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Insulin & Weight Gain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342149/low-expression-of-il-18-and-il-18-receptor-in-human-skeletal-muscle-is-associated-with-systemic-and-intramuscular-lipid-metabolism-role-of-hiv-lipodystrophy
#1
Birgitte Lindegaard, Thine Hvid, Helene Wolsk Mygind, Ole Hartvig-Mortensen, Thomas Grøndal, Julie Abildgaard, Jan Gerstoft, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Marcin Baranowski
INTRODUCTION: Interleukin (IL)-18 is involved in regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Mice lacking whole-body IL-18 signalling are prone to develop weight gain and insulin resistance, a phenotype which is associated with impaired fat oxidation and ectopic skeletal muscle lipid deposition. IL-18 mRNA is expressed in human skeletal muscle but a role for IL-18 in muscle has not been identified. Patients with HIV-infection and lipodystrophy (LD) are characterized by lipid and glucose disturbances and increased levels of circulating IL-18...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342124/the-root-of-atractylodes-macrocephala-koidzumi-prevents-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance-and-increases-energy-metabolism-in-mice
#2
Mi Young Song, Soo-Kyoung Lim, Jing-Hua Wang, Hojun Kim
Targeting energy expenditure offers a strategy for treating obesity more effectively and safely. In previous studies, we found that the root of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi (Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, ARA) increased energy metabolism in C2C12 cells. Here, we investigated the effects of ARA on obesity and glucose intolerance by examining energy metabolism in skeletal muscle and brown fat in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice. ARA decreased body weight gain, hepatic lipid levels and serum total cholesterol levels, but did not modify food intake...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341885/deletion-of-the-duffy-antigen-receptor-for-chemokines-darc-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-during-high-fat-feeding
#3
Tyler W Benson, Daniel S Weintraub, Matthew Crowe, Nicole K H Yiew, Orishebawo Popoola, Ajay Pillai, Joel Joseph, Krystal Archer, Charlotte Greenway, Tapan K Chatterjee, James Mintz, David W Stepp, Brian K Stansfield, Weiqin Chen, Julia Brittain, Vladimir Y Bogdanov, Yan Gao, James G Wilson, Yaoliang Tang, Ha Won Kim, Neal L Weintraub
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation in adipose tissues in obesity promotes insulin resistance and metabolic disease. The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is a promiscuous non-signaling receptor expressed on erythrocytes and other cell types that modulates tissue inflammation by binding chemokines such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and by acting as a chemokine reservoir. DARC allelic variants are common in humans, but the role of DARC in modulating obesity-related metabolic disease is unknown...
January 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333102/an-amino-acids-mixture-attenuates-glycemic-impairment-but-not-affects-adiposity-development-in-rats-fed-with-ages-containing-diet
#4
Yi-Hung Liao, Chung-Yu Chen, Chiao-Nan Chen, Chia-Ying Wu, Shiow-Chwen Tsai
Background: Unhealthy western dietary patterns lead to over-consumption of fat and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and these account for the developments of obesity, diabetes, and related metabolic disorders. Certain amino acids (AAs) have been recently demonstrated to improve glycemia and reduce adiposity. Therefore, our primary aims were to examine whether feeding an isoleucine-enriched AA mixture (4.5% AAs; Ile: 3.0%, Leu: 1.0%, Val: 0.2%, Arg: 0.3% in the drinking water) would affect adiposity development and prevent the impairments of glycemic control in rats fed with the fat/AGE-containing diet (FAD)...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333050/improvement-of-insulin-secretion-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-treated-with-aloe-vera-extract
#5
Ayesha Noor, S Gunasekaran, M A Vijayalakshmi
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Plant extracts and their products are being used as an alternative system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Aloe vera has been traditionally used to treat several diseases and it exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing effects. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar diabetic rats were used in this study to understand the potential protective effect of A. vera extract on the pancreatic islets...
December 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332422/unexpected-management-behaviors-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-using-sensor-augmented-pump-therapy
#6
Mary Binsu Abraham, Kristine Heels, Jennifer A Nicholas, Carol Cole, Rebecca Gebert, Julie Klimek, Tracey Jopling, Geoffrey Ambler, Fergus Cameron, Elizabeth Davis, Timothy W Jones
BACKGROUND: Continuous glucose monitoring can improve glycemic outcomes in individuals with type 1 diabetes. However, the constant exposure to real-time glucose levels can sometimes lead the individual to make some risky choices to address the glycemic excursions. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the aberrant management behaviors of youth with type 1 diabetes on sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAPT). METHODS: Participants in a clinical trial using SAPT on Medtronic MiniMed™ 640G pump who experienced deteriorating glycemic control or unexplained hypoglycemia were identified by the health care professional...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331565/saroglitazar-reduces-obesity-and-associated-inflammatory-consequences-in-murine-adipose-tissue
#7
Durgesh Kumar, Umesh Kumar Goand, Sanchita Gupta, Kripa Shankar, Salil Varshney, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Gupta, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Anurag Kumar Srivastava, Anil N Gaikwad
Prevailing knowledge links chronic low-grade inflammation in the adipose tissue to obesity and its associated metabolic complications. In this study, we evaluated immunometabolic effects of a recently launched dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α & γ agonist 'Saroglitazar' in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Body composition analysis revealed that saroglitazar treatment promoted hepatic weight gain, while attenuated epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) mass in DIO. In the eWAT of saroglitazar treated mice, histological analysis showed reduced adipocyte hypertrophy and matrix deposition (picrosirius red staining)...
January 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327380/effects-of-deficiency-and-surplus-dietary-threonine-on-reproductive-performance-of-primiparous-pregnant-gilts
#8
M Shi, T Liu, T Li, H Wang, T Yuan, D Li, J Wang
Dietary threonine imbalance is known to impair reproductive performances of gestating sows, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, effects of deficiency and surplus dietary threonine during gestation on reproductive performance, serum metabolites and hormones concentration, and colostral nutrient and immunoglobulin contents of primiparous sows were investigated. Ninety primiparous pregnant gilts were assigned to one of the three dietary treatments with different standardized ileal digestible threonine/lysine ratios at 0...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325867/atypical-antipsychotics-insulin-resistance-and-weight-a-meta-analysis-of-healthy-volunteer-studies
#9
Kyle J Burghardt, Berhane Seyoum, Abdullah Mallisho, Paul R Burghardt, Renu A Kowluru, Zhengping Yi
Atypical antipsychotics increase the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease through their side effects of insulin resistance and weight gain. The populations for which atypical antipsychotics are used carry a baseline risk of metabolic dysregulation prior to medication which has made it difficult to fully understand whether atypical antipsychotics cause insulin resistance and weight gain directly. The purpose of this work was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of atypical antipsychotic trials in healthy volunteers to better understand their effects on insulin sensitivity and weight gain...
January 8, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325720/development-of-pancreatic-machine-perfusion-translational-steps-from-porcine-to-human-models
#10
Karim Hamaoui, Sally Gowers, Bynvant Sandhu, Natalie Vallant, Terry Cook, Martyn Boutelle, Daniel Casanova, Vassilios Papalois
BACKGROUND: Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) is increasingly being used for extended criteria kidney grafts. Pancreatic HMP is challenging because physiologically the pancreas is a low-flow organ susceptible to edema. We report the successful development of preclinical HMP models using porcine pancreases, as well as human pancreases unsuitable for clinical transplantation. METHODS: Ten porcine pancreases were used in the development of these perfusion models...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323690/premature-adrenarche
#11
Laura Novello, Phyllis W Speiser
Adrenarche is when a child's adrenal cortex starts to secrete adrenal androgen precursors. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant product of the adrenal cortex, and is a weak androgen agonist thought to be responsible for the clinical signs of pubarche by conversion to more potent androgens, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone. DHEA's extra-adrenal sulfation product, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, is a stable marker for adrenal androgenic activity. Pubarche is the physical manifestation of androgenic hormone production, and includes the development of pubic and axillary hair, adult body odor, and acne...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307520/skeletal-muscle-ceramides-and-daily-fat-oxidation-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#12
Nicholas T Broskey, Diana N Obanda, Jeffrey H Burton, William T Cefalu, Eric Ravussin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Ectopic accumulation of lipids in skeletal muscle and the formation of deleterious lipid intermediates is thought to contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Similarly, impaired fat oxidation (metabolic inflexibility) are predictors of weight gain and the development of T2DM; however, no study has investigated the relation between muscle ceramide accumulation and 24-h macronutrient oxidation. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively explore the relationships between whole body fat oxidation and skeletal muscle ceramide accumulation in obese non-diabetic individuals (ND) and in people with obesity and T2DM...
January 4, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306658/elevating-adipose-eosinophils-in-obese-mice-to-physiologically-normal-levels-does-not-rescue-metabolic-impairments
#13
W Reid Bolus, Kristin R Peterson, Merla J Hubler, Arion J Kennedy, Marnie L Gruen, Alyssa H Hasty
OBJECTIVE: Obesity is a metabolic disorder that has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and leads to increased risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, asthma, certain cancers, and various other diseases. Obesity and its comorbidities are associated with impaired adipose tissue (AT) function. In the last decade, eosinophils have been identified as regulators of proper AT function. Our study aimed to determine whether normalizing the number of AT eosinophils in obese mice, to those of lean healthy mice, would reduce obesity and/or improve metabolic fitness...
December 16, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296204/regulation-of-phosphate-transport-and-ampk-signal-pathway-by-lower-dietary-phosphorus-of-broilers
#14
Zhiqiang Miao, Yan Feng, Junzhen Zhang, Wenxia Tian, Jianhui Li, Yu Yang
Lower available P (aP) was used as a base value in nutritional strategies for mitigating P pollution by animal excreta. We hypothesized that the mechanism regulating phosphate transport under low dietary P might be related with the AMPK signal pathway. A total of 144 one-day-old Arbor Acres Plus broilers were randomly allocated to control (HP) or trial (LP) diets, containing 0.45 and 0.23% aP, respectively. Growth performance, blood, intestinal, and renal samples were tested in 21-day-old broilers. Results shown that LP decreased body weight gain and feed intake...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295838/genetic-evidence-that-carbohydrate-stimulated-insulin-secretion-leads-to-obesity
#15
Christina M Astley, Jennifer N Todd, Rany M Salem, Sailaja Vedantam, Cara B Ebbeling, Paul L Huang, David S Ludwig, Joel N Hirschhorn, Jose C Florez
BACKGROUND: A fundamental precept of the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity is that insulin secretion drives weight gain. However, fasting hyperinsulinemia can also be driven by obesity-induced insulin resistance. We used genetic variation to isolate and estimate the potentially causal effect of insulin secretion on body weight. METHODS: Genetic instruments of variation of insulin secretion [assessed as insulin concentration 30 min after oral glucose (insulin-30)] were used to estimate the causal relationship between increased insulin secretion and body mass index (BMI), using bidirectional Mendelian randomization analysis of genome-wide association studies...
January 2018: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289718/a-high-fat-high-sugar-western-diet-alters-dorsal-striatal-glutamate-opioid-and-dopamine-transmission-in-mice
#16
Brandon M Fritz, Braulio Muñoz, Fuqin Yin, Casey Bauchle, Brady K Atwood
Understanding neuroadaptations involved in obesity is critical for developing new approaches to treatment. Diet-induced neuroadaptations within the dorsal striatum have the capacity to drive excessive food seeking and consumption. Five week old C57BL/6J mice consumed a high-fat, high-sugar 'western diet' (WD) or a control 'standard diet' (SD) for 16 weeks. Weight gain, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were measured to confirm an obese-like state. Following these 16 weeks, electrophysiological recordings were made from medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the medial (DMS) and lateral (DLS) portions of dorsal striatum to evaluate diet effects on neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity...
December 28, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285458/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-moving-beyond-the-glycemic-treatment-goal
#17
REVIEW
Vishal Gupta, William Canovatchel, B N Lokesh, Ravi Santani, Nishant Garodia
Revelations of the multifactorial pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that extend beyond the role of insulin and glucose utilization have been crucial in redefining the treatment paradigm. The focus of treatment is currently directed towards achieving wide-ranging targets encompassing the management of cardiovascular comorbidities that have been evidenced as indispensable aspects of T2DM. While most currently prescribed antihyperglycemic agents have little or no effect on reducing cardiovascular risks, some have been associated with undesirable effects on common risk factors such as weight gain and cardiovascular sequelae...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283045/glucose-lowering-strategies-in-diabetes-pharmacological-development-of-new-anti-diabetic-drugs
#18
Polina Schwartsburd
BACKGROUND: Insulin increases glucose uptake in muscles and fat and inhibits hepatic glucose production, thus serving as the primary regulator of the blood glucose level. In type 2 diabetes, insufficient insulin release and suppressed insulin action [named insulin resistance] lead to increased glucose production in liver and decreased glucose uptake by muscles and fat tissues, resulting in elevated blood glucose concentration which is dangerous to human health. Therefore, the anti-diabetic therapies are aimed at inhibiting excess blood glucose...
December 27, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280309/plasma-amino-acids-during-8-weeks-of-overfeeding-relation-to-diet-body-composition-and-fat-cell-size-in-the-proof-study
#19
George A Bray, Leanne M Redman, Lilian de Jonge, Jennifer Rood, Elizabeth F Sutton, Steven R Smith
OBJECTIVE: Different amounts of dietary protein during overfeeding produced similar fat gain but different amounts of gain in fat-free body mass. Protein and energy intake may have differential effects on amino acids during overfeeding. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy adult men and women were overfed by 40% for 8 weeks with 5%, 15%, or 25% protein diets. Plasma amino acids were measured by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry at baseline and week 8. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, fat cell size (FCS) from subcutaneous fat biopsies, and insulin resistance by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp...
December 27, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278829/efficacy-of-maternal-and-biological-parameters-at-the-time-of-diagnosis-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-predicting-neonatal-morbidity
#20
Guillaume Ducarme, François Desroys Du Roure, Aurélie Le Thuaut, Joséphine Grange, Jérôme Dimet, Ingrid Crepin-Delcourt
OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is independently associated with an increased risk of maternal-fetal complications. Improved glycemic control allows reducing perinatal morbidity and mortality and, specifically, the risk of macrosomia and shoulder dystocia which are the most common complications associated with GDM. Nonetheless, a need for early antenatal predictor of neonatal morbidity in women suffering from GDM is required. The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of different maternal, biological, and antenatal parameters at the time of diagnosis of GDM or perinatal variables as predictors of neonatal morbidity...
December 19, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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