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Insulin & Weight Gain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335560/serum-amyloid-a-production-is-triggered-by-sleep-deprivation-in-mice-and-humans-is-that-the-link-between-sleep-loss-and-associated-comorbidities
#1
Edson M de Oliveira, Bruna Visniauskas, Sergio Tufik, Monica L Andersen, Jair R Chagas, Ana Campa
Serum amyloid A (SAA) was recently associated with metabolic endotoxemia, obesity and insulin resistance. Concurrently, insufficient sleep adversely affects metabolic health and is an independent predisposing factor for obesity and insulin resistance. In this study we investigated whether sleep loss modulates SAA production. The serum SAA concentration increased in C57BL/6 mice subjected to sleep restriction (SR) for 15 days or to paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) for 72 h. Sleep restriction also induced the upregulation of Saa1...
March 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335515/dehydroepiandrosterone-dhea-feeding-protects-liver-steatosis-in-obese-breast-cancer-rat-model
#2
Reza Hakkak, Andrea Bell, Soheila Korourian
Obesity is a major health problem in the US and globally. Obesity is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancers, hyperlipidemia, and liver steatosis development. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a dietary supplement used as an anti-obesity supplement. Previously, we reported that DHEA feeding protects 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary tumors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of obesity and DHEA feeding on liver steatosis, body weight gain, and serum DHEA, DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels...
March 20, 2017: Scientia Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334746/a-newborn-with-transient-diabetes-mellitus-accompanied-by-ketoacidosis-attributable-to-a-zfp57-mutation
#3
Fatma Iyigun, Beyza Ozcan, Ferit Kulali, Istemi Han Celik, Semra Cetinkaya, Ahmet Yagmur Bas, Nihal Demirel
Hyperglycemia commencing within the first 6 months of life requires exogenous insulin therapy and, if the condition persists for >2 weeks, is termed neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM). This rare illness is of two types: transient and permanent NDM. Most cases come to medical attention because of nonspecific symptoms, including intrauterine growth retardation, dehydration, difficulties in feeding and inadequate weight gain. In the present article, we describe an infant who smelt of ketones during examination and who was diagnosed with transient NDM caused by a ZFP57 mutation, accompanied by ketoacidosis...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333098/anti-obesity-and-anti-diabetic-effect-of-neoagarooligosaccharides-on-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#4
Sun Joo Hong, Je-Hyeon Lee, Eun Joo Kim, Hea Jung Yang, Jae-Seon Park, Soon-Kwang Hong
Neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOs), mainly comprising neoagarotetraose and neoagarohexaose, were prepared by hydrolyzing agar with β-agarase DagA from Streptomyces coelicolor, and the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of NAOs on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice were investigated after NAOs-supplementation for 64 days. Compared to the HFD group, the HFD-0.5 group that was fed with HFD + NAOs (0.5%, w/w) showed remarkable reduction of 36% for body weight gain and 37% for food efficiency ratios without abnormal clinical signs...
March 23, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331986/renal-function-preservation-with-pioglitazone-or-with-basal-insulin-as-an-add-on-therapy-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#5
Yu-Hung Chang, Der-Wei Hwu, Dao-Ming Chang, Ling-Wang An, Chang-Hsun Hsieh, Yau-Jiunn Lee
AIMS: Clinical outcome may differ owing to the distinct pharmacological characteristics of insulin sensitizers and insulin. This study was performed to compare the metabolic and renal function changes with add-on pioglitazone treatment versus basal insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in whom sulfonylurea and metformin regimens failed. METHODS: Patients who were consecutively managed in the diabetes comprehensive program with add-on pioglitazone or detemir/glargine treatment for at least 2 years following sulfonylurea and metformin treatment failure were included...
March 22, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327588/pharmacological-inhibition-of-adipose-triglyceride-lipase-corrects-high-fat-diet-induced-insulin-resistance-and-hepatosteatosis-in-mice
#6
Martina Schweiger, Matthias Romauch, Renate Schreiber, Gernot F Grabner, Sabrina Hütter, Petra Kotzbeck, Pia Benedikt, Thomas O Eichmann, Sohsuke Yamada, Oskar Knittelfelder, Clemens Diwoky, Carina Doler, Nicole Mayer, Werner De Cecco, Rolf Breinbauer, Robert Zimmermann, Rudolf Zechner
Elevated circulating fatty acids (FAs) contribute to the development of obesity-associated metabolic complications such as insulin resistance (IR) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hence, reducing adipose tissue lipolysis to diminish the mobilization of FAs and lower their respective plasma concentrations represents a potential treatment strategy to counteract obesity-associated disorders. Here we show that specific inhibition of adipose triglyceride lipase (Atgl) with the chemical inhibitor, Atglistatin, effectively reduces adipose tissue lipolysis, weight gain, IR and NAFLD in mice fed a high-fat diet...
March 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324038/efficacy-of-exenatide-plus-pioglitazone-versus-basal-bolus-insulin-in-t2dm-patients-with-very-high-hba1c
#7
Muhammad Abdul-Ghani, Osama Mujahid, Ayman Mujahid, Ralph A DeFronzo, Mahmoud Zirie, Amin Jayyousi
Aim: To examine the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with exenatide plus pioglitazone versus basal-bolus insulin in poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients with very high HbA1c (HbA1c>10%) on metformin plus sulfonylurea and long duration of disease. Research Design and Methods: 101 participants in Qatar Study with very poor glycemic control (HbA1c > 10%) and long duration of diabetes (10.9 years) on maximum/near-maximum doses of sulfonylurea plus metformin were randomized to receive: (i) pioglitazone plus weekly exenatide (Combination Therapy), or (ii) basal plus prandial insulin (Insulin Therapy) to maintain HbA1c <7...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323991/whole-body-vibration-mimics-the-metabolic-effects-of-exercise-in-male-leptin-receptor-deficient-mice
#8
Meghan E McGee-Lawrence, Karl H Wenger, Sudipta Misra, Catherine L Davis, Norman K Pollock, Mohammed Elsalanty, Kehong Ding, Carlos M Isales, Mark W Hamrick, Joanna R Erion, Marlena Wosiski-Kuhn, Phonepasong Arounleut, Mark P Mattson, Roy G Cutler, Jack C Yu, Alexis M Stranahan
Whole-body vibration has gained attention as a potential exercise mimetic, but direct comparisons with the metabolic effects of exercise are scarce. To determine whether whole-body vibration recapitulates the metabolic and osteogenic effects of physical activity, we exposed male wildtype (Wt) and leptin receptor deficient (db/db) mice to daily treadmill exercise or whole-body vibration for three months. Body weights were analyzed and compared with Wt and db/db mice that remained sedentary. Glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed comparable attenuation of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice following treadmill exercise or whole-body vibration...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323956/hyperhomocysteinemia-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-pcos-mice-through-modulating-m2-macrophage-polarization-via-estrogen-suppression
#9
Xinyu Qi, Bochun Zhang, Yue Zhao, Rong Li, Hsun-Ming Chang, Yanli Pang, Jie Qiao
It has been shown that serum homocycteine (Hcy) levels are higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, the specific role of hyperhomocycteinemia (HHcy) in the development of PCOS has never been reported. Adipose tissue inflammation is featured by the infiltration of macrophages that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of glucose and insulin intolerance. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were treated with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and/or high methionine diet to induce PCOS and HHcy mice models...
March 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323942/incretin-therapies-do-not-expand-%C3%AE-cell-mass-or-alter-pancreatic-histology-in-young-male-mice
#10
Aaron R Cox, Carol J Lam, Matthew M Rankin, Jacqueline S Rios, Julia Chavez, Claire W Bonnyman, Kourtney B King, Roger A Wells, Deepti Anthony, Justin X Tu, Jenny J Kim, Changhong Li, Jake A Kushner
The impact of incretins upon pancreatic β-cell expansion remains extremely controversial. Multiple studies indicate that incretin-based therapies can increase β-cell proliferation, and incretins have been hypothesized to expand β-cell mass. However, considerable disagreement exists on whether incretins actually increase β-cell mass. Moreover, some reports indicate that incretins may cause metaplastic changes in pancreatic histology. To resolve these questions we treated a large cohort of mice with incretin-based therapies and carried out a rigorous analysis of β-cell turnover and pancreatic histology using high-throughput imaging...
March 8, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320416/effect-of-the-r92h-and-a379v-genotypes-of-platelet-activating-factor-acetylhydrolase-on-its-enzyme-activity-oxidative-stress-and-metabolic-profile-in-chinese-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#11
Renjiao Zhang, Qi Song, Hongwei Liu, Huai Bai, Yujin Zhang, Qingqing Liu, Linbo Guan, Ping Fan
BACKGROUND: The G994T polymorphism in platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) gene is associated with the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between R92H and A379V variants of the PAF-AH gene and the risk of PCOS and to evaluate the effects of the genotypes on PAF-AH activities and clinical, metabolic and oxidative stress indexes in Chinese women. METHODS: A total of 862 patients with PCOS based on the Rotterdam consensus criteria and 750 control women from a population of Chinese Han nationality in the Chengdu area were studied from 2006-2015...
March 20, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316139/changes-in-body-composition-and-metabolic-profile-during-interleukin-6-inhibition-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#12
Anne Tournadre, Bruno Pereira, Fréderic Dutheil, Charlotte Giraud, Daniel Courteix, Vincent Sapin, Thomas Frayssac, Sylvain Mathieu, Sandrine Malochet-Guinamand, Martin Soubrier
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by increased mortality associated with cardiometabolic disorders including dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and cachectic obesity. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and interleukin 6 receptor blocker licensed for the treatment of RA decrease inflammation and could thus improve cardiovascular risk, but their effects on body composition and metabolic profile need to be clarified. We investigated the effects of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody, on body composition and metabolic profile in patients treated for RA...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303690/greater-early-weight-gain-and-shorter-breastfeeding-are-associated-with-low-adolescent-adiponectin-levels
#13
M Reyes, R Burrows, E Blanco, B Lozoff, S Gahagan
BACKGROUND: Early life factors can programme future risk for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: We explored associations between adolescent adiponectin levels and concomitant metabolic alteration and also looked at the association between early life factors and adolescent adiponectin levels. METHODS: We studied a longitudinal cohort of low-income to middle-income Chilean adolescents who were enroled in an infancy iron-deficiency anaemia preventive trial and follow-up studies at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile...
March 16, 2017: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294641/evaluation-of-the-long-term-cost-effectiveness-of-ideglira-versus-liraglutide-added-to-basal-insulin-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-failing-to-achieve-glycemic-control-on-basal-insulin-in-the-usa
#14
B Hunt, M Mocarski, W J Valentine, J Langer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: IDegLira, a fixed ratio combination of insulin degludec and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, utilizes the complementary mechanisms of action of these two agents to improve glycemic control with low risk of hypoglycemia and avoidance of weight gain. The aim of the present analysis was to assess the long-term cost-effectiveness of IDegLira vs liraglutide added to basal insulin, for patients with type 2 diabetes not achieving glycemic control on basal insulin in the US setting...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292762/gpr40-reduces-food-intake-and-body-weight-through-glp-1
#15
Judith N Gorski, Michele J Pachanski, Joel Mane, Christopher W Plummer, Sarah Souza, Brande S Thomas-Fowlkes, Aimie M Ogawa, Adam B Weinglass, Jerry Di Salvo, Boonlert Cheewatrakoolpong, Andrew D Howard, Steven L Colletti, Maria E Trujillo
GPR40 partial agonists lower glucose through the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which is believed to provide significant glucose lowering without the weight gain or hypoglycemic risk associated with exogenous insulin or glucose independent insulin secretagogues. The class of small molecule GPR40 modulators, known as AgoPAMs (agonist also capable of acting as positive allosteric modulators), differentiate from partial agonists, binding to a distinct site and functioning as full agonists to stimulate the secretion of both insulin and GLP-1 (17)...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285656/relationships-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-its-binding-proteins-and-cardiometabolic-risk-in-hypertensive-perimenopausal-women
#16
Agnieszka Olszanecka, Aneta Dragan, Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz, Danuta Fedak, Danuta Czarnecka
PURPOSE: During the transition from premenopause to postmenopause, many women experience weight gain and central fat deposition; therefore, we hypothesized that circulating growth factors can play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and subclinical organ damage in perimenopausal women. BASIC PROCEDURES: The study included 192 women aged 40 to 60years; 152 had newly diagnosed essential hypertension that had never been treated, and 40 were normotensive age-matched controls...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285640/first-and-second-trimester-gestational-weight-gains-are-most-strongly-associated-with-cord-blood-levels-of-hormones-at-delivery-important-for-glycemic-control-and-somatic-growth
#17
Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Abby Fleisch, Marie-France Hivert, Christos Mantzoros, Matthew W Gillman, Emily Oken
BACKGROUND: Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and offspring. Early, mid, and late pregnancy GWGs have different associations with fetal growth and later life adiposity, but associations with cord blood hormones, which might predict later health, are not well studied. METHODS: In 978 pregnant women from the pre-birth Project Viva cohort, we calculated trimester-specific GWG using clinically recorded prenatal weights...
April 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281233/common-channel-length-in-bypass-surgery-does-not-impact-t2dm-in-diabetic-zucker-rats
#18
Claudia Laessle, Sven Michelmichel, Goran Marjanovic, Simon Kuesters, Gabriel Seifert, Ulrich T Hopt, Jodok Matthias Fink
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic surgery is known to impact glucose tolerance but the exact mechanism is still unclear. Based on recently-published data, especially the role of the hindgut may require redefinition. METHODS: Either a loop duodeno-jejunostomy (DJOS) with exclusion of one third of total intestinal length, a loop duodeno-ileostomy (DiOS, exclusion of two thirds), or SHAM operation was performed in 9-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty rats. One, 3, and 6 months after surgery, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glucose-stimulated hormone analyses were conducted...
March 9, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281218/evaluation-of-the-short-term-cost-effectiveness-of-ideglira-versus-continued-up-titration-of-insulin-glargine-u100-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-the-usa
#19
Barnaby Hunt, Michelle Mocarski, William J Valentine, Jakob Langer
INTRODUCTION: Effective glycemic control can reduce the risk of complications and their related costs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, many patients fail to reach glycemic targets, often because of adverse effects of treatment (including hypoglycemia or weight gain). The present analysis evaluated the short-term cost-effectiveness of IDegLira versus continued up-titration of insulin glargine U100 in patients with T2DM failing to achieve glycemic control on basal insulin in the US setting...
March 9, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275130/mothers-intake-of-sugar-containing-beverages-during-pregnancy-and-body-composition-of-their-children-during-childhood-the-generation-r-study
#20
Vincent Jen, Nicole S Erler, Myrte J Tielemans, Kim Ve Braun, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Trudy Voortman
Background: High intake of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) has been linked to increased risk of obesity. However, associations of SCB intake during pregnancy with child body composition have been unclear.Objectives: We explored whether SCB intake during pregnancy was associated with children's body mass index (BMI) and detailed measures of body composition. In addition, we examined different types of SCBs (i.e., fruit juice, soda, and concentrate).Design: We included 3312 mother-child pairs of the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort from fetal life onward in the Netherlands...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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