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Insulin & Weight Gain

YanLi Xu, Yongxia Zhao, YaNan Sui, XiaoJun Lei
The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts against cataract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats. Aldose reductase is a key enzyme in the intracellular polyol pathway, which plays a major role in the development of diabetic cataract. Rats were divided into five groups as normal control, diabetic control, and diabetic control treated with different concentrations of Pterocarpus marsupium bark extracts. Presence of major constituents in Pterocarpus marsupium bark extract was performed by qualitative analysis...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Dongxia Fu, Haibin Cui, Yunna Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. This study aims to investigate whether chloride channel 2 (ClC-2) is involved in high fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: ClC-2 expression was liver-specifically downregulated using adeno-associated virus in C57BL/6 mice treated with a chow diet or HFD for 12 weeks. Peripheral blood and liver tissues were collected for biochemical and pathological estimation respectively...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ariel Molly Wilson, Zhuo Shao, Vanessa Grenier, Gaëlle Mawambo, Jean-François Daudelin, Agnieszka Dejda, Frédérique Pilon, Natalija Popovic, Salix Boulet, Célia Parinot, Malika Oubaha, Nathalie Labrecque, Vincent de Guire, Mathieu Laplante, Guillaume Lettre, Florian Sennlaub, Jean-Sebastien Joyal, Michel Meunier, Przemyslaw Sapieha
Obesity gives rise to metabolic complications by mechanisms that are poorly understood. Although chronic inflammatory signaling in adipose tissue is typically associated with metabolic deficiencies linked to excessive weight gain, we identified a subset of neuropilin-1 (NRP1)-expressing myeloid cells that accumulate in adipose tissue and protect against obesity and metabolic syndrome. Ablation of NRP1 in macrophages compromised lipid uptake in these cells, which reduced substrates for fatty acid β-oxidation and shifted energy metabolism of these macrophages toward a more inflammatory glycolytic metabolism...
March 16, 2018: Science Immunology
Przemyslaw Rys, Agnieszka H Ludwig-Słomczyńska, Katarzyna Cyganek, Maciej T Malecki
BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown an advantage of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) over multiple daily injections (MDI) in the general type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) population. RCT data on T1DM management in pregnancy remain limited. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of both RCTs and non-RCTs evaluating CSII versus MDI in T1DM-complicated pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic databases were searched for studies comparing CSII with MDI in T1DM-complicated pregnancy...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Ayako Uchinaka, Yuri Kawashima, Yuki Sano, Shogo Ito, Yusuke Sano, Kai Nagasawa, Natsumi Matsuura, Mamoru Yoneda, Yuichiro Yamada, Toyoaki Murohara, Kohzo Nagata
Melatonin regulates circadian rhythms but also has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that ameliorate metabolic disorders. We investigated the effects of the selective melatonin agonist ramelteon on cardiac and adipose tissue pathology in the DahlS.Z-Leprfa /Leprfa (DS/obese) rat, a model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Rats were treated with a low (0.3 mg/kg per day) or high (8 mg/kg per day) dose of ramelteon from 9 to 13 weeks of age. Ramelteon treatment at either dose attenuated body weight gain, left ventricular fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, as well as cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation, without affecting hypertension or insulin resistance...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Robyn K Pollom, Timothy Costigan, Lyndon B Lacaya, Liza L Ilag, Priscilla A Hollander
INTRODUCTION: To compare efficacy and safety of Basaglar® [insulin glargine 100 units/mL; LY insulin glargine (LY IGlar)] to Lantus® [insulin glargine 100 units/mL; SA insulin glargine (SA IGlar)] in older (≥ 65 years) or younger (< 65 years) patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: This subgroup analysis of a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, multinational, 24-week study compared LY IGlar and SA IGlar on several clinical efficacy (change in glycated hemoglobin (A1c), basal insulin dose, weight) and safety outcomes (incidence of adverse events, insulin antibodies, hypoglycemia incidence and rates) in patients either ≥ 65 or < 65 years...
March 14, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Liisa Ailanen, Natalia N Bezborodkina, Laura Virtanen, Suvi T Ruohonen, Anastasia V Malova, Sergey V Okovityi, Elizaveta Y Chistyakova, Eriika Savontaus
Hepatic insulin resistance and increased gluconeogenesis are known therapeutic targets of metformin, but the role of hepatic glycogen in the pathogenesis of diabetes is less clear. Mouse model of neuropeptide Y (NPY) overexpression in noradrenergic neurons (OE-NPYD βH ) with a phenotype of late onset obesity, hepatosteatosis, and prediabetes was used to study early changes in glycogen structure and metabolism preceding prediabetes. Furthermore, the effect of the anti-hyperglycemic agent, metformin (300 mg/kg/day/4 weeks in drinking water), was assessed on changes in glycogen metabolism, body weight, fat mass, and glucose tolerance...
April 2018: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Karen Broekhuizen, David Simmons, Roland Devlieger, André van Assche, Goele Jans, Sander Galjaard, Rosa Corcoy, Juan M Adelantado, Fidelma Dunne, Gernot Desoye, Jürgen Harreiter, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Peter Damm, Elisabeth R Mathiesen, Dorte M Jensen, Liselotte L Andersen, Annunziata Lapolla, Maria G Dalfra, Alessandra Bertolotto, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Agnieszka Zawiejska, David Hill, Frank J Snoek, Judith G M Jelsma, Judith E Bosmans, Mireille N M van Poppel, Johanna M van Dongen
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with perinatal health risks to both mother and offspring, and represents a large economic burden. The DALI study is a multicenter randomized controlled trial, undertaken to add to the knowledge base on the effectiveness of interventions for pregnant women at increased risk for GDM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the healthy eating and/or physical activity promotion intervention compared to usual care among pregnant women at increased risk of GDM from a societal perspective...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Laura Van den Mooter, Simon Caerels, Chantal Mathieu
There is a clear unmet clinical need in people with Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) considering present day insulin therapy. New insulin analogues and novel technologies allowing more tailored insulin administration have improved the quality of life of people with T1DM, but issues like hypoglycemia, weight gain and variability in glucose profiles remain problematic. Areas covered: In this review, the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor, in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is described based on a review of phase 2 and 3 studies to date...
March 14, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Elliot M Silver, William Ochoa
BACKGROUND Chronic intake of high-dose corticosteroids is associated with multiple adverse clinical effects, including hypertension, insulin resistance, impaired wound healing, immunosuppression, myopathy, and osteoporosis. In cases of autoimmune disease, use of steroid-sparing treatment modalities is preferred over chronic steroid therapy to limit these side effects. Glucocorticoid-induced myopathy is a less common side effect of chronic steroid use in patients treated with <10 mg/day of prednisone. However, doses exceeding 40-60 mg/day can induce clinically significant myopathy and weakness...
March 11, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Kimberly R Warren, Heidi J Wehring, Fang Liu, Robert P McMahon, Shuo Chen, Charlene Chester, Deanna L Kelly
Overweight and obesity in schizophrenia are prevalent, affecting half to three-quarters of people with schizophrenia. Hyperphagia and increased meal size have also been implicated as significant contributors to the weight gain problem. Oxytocin has shown to play a role in appetite control in humans and is considered an anorexigenic peptide. This two-day, within-subjects, challenge study involved the examination of satiety after administration of 24 IU oxytocin (intranasal) vs. placebo in participants with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia (N = 16)...
March 7, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Ian Blumer, Jeremy H Pettus, Tricia Santos Cavaiola
Many individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) will eventually require insulin therapy to help achieve and maintain adequate glycemic control. However, the use of insulin can be associated with adverse effects such as hypoglycemia and weight gain, and in some patients the addition of insulin to treatment regimens is often still insufficient to achieve target glycemic control. Combining basal insulin with a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) for the treatment of patients with T2D has been demonstrated to be effective and well tolerated, while mitigating many of the adverse events associated with giving either of these drug classes alone...
March 9, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Yang Feng, Chen-Dong Jiang, Ai-Min Chang, Ying Shi, Junjun Gao, Linlin Zhu, Zhan Zhang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations and interactions between the polymorphisms of insulin resistance-related genes (ADIPOQ rs2241766), inflammation factors (TNF-α rs1800629, IL-6 rs1800795), obesity-related genes (GNB3 rs5443, ADRB rs1042714), and risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) such as diet structure in the development of GDM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research was conducted among women who visited the third-affiliate hospital of Zhengzhou University for pregnancy checkups from 1 June 2014 to 30 December 2014...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Hoe-Yune Jung, Bobae Kim, Yosep Ji, Hye-Guk Ryu, Soyoung Park, Seung Hee Choi, In-Kyu Lee, Munki Kim, You Jeong Lee, Woojin Song, Young Hee Lee, Hyung Jin Choi, Chang-Kee Hyun, Wilhelm H Holzapfel, Kyong-Tai Kim
Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)α/γ dual agonists can be beneficial for treatment of dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, their use is limited owing to various side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and heart failure. Here, we demonstrate that amodiaquine, an antimalarial agent, has potential as a PPARα/γ dual agonist with low risk of adverse effects. Amodiaquine selectively activated the transcriptional activities of PPARα/γ, and enhanced both fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake without altering insulin secretion in vitro...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Vahid Vosooghi-Postindoz, Abdol Mansour Tahmasbi, Abbas Ali Naserian, Reza Valizadeh, Seyed Hadi Ebrahimi
Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intermittent watering on Baluchi lambs, regarding their performance, blood metabolites, and nutrient digestibility. Methods: Twenty male Baluchi lambs, 120 ± 5 days of age and 29 ±2.2 kg body weight were randomly assigned to four watering treatments: (T1) free access to water during the day, (T2) watered ad libitum twice a day, (T3) watered ad libitum once a day, (T4) watered ad libitum once every two days...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Guanghui Li, Wenyu Huang, Li Zhang, Zhihong Tian, Wei Zheng, Teng Wang, Ting Zhang, Weiyuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a strong risk factor for gestational diabetes (GDM). However, the association between features of PCOS during early pregnancy and the risk of GDM is not clearly characterized. In this prospective cohort study, we seek to identify early-pregnancy risk factors for GDM in PCOS women. METHODS: Between 2011-2013, 248 women with PCOS were followed from their first prenatal visit to delivery. Multiple early-pregnancy metabolic factors were evaluated for their association with the risk of GDM...
March 7, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Jin-Bo Li, Rui Zhang, Xiao Han, Chun-Li Piao
Obesity and its consequent type 2 diabetes are significant threats to global health. Emerging evidence indicates that ginsenosides from ginseng (Panax ginseng) have anti-diabetic activity. We hypothesized that ginsenosides Rg1 could suppress dietary-induced obesity and improve obesity-related glucose metabolic disorders. Our results showed that ginsenoside Rg1 attenuated dietary-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in white adipocyte tissue of mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, we found that ginsenosides Rg1 not only decreased fasting glucose concentration and the 2-h postprandial glucose concentration, but also improved insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in those mice...
March 1, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Wei Song, Zongling Wang, Xuelei Zhang, Yan Li
Ulva prolifera is the major causative species in the green tide, a serious marine ecological disaster, which bloomed in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea of China. However, it is also a popular edible seaweed and its extracts exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of U. prolifera (EUP) on insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress in high-fat-diet- (HFD-) treated mice. HFD-treated mice obtained drinking water containing 2% or 5% EUP...
2018: BioMed Research International
Laís Bhering Martins, Marina Chaves de Oliveira, Zélia Menezes-Garcia, Débora Fernandes Rodrigues, Jaqueline Pereira Lana, Leda Quercia Vieira, Mauro Martins Teixeira, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira
OBJECTIVES: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a well-known cytokine that triggers insulin resistance during obesity development. On the other hand, it is also known that TNF induces a fat mass loss during acute diseases. However, whether TNF has a protective and physiological role to control adipose tissue expansion during obesity still needs to be verified. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the ablation of TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) alters fat mass and insulin resistance induced by a highly refined carbohydrate-containing (HC) diet...
July 17, 2017: Nutrition
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