Read by QxMD icon Read

pcp psychosis

Bridgette Martinak, Ramy A Bolis, Jeffrey Ryne Black, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as "DXM" and "the poor man's PCP," is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia...
September 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Bridgette Martinak, Ramy A Bolis, Jeffrey Ryne Black, Rachel E Fargason, Badari Birur
Dextromethorphan (3-methoxy-N-methylmorphinan), also known as "DXM" and "the poor man's PCP," is a synthetically produced drug that is available in more than 140 over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. Dextromethorphan (DXM) has overtaken codeine as the most widely used cough suppressant due to its availability, efficacy, and safety profile at directed doses. However, DXM is subject to abuse. When consumed at inappropriately high doses (over 1500 mg/day), DXM can induce a state of psychosis characterized by Phencyclidine (PCP)-like psychological symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia...
September 15, 2017: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Martin Rotenberg, Andrew Tuck, Kwame McKenzie
BACKGROUND: Understanding the psychosocial stressors of people with psychoses from minority ethnic groups may help in the development of culturally appropriate services. This study aimed to compare psychosocial factors associated with attendance at an emergency department (ED) for six ethnic groups. Preventing crises or supporting people better in the community may decrease hospitalization and improve outcomes. METHOD: A cohort was created by retrospective case note analysis of people of East-Asian, South-Asian, Black-African, Black-Caribbean, White-North American and White-European origin groups attending a specialized psychiatric ED in Toronto with a diagnosis of psychosis between 2009 and 2011...
September 2, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Lakshmi Rajagopal, Sunoh Kwon, Mei Huang, Eric Michael, Laxminarayan Bhat, Marc Cantillon, Herbert Y Meltzer
Various types of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) modestly improve the cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). RP5063 is an AAPD with a diverse and unique pharmacology, including partial agonism at dopamine (DA) D2 , D3 , D4 , serotonin (5-HT)1A , and 5-HT2A receptors (Rs), full agonism at α4 β2 nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh)R (nAChR), and antagonism at 5-HT2B , 5-HT6 , and 5-HT7 Rs. Most atypical APDs are 5-HT2A inverse agonists. The efficacy of RP5063 in mouse models of psychosis and episodic memory were studied...
August 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Suji Ham, Tae Kyoo Kim, Sooyoung Chung, Heh-In Im
Addictive drug use or prescribed medicine abuse can cause psychosis. Some representative symptoms frequently elicited by patients with psychosis are hallucination, anhedonia, and disrupted executive functions. These psychoses are categorized into three classifications of symptoms: positive, negative, and cognitive. The symptoms of DIP are not different from the symptoms of schizophrenia, and it is difficult to distinguish between them. Due to this ambiguity of distinction between the DIP and schizophrenia, the DIP animal model has been frequently used as the schizophrenia animal model...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
John Kealy, Sean Commins, John P Lowry
Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists are known to induce psychosis-like symptoms in rodents. Administration of such compounds cause behavioural effects such as memory impairment and hyperlocomotion. Additionally, drugs such as phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and MK-801 all cause distinctive increases in striatal local field potential (LFP) in the high frequency oscillation (HFO) band in the power spectrum (140-180 Hz). Amperometric sensors provide a means to measure tissue oxygen (tO2; a BOLD-like signal) in the brains of freely-moving rats while simultaneously acquiring LFP using the same electrode...
January 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
The-Vinh Tran, Eun-Joo Shin, Sung Kwon Ko, Yunsung Nam, Yoon Hee Chung, Ji Hoon Jeong, Choon-Gon Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Kiyofumi Yamada, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Jae Kyung Byun, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Escalating evidence indicates that ginseng treatment protects against psychotoxic behaviors and memory impairment. Although the underlying mechanism of schizophrenia remains elusive, recent investigations proposed that downregulation of glutathione (GSH) can be involved in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Since little is known about the effects of ginseng in a schizophrenia-like animal model, we selected mountain-cultivated ginseng (MG) from a variety of ginseng extracts to investigate the effect of ginseng on the psychosis induced by phencyclidine (PCP) in mice...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Helene A Fachim, Umarat Srisawat, Caroline F Dalton, Michael K Harte, Samuel Marsh, Joanna C Neill, Gavin P Reynolds
AIM: A deficit in parvalbumin neurons is found in schizophrenia and several animal models of the disease. In this preliminary study, we determined whether one such model, phencyclidine (PCP) administration, results in changes in DNA methylation in the rat Pvalb promoter. MATERIALS & METHODS: DNA from hippocampus and prefrontal cortex from rats, which 6 weeks previously received either 2 mg/kg PCP or vehicle for 7 days, underwent bisulphite pyrosequencing to determine methylation...
September 2016: Epigenomics
Sujith Ramachandran, Benjamin F Banahan, John P Bentley, Donna S West-Strum, Amit S Patel
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services sent a letter to state Medicaid directors explaining the need for oversight of psychiatric prescriptions for children with mental health disorders. The National Committee for Quality Alliance proposed 3 quality measures for rating managed care organizations (MCOs) that involve use of second-generation or atypical antipsychotics in children. In order to ensure appropriate use and to effectively manage the use of second-generation antipsychotics in children, MCOs need to better understand the factors that influence medication treatment decisions for children...
August 2016: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
David A Cox, Michael G Gottschalk, Hendrik Wesseling, Agnes Ernst, Jason D Cooper, Sabine Bahn
Pharmacological and genetic rodent models of schizophrenia play an important role in the drug discovery pipeline, but quantifying the molecular similarity of such models with the underlying human pathophysiology has proved difficult. We developed a novel systems biology methodology for the direct comparison of anterior prefrontal cortex tissue from four established glutamatergic rodent models and schizophrenia patients, enabling the evaluation of which model displays the greatest similarity to schizophrenia across different pathophysiological characteristics of the disease...
November 2016: Schizophrenia Research
S R Zukin
Some 40 years ago phencyclidine (PCP) was developed as the prototype of a proposed new class of 'dissociative' general anesthetics, so called because it induced a marked dissociation from the environment without complete loss of consciousness. In the earliest clinical trials of PCP anesthesia, it was observed that as many as half the subjects experienced severe psychotic reactions during and beyond emergence. This striking clinical observation at once marked the failure of PCP as a suitable general anesthetic, and the beginning of a remarkable new era in basic and clinical neuroscience which can serve as an example of the interaction between clinical observation and basic science...
June 1997: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Mark E Layton, Alexander J Reif, Timothy J Hartingh, Kevin Rodzinak, Vadim Dudkin, Cheng Wang, Ken Arrington, Michael J Kelly, Robert M Garbaccio, Julie A O'Brien, Brian C Magliaro, Jason M Uslaner, Sarah L Huszar, Kerry L Fillgrove, Cuyue Tang, Yuhsin Kuo, Marlene A Jacobson
Optimization of a benzimidazolone template for potency and physical properties revealed 5-aryl-1,3-dihydro-2H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2-ones as a key template on which to develop a new series of mGlu2 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). Systematic investigation of aryl-SAR led to the identification of compound 27 as a potent and highly selective mGlu2 PAM with sufficient pharmacokinetics to advance to preclinical models of psychosis. Gratifyingly, compound 27 showed full efficacy in the PCP- and MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion assay in rats at CSF concentrations consistent with mGlu2 PAM potency...
February 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Abdallah Ahnaou, Ria Biermans, Wilhelmus H Drinkenburg
Improvement of cognitive impairments represents a high medical need in the development of new antipsychotics. Aberrant EEG gamma oscillations and reductions in the P1/N1 complex peak amplitude of the auditory evoked potential (AEP) are neurophysiological biomarkers for schizophrenia that indicate disruption in sensory information processing. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase (i.e. PDE10A) and activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) signaling are believed to provide antipsychotic efficacy in schizophrenia, but it is unclear whether this occurs with cognition-enhancing potential...
2016: PloS One
Hema Tharoor, Aarthi Ganesh
BACKGROUND: Early recognition of symptoms is important in the management of psychosis. Caregivers understanding and attribution of symptoms plays a major role in treatment selection. AIM: The aim was to identify the various symptoms cluster recognized by caregivers at illness onset in first episode schizophrenia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study 40 key caregivers of patients with first episode of Schizophrenia (International Classification of Diseases-10) attending the outpatient services of Schizophrenia Research Foundation were recruited...
October 2015: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Robert W Gould, Russell J Amato, Michael Bubser, Max E Joffe, Michael T Nedelcovych, Analisa D Thompson, Hilary H Nickols, Johannes P Yuh, Xiaoyan Zhan, Andrew S Felts, Alice L Rodriguez, Ryan D Morrison, Frank W Byers, Jerri M Rook, John S Daniels, Colleen M Niswender, P Jeffrey Conn, Kyle A Emmitte, Craig W Lindsley, Carrie K Jones
Cocaine abuse remains a public health concern for which pharmacotherapies are largely ineffective. Comorbidities between cocaine abuse, depression, and anxiety support the development of novel treatments targeting multiple symptom clusters. Selective negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) targeting the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) subtype are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders and have shown promise in preclinical models of substance abuse. However, complete blockade or inverse agonist activity by some full mGlu5 NAM chemotypes demonstrated adverse effects, including psychosis in humans and psychotomimetic-like effects in animals, suggesting a narrow therapeutic window...
March 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Miriam A Vogt, Anne S Vogel, Natascha Pfeiffer, Peter Gass, Dragos Inta
Ketamine may represent an efficient alternative antidepressant with rapid therapeutic onset; however, the clinical use of ketamine is hampered by psychosis-like side-effects. Recent studies suggest that the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) prevents psychosis-like abnormalities triggered by ketamine or another NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP) in rats. SNP was shown to elicit antipsychotic effects also in humans. Considering the tight interrelation between NMDAR activation and neuronal NO synthesis, we evaluated the effect of pre-treatment with SNP on the antidepressant action of ketamine...
October 2015: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Yumi Shirai, Yuko Fujita, Ryota Hashimoto, Kazutaka Ohi, Hidenaga Yamamori, Yuka Yasuda, Tamaki Ishima, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Yusuke Ushida, Masatoshi Takeda, Kenji Hashimoto
Oxidative stress and inflammation play a role in cognitive impairment, which is a core symptom of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a hallmark of the pathophysiology of this disease is the dysfunction of cortical inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), which is also involved in cognitive impairment. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate derived from broccoli, is a potent activator of the transcription factor Nrf2, which plays a central role in the inducible expressions of many cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress...
2015: PloS One
Douglas F Burdi, John E Campbell, Jun Wang, Sufang Zhao, Hua Zhong, Jianfeng Wei, Una Campbell, Liming Shao, Lee Herman, Patrick Koch, Philip G Jones, Michael C Hewitt
The design and synthesis of highly potent, selective orally bioavailable inhibitors of PDE10A is reported. Starting with an active compound of modest potency from a small focused screen, we were able to evolve this series to a lead molecule with high potency and selectivity versus other PDEs using structure-based design. A systematic refinement of ADME properties during lead optimization led to a lead compound with good half-life that was brain penetrant. Compound 39 was highly potent versus PDE10A (IC50=1...
May 1, 2015: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
André A Fenton
The 2014 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was awarded for the discoveries that have elucidated the components of the internal positioning system that is centered on the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. Here I provide a less than objective discussion of the importance of these accomplishments to systems neuroscience. By identifying positioning components like place, direction, distance, borders and the like, the field is given the opportunity to have a shot at piecing together how these components are integrated into the synthetic positioning sense...
June 2015: Hippocampus
David D Aguilar, Li Chen, Daniel J Lodge
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder that affects 1% of the US population. While the exogenous administration of cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol is reported to exacerbate psychosis in schizophrenia patients, augmenting the levels of endogenous cannabinoids has gained attention as a possible alternative therapy to schizophrenia due to clinical and preclinical observations. Thus, patients with schizophrenia demonstrate an inverse relationship between psychotic symptoms and levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide...
October 31, 2014: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"