blood pressure. Studies are needed to determine whether this translates into improved outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02827409.
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526003/the-basic-research-factors-questionnaire-for-studying-early-childhood-caries
#5
Judith Albino, Tamanna Tiwari, Stuart A Gansky, Michelle M Henshaw, Judith C Barker, Angela G Brega, Steven E Gregorich, Brenda Heaton, Terrence S Batliner, Belinda Borrelli, Paul Geltman, Nancy R Kressin, Jane A Weintraub, Tracy L Finlayson, Raul I Garcia
BACKGROUND: We describe development of the Early Childhood Caries (ECC) Basic Research Factors Questionnaire (BRFQ), a battery of measures assessing common potential predictors, mediators, and moderators of ECC. Individual-, family-, and community-level factors that are linked to oral health outcomes across at-risk populations are included. Developing standard measures of factors implicated in ECC has the potential to enhance our ability to understand mechanisms underlying successful prevention and to develop more effective interventions...
May 19, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525406/blood-pressure-among-australian-aboriginal-children
#6
Nicholas Larkins, Armando Teixeira-Pinto, Emily Banks, Hasantha Gunasekera, Alan Cass, Jane Kearnes, Jonathan C Craig
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of elevated blood pressure (BP) and potential predictors of SBP and DBP in urban Australian aboriginal children. METHODS: The Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health is a prospective cohort study of urban Aboriginal children attending four Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services in New South Wales, Australia. Clinical measures included a manual BP measured by research officers using standardized protocols...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525394/modified-denatured-lysozyme-effectively-solubilizes-fullerene-c60-nanoparticles-in-water
#7
Marialuisa Siepi, Jane Politi, Principia Dardano, Angela Amoresano, Luca De Stefano, Daria Maria Monti, Eugenio Notomista
Fullerenes, allotropic forms of carbon, have very interesting pharmacological effects and engineering applications. However, a very low solubility both in organic solvents and water hinders their use. Fullerene C60, the most studied among fullerenes, can be dissolved in water only in the form of nanoparticles of variable dimensions and limited stability. Here the effect on the production of C60 nanoparticles by native and denatured hen egg white lysozyme, a highly basic protein, has been systematically studied...
May 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525389/biological-and-clinical-evidence-for-somatic-mutations-in-brca1-and-brca2-as-predictive-markers-for-olaparib-response-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancers-in-the-maintenance-setting
#8
Brian A Dougherty, Zhongwu Lai, Darren R Hodgson, Maria C M Orr, Matthew Hawryluk, James Sun, Roman Yelensky, Stuart K Spencer, Jane D Robertson, Tony W Ho, Anitra Fielding, Jonathan A Ledermann, J Carl Barrett
To gain a better understanding of the role of somatic mutations in olaparib response, next-generation sequencing (NGS) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 was performed as part of a planned retrospective analysis of tumors from a randomized, double-blind, Phase II trial (Study 19; D0810C00019; NCT00753545) in 265 patients with platinum-sensitive high-grade serous ovarian cancer. BRCA1/2 loss-of-function mutations were found in 55% (114/209) of tumors, were mutually exclusive, and demonstrated high concordance with Sanger-sequenced germline mutations in matched blood samples, confirming the accuracy (97%) of tumor BRCA1/2 NGS testing...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524930/nutrition-support-in-hospitalised-adults-at-nutritional-risk
#9
REVIEW
Joshua Feinberg, Emil Eik Nielsen, Steven Kwasi Korang, Kirstine Halberg Engell, Marie Skøtt Nielsen, Kang Zhang, Maria Didriksen, Lisbeth Lund, Niklas Lindahl, Sara Hallum, Ning Liang, Wenjing Xiong, Xuemei Yang, Pernille Brunsgaard, Alexandre Garioud, Sanam Safi, Jane Lindschou, Jens Kondrup, Christian Gluud, Janus C Jakobsen
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition in Western European hospitals is estimated to be about 30%. There is no consensus whether poor nutritional status causes poorer clinical outcome or if it is merely associated with it. The intention with all forms of nutrition support is to increase uptake of essential nutrients and improve clinical outcome. Previous reviews have shown conflicting results with regard to the effects of nutrition support. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of nutrition support versus no intervention, treatment as usual, or placebo in hospitalised adults at nutritional risk...
May 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524619/use-of-complementary-and-alternative-medicines-is-associated-with-delay-to-initiation-of-disease-modifying-anti-rheumatic-drug-therapy-in-early-inflammatory-arthritis
#10
Manjari Lahiri, Amelia Santosa, Lay Kheng Teoh, Jane A Clayton, Sheen Yee Lim, Gim Gee Teng, Peter P M Cheung
OBJECTIVES: To study the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in patients with early inflammatory arthritis (EIA), and its impact on delay to initiation of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD). METHODS: Data were collected prospectively from EIA patients aged ≥ 21 years. Current or prior CAM use was ascertained by face-to-face interview. Predictors of CAM use and its effect on time to DMARD initiation were determined by multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards, respectively...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523960/the-health-literacy-dyad-the-contribution-of-future-gps-in-england
#11
Oana R Groene, Jane Wills, Nicola Crichton, Gill Rowlands, Rima R Rudd
BACKGROUND: Health literacy studies have primarily focused on the cognitive and social skills of individuals needed to gain access to, understand, and use health information. This area of study is undergoing a paradigm shift with increased attention being paid to the skills of practitioners and an examination of their contribution to the link between literacy and health outcomes. The aim of this study was to describe the health literacy related competencies of General Practice (GP) trainees who will soon be responsible for the clinical encounter...
May 19, 2017: Education for Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523886/rapidly-growing-congenital-groin-mass
#12
Jolene R Jewell, Kenneth S Ellington, Jane S Bellet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523847/sex-differences-in-cardiovascular-risk-profiles-of-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-diabetes-in-the-greater-cincinnati-northern-kentucky-stroke-study
#13
Tracy E Madsen, Jane C Khoury, Kathleen A Alwell, Charles J Moomaw, Stacie L Demel, Matthew L Flaherty, Daniel Woo, Jason Mackey, Felipe De Los Rios La Rosa, Sharyl Martini, Simona Ferioli, Opeolu Adeoye, Pooja Khatri, Brett M Kissela, Dawn Kleindorfer
BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare sex-specific associations between cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes mellitus (DM) among patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study (GCNKSS). METHODS: The GCNKSS ascertained AIS cases in 2005 and 2010 among adult (age ≥20 years) residents of a biracial population of 1.3 million. Past and current stroke risk factors were compared between those with and without DM using chi-square and multiple logistic regression to examine sex-specific profiles...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523591/assessment-of-the-neuroprotective-effects-of-arginine-rich-protamine-peptides-poly-arginine-peptides-r12-cyclic-r22-and-arginine-tryptophan-containing-peptides-following-in-vitro-excitotoxicity-and-or-permanent-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rats
#14
Bruno P Meloni, Diego Milani, Jane L Cross, Vince W Clark, Adam B Edwards, Ryan S Anderton, David J Blacker, Neville W Knuckey
We have demonstrated that arginine-rich and poly-arginine peptides possess potent neuroprotective properties with arginine content and peptide positive charge being particularly critical for neuroprotective efficacy. In addition, the presence of other amino acids within arginine-rich peptides, as well as chemical modifications, peptide length and cell-penetrating properties also influence the level of neuroprotection. Against this background, we have examined the neuroprotective efficacy of arginine-rich protamine peptides, a cyclic (R12-c) poly-arginine peptide and a R22 poly-arginine peptide, as well as arginine peptides containing tryptophan or other amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, glycine or leucine) in in vitro glutamic acid excitotoxicity and in vivo rat permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion models of stroke...
May 18, 2017: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523100/transdermal-bioavailability-in-rats-of-lidocaine-in-the-forms-of-ionic-liquids-salts-and-deep-eutectic
#15
Paula Berton, Kristin R Di Bona, Denise Yancey, Syed A A Rizvi, Marquita Gray, Gabriela Gurau, Julia L Shamshina, Jane F Rasco, Robin D Rogers
Tuning the bioavailability of lidocaine was explored by its incorporation into the ionic liquid lidocainium docusate ([Lid][Doc]) and the deep eutectic Lidocaine·Ibuprofen (Lid·Ibu) and comparing the transdermal absorption of these with the crystalline salt lidocainium chloride ([Lid]Cl). Each form of lidocaine was dissolved in a vehicle cream and topically applied to Sprague-Dawley rats. The concentrations of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in blood plasma were monitored over time as an indication of systemic absorption...
May 11, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522918/combination-of-corticosteroids-and-5-aminosalicylates-or-corticosteroids-alone-for-patients-with-moderate-severe-active-ulcerative-colitis-a-global-survey-of-physicians-practice
#16
Shomron Ben-Horin, Jane M Andrews, Konstantinos H Katsanos, Florian Rieder, Flavio Steinwurz, Konstantinos Karmiris, Jae Hee Cheon, Gordon William Moran, Monica Cesarini, Christian D Stone, Doron Schwartz, Marijana Protic, Xavier Roblin, Giulia Roda, Min-Hu Chen, Ofir Har-Noy, Charles N Bernstein
AIM: To examine treatment decisions of gastroenterologists regarding the choice of prescribing 5-aminosalycilates (5ASA) with corticosteroids (CS) versus corticosteroids alone for patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire exploring physicians' attitude toward 5ASA + CS combination therapy vs CS alone was developed and validated. The questionnaire was distributed to gastroenterology experts in twelve countries in five continents...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522587/preclinical-evaluation-of-medi0641-a-pyrrolobenzodiazepine-conjugated-antibody-drug-conjugate-targeting-5t4
#17
Jay Harper, Christopher Lloyd, Nazzareno Dimasi, Dorin Toader, Rose Marwood, Leeanne Lewis, David Bannister, Jelena Jovanovic, Ryan Fleming, Francois d'Hooge, Shenlan Mao, Allison M Marrero, Martin Korade, Patrick Strout, Linda Xu, Cui Chen, Leslie Wetzel, Shannon Breen, Lilian van Vlerken-Ysla, Sanjoo Jalla, Marlon Rebelatto, Helen Zhong, Elaine M Hurt, Mary Jane Hinrichs, Keven Huang, Philip W Howard, David A Tice, Robert E Hollingsworth, Ronald Herbst, Adeela Kamal
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are used to selectively deliver cytotoxic agents to tumors and have the potential for increased clinical benefit to cancer patients. 5T4 is an oncofetal antigen overexpressed on the cell surface in many carcinomas on both bulk tumor cells as well as cancer stem cells (CSCs), has very limited normal tissue expression, and can internalize when bound by an antibody. An anti-5T4 antibody was identified and optimized for efficient binding and internalization in a target-specific manner, and engineered cysteines were incorporated into the molecule for site-specific conjugation...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522542/tinea-faciei-caused-by-arthroderma-benhamiae
#18
Philippa K Walker-Smith, Christina Wlodek, Jane Sansom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522338/year-round-influenza-immunisation-during-pregnancy-in-nepal-a-phase-4-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Mark C Steinhoff, Joanne Katz, Janet A Englund, Subarna K Khatry, Laxman Shrestha, Jane Kuypers, Laveta Stewart, Luke C Mullany, Helen Y Chu, Steven C LeClerq, Naoko Kozuki, Monica McNeal, Adriana M Reedy, James M Tielsch
BACKGROUND: Influenza immunisation during pregnancy is recommended but not widely implemented in some low-income regions. We assessed the safety and efficacy in mothers and infants of year-round maternal influenza immunisation in Nepal, where influenza viruses circulate throughout the year. METHODS: In this phase 4, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled two consecutive sequential annual cohorts of pregnant women from the Sarlahi district in southern Nepal...
May 15, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522051/naked-and-vulnerable-the-ethics-of-chaperoning-full-body-skin-examinations
#20
Radhika Grandhi, Jane M Grant-Kels
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
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