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Biomarker appendicitis

Holly Depinet, Karen Copeland, Joseph Gogain, Halim Hennes, Norman A Paradis, Rebecca Andrews-Dickert, Cheryl W Vance, David S Huckins
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of pediatric acute appendicitis can be difficult. Although scoring systems such as the Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS) are helpful, they lack adequate sensitivity and specificity as standalone diagnostics. When used for risk stratification, they often result in large percentages of moderate-risk patients requiring further diagnostic evaluation. METHODS: We applied a biomarker panel (the APPY1 Test) that has high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) to patients with PAS in the moderate-risk range (3-7) and reclassified those patients with a negative result to the low-risk group...
August 10, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Concepción Míguez, Cristina Tomatis Souverbielle, Ana Haro, Gloria Guerrero, Laura Pérez-Egido, Mercedes García-Gamiz, Rafael Marañon
INTRODUCTION: A delay in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA), with the added complication of symptoms that mimic other self-limited causes of abdominal pain, can lead to an increase in ruptured appendices and morbimortality. None of the serum biomarkers evaluated to date have shown a predictive value for early diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in the diagnosis of AA in children presenting with acute abdominal pain...
August 16, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Nancy Krieger, Nakul Singh, Pamela D Waterman
PURPOSE: To address the paucity of evidence on residential segregation and cancer, we explored their relationship using a new metric: the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE). We focused on breast cancer estrogen receptor (ER) status, a biomarker associated with survival and, etiologically, with social and economic privilege. METHODS: We obtained data from the 13 registry group of US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program for 1992-2012 on all women aged 25-84 who were diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer (n = 516,382)...
September 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Amish Acharya, Sheraz R Markar, Melody Ni, George B Hanna
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency and can represent a challenging diagnosis, with a negative appendectomy rate as high as 20 %. This review aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of individual biomarkers in the diagnosis of appendicitis and appraise the quality of these studies. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature between January 2000 and September 2015 using of PubMed, OvidMedline, EMBASE and Google Scholar was conducted...
August 5, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Lakhmir S Chawla, Ian Toma, Danielle Davison, Khashayar Vaziri, Juliet Lee, Raymond Lucas, Michael G Seneff, Aoibhinn Nyhan, Timothy A McCaffrey
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of acute appendicitis can be surprisingly difficult without computed tomography, which carries significant radiation exposure. Circulating blood cells may carry informative changes in their RNA expression profile that would signal internal infection or inflammation of the appendix. METHODS: Genome-wide expression profiling was applied to whole blood RNA of acute appendicitis patients versus patients with other abdominal disorders, in order to identify biomarkers of appendicitis...
2016: BMC Medical Genomics
Martin Salö, Bodil Roth, Pernilla Stenström, Einar Arnbjörnsson, Bodil Ohlsson
PURPOSE: The diagnosis of pediatric appendicitis is still a challenge, resulting in perforation and negative appendectomies. The aim of this study was to evaluate novel biomarkers in urine and to use the most promising biomarkers in conjunction with the Pediatric Appendicitis Score (PAS), to see whether this could improve the accuracy of diagnosing appendicitis. METHODS: A prospective study of children with suspected appendicitis was conducted with assessment of PAS, routine blood tests, and measurements of four novel urinary biomarkers: leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein (LRG), calprotectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and substance P...
August 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
David S Huckins, Harold K Simon, Karen Copeland, Truman J Milling, Philip R Spandorfer, Halim Hennes, Coburn Allen, Joseph Gogain
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to prospectively validate the diagnostic accuracy of a biomarker panel consisting of white blood cell, C-reactive protein, and myeloid-related protein 8/14 levels in identifying pediatric patients with abdominal pain who are at low risk for appendicitis. METHODS: This prospective observational study enrolled subjects aged 2 to 20 years presenting to 29 US emergency departments with abdominal pain suggesting possible acute appendicitis...
August 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Peter C Ambe, Daniel Gödde, Lars Bönicke, Marios Papadakis, Stephan Störkel, Hubert Zirngibl
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is a common cause for a visit to the emergency department and appendectomy represents the most common emergency procedure in surgery. The rate of negative appendectomy however has remained high despite modern diagnostic apparatus. Therefore, there is need for a better preoperative screening of patients with suspected appendicitis. Calprotectin represents a predominant protein in the cytosol of neutrophil granulocytes and has been extensively investigated with regard to bowel pathologies...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Evan M Peck, Paul M Battles, Douglas R Rice, Felicia M Roland, Kathryn A Norquest, Bradley D Smith
A programmable pre-assembly method is described and shown to produce near-infrared fluorescent molecular probes with tunable multivalent binding properties. The modular assembly process threads one or two copies of a tetralactam macrocycle onto a fluorescent PEGylated squaraine scaffold containing a complementary number of docking stations. Appended to the macrocycle periphery are multiple copies of a ligand that is known to target a biomarker. The structure and high purity of each threaded complex was determined by independent spectrometric methods and also by gel electrophoresis...
May 18, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Sandra Lorena de Oliveira Machado, Margarete Dulce Bagatini, Pauline da Costa, Jucimara Baldissarelli, Karine Paula Reichert, Lizielle Souza de Oliveira, Jéssica Gonçalves Lemos, Thiago Duarte, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger, Vera Maria Morsch
CONTEXT: This study aims to explore the potential of new inflammatory markers for improving the challenging diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA). METHODS: Levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, CRP, INF-γ, and TNF-α in serum were measured in 73 patients with AA. Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes were analyzed. RESULTS: Serum levels of interleukins, TNF-α, and INF-γ were significantly elevated in patients with appendicitis (p < 0...
September 2016: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Unal Bakal, Mehmet Saraç, Harun Ciftci, Tugay Tartar, Esra Kocdemir, Suleyman Aydin, Ahmet Kazez
OBJECTIVE: Appendicitis is very commonly encountered in emergency clinics. There is an urgent need for early and accurate predictive biomarkers of appendicitis in order to save lives, because currently-available biomarkers are imprecise and their delayed response impairs the ability of emergency doctors and pediatric surgeons to provide timely and potentially effective therapies. This study was performed to determine whether changes in the blood levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) can help to diagnose acute appendicitis in children and distinguish acute appendicitis from abdominal pain...
2016: SpringerPlus
Bang-Ning Cheng, Yu-Lian Jin, Bi-Quan Chen, Li-Yan Zhu, Zi-Cheng Xu, Tao Shen
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a potentially life-threatening infectious disease that commonly occurs in children. Diagnosis of HFMD caused by EV71 largely depends on clinical manifestations and rare serological biomarkers used to identify children suffering from HFMD. Serum cholinesterase (SChE) activity has frequently been reported as a potential biomarker for solid central nervous system tumors, chronic heart failure, and liver cirrhosis...
2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Hung-Hsin Lin, Chia-Chu Chang, Shung-Haur Yang, Shih-Ching Chang, Wei-Shone Chen, Wen-Yih Liang, Jen-Kou Lin, Jeng-Kai Jiang
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common form of cancer and the third leading cause of death in Taiwan. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been extensively used as a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and yolk sac tumors. CASE PRESENTATION: This case report presents a 90-year-old woman with right abdominal pain and poor appetite for 1 week. The computed tomography (CT) showed wall thickening in the proximal ascending colon with ruptured appendicitis...
2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
J Benito, Y Acedo, L Medrano, E Barcena, R Perez Garay, E Arana Arri
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to evaluate the usefulness of the leukocyte (white blood count [WBC]) and neutrophil (absolute neutrophil count [ANC]) counts; the values of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin, and calprotectin (CP); and the APPY1 Test panel of biomarkers, to identify children with abdominal pain at low risk for appendicitis. METHOD: Children 2 to 14 years of age with abdominal pain suggesting acute appendicitis (AA) were prospectively included...
May 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sevgi Büyükbeşe Sarsu, Şenay Görücü Yılmaz, Ali Bayram, Affan Denk, Kürşat Kargun, Mehmet Ali Sungur
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis (AA) (OMIM: 107700) is an inflammatory disease which is characterized by appendiceal inflammation. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of AA. Especially, multiple genetic factors appear to be promising in the explanation of etiopathogenesis of AA. IL-6 (Interleukin-6) is an inflammatory cytokine and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) plays an important role in the immune response. IL-6 (-572G/C rs1800796) and IL-6R (1:G.154448302 T > C rs7529229) gene polymorphisms may have an impact on cytokine production, immune response and these gene polymorphisms may be used as inflammatory markers in the diagnosis of appendicitis...
2015: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Julia Dratva, Seraina Caviezel, Emmanuel Schaffner, Robert Bettschart, Nino Kuenzli, Christian Schindler, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Daiana Stolz, Elisabeth Zemp, Nicole Probst-Hensch
OBJECTIVE: Inflammatory risk factors in childhood, e.g. obesity, impact on carotid artery intima media thickness (CIMT), an early indicator of atherosclerosis. Little is known on potential infectious origins in childhood. We investigated the association between number of reported different childhood infectious diseases and CIMT in adolescence. STUDY DESIGN: 288 SAPALDIA offspring (8-21years) underwent a clinical examination in 2010-2011: anthropometry, blood pressure, CIMT, blood draw (cardiovascular biomarkers, cotinine)...
December 2015: Atherosclerosis
Aneel Bhangu, Kjetil Søreide, Salomone Di Saverio, Jeanette Hansson Assarsson, Frederick Thurston Drake
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common abdominal emergencies worldwide. The cause remains poorly understood, with few advances in the past few decades. To obtain a confident preoperative diagnosis is still a challenge, since the possibility of appendicitis must be entertained in any patient presenting with an acute abdomen. Although biomarkers and imaging are valuable adjuncts to history and examination, their limitations mean that clinical assessment is still the mainstay of diagnosis. A clinical classification is used to stratify management based on simple (non-perforated) and complex (gangrenous or perforated) inflammation, although many patients remain with an equivocal diagnosis, which is one of the most challenging dilemmas...
September 26, 2015: Lancet
Chenguang Wang, Huan Zhang, Dongdong Zeng, Wenliang Sun, Honglu Zhang, Ali Aldalbahi, Yunsheng Wang, Lili San, Chunhai Fan, Xiaolei Zuo, Xianqiang Mi
Simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers has important prospects in the biomedical field. In this work, we demonstrated a novel strategy for the detection of multiple microRNAs (miRNAs) based on gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) and polyadenine (polyA) mediated nanoscale molecular beacon (MB) probes (denoted p-nanoMBs). Novel fluorescent labeled p-nanoMBs bearing consecutive adenines were designed, of which polyA served as an effective anchoring block binding to the surface of Au NPs, and the appended hairpin block formed an upright conformation that favored the hybridization with targets...
October 14, 2015: Nanoscale
Jasper J Atema, Sarah L Gans, Ludo F Beenen, Boudewijn R Toorenvliet, Helena Laurell, Jaap Stoker, Marja A Boermeester
OBJECTIVES: Low levels of white blood cell (WBC) count and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been suggested to sufficiently rule out acute appendicitis. The diagnostic value of these tests is likely to depend on the duration of complaints. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of these inflammatory markers in relation to duration of symptoms in patients suspected of acute appendicitis. METHODS: Patients suspected of having acute appendicitis were retrospectively selected from five prospective cohorts of patients with acute abdominal pain presenting at the emergency department (ED) in two European countries...
September 2015: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Erdinç Çetinkaya, Ahmet Erdoğan, Özgür Akgül, Canbert Çelik, Mesut Tez
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of acute appendicitis is sometimes challenging, and prompt evaluation is required because of the risk of complications if not treated appropriately. AIM: We aimed to evaluate whether cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) has diagnositic accuracy and predictor of the severity in acute appendicitis. RESULTS: Sixty patients with acute appendicitis were recruited prospectively in this study between May 2014 and March 2015. Blood samples were obtained to measure CA-125 levels before appendectomy...
October 2015: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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