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Volatile organic compound analysis

Santino Orecchio, Michele Fiore, Salvatore Barreca, Gabriele Vara
The objective of present study was to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several sources (fuels, traffic, landfills, coffee roasting, a street-food laboratory, building work, indoor use of incense and candles, a dental laboratory, etc.) located in Palermo (Italy) by using canister autosamplers and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. In this study, 181 VOCs were monitored. In the atmosphere of Palermo city, propane, butane, isopentane, methyl pentane, hexane, benzene, toluene, meta- and para-xylene, 1,2,4 trimethyl benzene, 1,3,5 trimethyl benzene, ethylbenzene, 4 ethyl toluene and heptane were identified and quantified in all sampling sites...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Chiara Giorio, Steven J Campbell, Maurizio Bruschi, Francesco Tampieri, Antonio Barbon, Antonio Toffoletti, Andrea Tapparo, Claudia Paijens, Andrew J Wedlake, Peter Grice, Duncan J Howe, Markus Kalberer
Biogenic alkenes, which are among the most abundant volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, are readily oxidised by ozone. Characterising the reactivity and kinetics of the first generation products of these reactions, carbonyl oxides (often named Criegee intermediates), is essential in defining the oxidation pathways of organic compounds in the atmosphere but is highly challenging due to the short lifetime of these zwitterions. Here, we report the development of a novel online method to quantify atmospherically relevant Criegee intermediates (CIs) in the gas phase by stabilisation with spin traps and analysis with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Gary Strobel, Amy Ericksen, Joe Sears, Jie Xie, Brad Geary, Bryan Blatt
Urnula sp. was isolated as an endophyte of Dicksonia antarctica and identified primarily on the basis of its ITS sequence and morphological features. The anamorphic state of the fungus appeared as a hyphomyceteous-like fungus as based on its features in culture and scanning electron microscopy examination of its spores. On potato dextrose agar (PDA), the organism makes a characteristic fragrance resembling peach pie with vanilla overtones. A GC/MS analysis done on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of this organism, trapped by carbotrap methodology, revealed over 150 compounds with high MS matching quality being noted for 44 of these...
February 10, 2017: Microbial Ecology
L Thors, S Lindberg, S Johansson, B Koch, M Koch, L Hägglund, A Bucht
Dermal exposure to low volatile organophosphorus compounds (OPC) may lead to penetration through the skin and uptake in the blood circulation. Skin decontamination of toxic OPCs, such as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents, might therefore be crucial for mitigating the systemic toxicity following dermal exposure. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) has been shown to reduce toxic effects in animals dermally exposed to the nerve agent VX. In the present study, an in vitro flow-through diffusion cell was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of RSDL for decontamination of VX exposed to human epidermis...
February 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
Szymon Wojtyła, Piotr Klama, Tomasz Baran
The fast development of low-cost desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers has made those devices widely accessible for goods manufacturing at home. However, is it safe? Users may belittle the effects or influences of pollutants (organic compounds and ultrafine particles) generated by the devices in question. Within the scope of this study, the authors attempt to investigate thermal decomposition of the following commonly used, commercially available thermoplastic filaments: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and nylon...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Yuichi Sakumura, Yutaro Koyama, Hiroaki Tokutake, Toyoaki Hida, Kazuo Sato, Toshio Itoh, Takafumi Akamatsu, Woosuck Shin
Monitoring exhaled breath is a very attractive, noninvasive screening technique for early diagnosis of diseases, especially lung cancer. However, the technique provides insufficient accuracy because the exhaled air has many crucial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at very low concentrations (ppb level). We analyzed the breath exhaled by lung cancer patients and healthy subjects (controls) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and performed a subsequent statistical analysis to diagnose lung cancer based on the combination of multiple lung cancer-related VOCs...
February 4, 2017: Sensors
Marcos Bouza, Jesus Gonzalez-Soto, Rosario Pereiro, Juan Carlos de Vicente, Alfredo Sanz-Medel
Corporal mechanisms attributed to cancer, such as oxidative stress or the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes, seem to be responsible of the generation of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that could be used as non-invasive diagnosis biomarkers. The present work presents an attempt of using VOCs from exhaled breath and oral cavity air as biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. 52 breath samples were collected (3 L Tedlar bags) from 26 OSCC patients and 26 cancer-free controls...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Mami Takei, Shinsaku Ito, Keisuke Tanaka, Taichiro Ishige, Yoshihito Suzuki
Insect galls are abnormal plant tissues induced by parasitic insect(s) for use as their habitat. In previous work, we suggested that gall tissues induced by the aphid Tetraneura nigriabdominalis on Japanese elm trees are less responsive than leaf tissues to jasmonic acid (JA), which is involved in the production of volatile organic compounds as a typical defensive reaction of plants against attack by insect pests. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression by RNA sequencing indicated that the number of JA responsive genes was markedly lower in gall tissues than in leaf tissues...
February 6, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Fiona Hewitt, Antonis Christou, Kathryn Dickens, Richard Walker, Anna A Stec
Qualitative results are presented from analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs) obtained through sampling of gaseous effluent and condensed particulates during a series of experimental house fires conducted in a real house. Particular emphasis is given to the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed by the Environmental Protection Agency due to their potentially carcinogenic effects. The initial fuel packages were either cooking oil or a single sofa; these were burned both alone, and in furnished surroundings...
December 27, 2016: Chemosphere
Victoria Ruiz-Hernández, Benjamin Hermans, Julia Weiss, Marcos Egea-Cortines
The Antirrhinum genus has a considerable complexity in the scent profiles produced by different species. We have analyzed the genetic differences between A. majus and A. linkianum, two species divergent in the emission of methyl benzoate, methyl cinnamate, acetophenone, and ocimene. The genetic analysis showed that all compounds segregated in a Mendelian fashion attributable to one or two loci with simple or epistatic interactions. Several lines lacked methyl benzoate, a major Volatile Organic Compound emitted by A...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Michael J Oldham, Karl A Wagner, I Gene Gilman, James B Beach, Jianmin Liu, Ali A Rostami, Mohamadi A Sarkar
Concerns have been raised about the potential health effects of potential bystander exposure to exhaled aerosols from e-vapor products (EVPs). An exhaled breath collection system (EBS) was developed and analytical methods were verified for collection and analysis of exhaled breath from users of EVPs. Analytical methods were adapted and verified for collection of environmental air samples during EVP use in an exposure chamber. Analysis of constituents in exhaled breath focused on nicotine, propylene glycol, and glycerin (because these are reported as the major constituents in EVPs) and selected carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde, acrolein, and formaldehyde)...
January 30, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Martina Fortini, Marzia Migliorini, Chiara Cherubini, Lorenzo Cecchi, Luca Calamai
The commercial value of virgin olive oils (VOOs) strongly depends on their classification, also based on the aroma of the oils, usually evaluated by a panel test. Nowadays, a reliable analytical method is still needed to evaluate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and support the standard panel test method. To date, the use of HS-SPME sampling coupled to GC-MS is generally accepted for the analysis of VOCs in VOOs. However, VOO is a challenging matrix due to the simultaneous presence of: i) compounds at ppm and ppb concentrations; ii) molecules belonging to different chemical classes and iii) analytes with a wide range of molecular mass...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
Pierre-François Biard, Annabelle Couvert, Christophe Renner
Three volatile organic compounds (VOC) with no acidic or basic function (butanol, butyraldehyde, methylethylketone), encountered at low concentrations in odorous effluents, were absorbed in water in a compact wet scrubber. This gas-liquid contactor consisted of a wire mesh packing structure where the gas phase flows at high velocity (>12 m s(-1)). A very turbulent two-phase downward flow could be observed in the scrubber with dispersed fine droplets (around 10 μm). For compounds showing a good affinity for water, such as butanol, removal efficiencies up to 90% were measured for a short contactor length of 32 cm leading to a gas residence time of 20 ms...
January 16, 2017: Chemosphere
Jian Kang, Junjie Liu, Jingjing Pei
This study investigates the VOCs constituents and concentration levels on a new university campus, where all of the buildings including classrooms and student dormitories were newly built and decorated within one year. Investigated indoor environments, include dormitories, classrooms and the library. About 30 dormitory buildings with different furniture loading ratio were measured. The characteristics of the indoor VOCs species are analysed and possible sources are identified. The VOCs are analysed with GC-MS method...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Lionel Blanchet, Agnieszka Smolinska, Agnieszka Baranska, Ettje Tigchelaar, Morris Swertz, Alexandra Zhernakova, Jan Dallinga, Cisca Wijmenga, Frederik van Schooten
Background Thousands of endogenous and exogenous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are excreted in each breath. Inflammatory and deviant metabolic processes affect the level of endogeneous VOCs, which can serve as specific biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and disease monitoring. Important issues that still need to be tackled are related to potential confounding factors like gender and age and endogenous and exogenous factors, like f.i. smoking. Methods The aim of this study was to systematically access the effect of endogenous and exogenous factors on VOC composition of exhaled breath...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
Yulong Yan, Lin Peng, Rumei Li, Yinghui Li, Lijuan Li, Huiling Bai
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from two sampling sites (HB and XB) in a power station centralized area, in Shuozhou city, China, were sampled by stainless steel canisters and measured by gas chromatography-mass selective detection/flame ionization detection (GC-MSD/FID) in the spring and autumn of 2014. The concentration of VOCs was higher in the autumn (HB, 96.87 μg/m(3); XB, 58.94 μg/m(3)) than in the spring (HB, 41.49 μg/m(3); XB, 43.46 μg/m(3)), as lower wind speed in the autumn could lead to pollutant accumulation, especially at HB, which is a new urban area surrounded by residential areas and a transportation hub...
January 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Islam S Sobhy, Christine M Woodcock, Stephen J Powers, John C Caulfield, John A Pickett, Michael A Birkett
Elicitation of plant defense signaling that results in altered emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) offers opportunities for protecting plants against arthropod pests. In this study, we treated potato, Solanum tuberosum L., with the plant defense elicitor cis-jasmone (CJ), which induces the emission of defense VOCs and thus affects the behavior of herbivores. Using chemical analysis, electrophysiological and behavioral assays with the potato-feeding aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae, we showed that CJ treatment substantially increased the emission of defense VOCs from potatoes compared to no treatment...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Ping Su, Tianyuan Hu, Yujia Liu, Yuru Tong, Hongyu Guan, Yifeng Zhang, Jiawei Zhou, Luqi Huang, Wei Gao
Triptolide and celastrol, two principal bioactive compounds in Tripterygium wilfordii, are produced from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) and farnesyl diphosphate ((E,E)-FPP) through terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. However, little is known about T. wilfordii terpene synthases which could competitively utilize GGPP and (E,E)-FPP as substrates, producing C15 and C20 tertiary alcohols. Here we firstly cloned the genes encoding nerolidol synthase (NES) and geranyllinalool synthases (GES1, GES2), which are responsible for the biosynthesis of (E)-nerolidol and (E,E)-geranyllinalool...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Shaoqing Cui, Jianfeng Wu, Jun Wang, Xinlei Wang
BACKGROUND: American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) and Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) products, such as slices, have a similar appearance, but they have significantly different prices, leading to widespread adulteration in the commercial market. Their aroma characteristics are attracting increasing attention and are supposed to be effective and nondestructive markers to determine adulteration. METHODS: The aroma characteristics of American and Asian ginseng were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) and an electronic nose (E-nose)...
January 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
Lexuan Zhong, Feng-Chiao Su, Stuart Batterman
Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) concern in schools and other buildings for many years. Newer designs, construction practices and building materials for "green" buildings and the use of "environmentally friendly" products have the promise of lowering chemical exposure. This study examines VOCs and IEQ parameters in 144 classrooms in 37 conventional and high performance elementary schools in the U.S. with the objectives of providing a comprehensive analysis and updating the literature...
January 21, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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