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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331082/mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-and-2-in-human-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Delia M Talos, Leah M Jacobs, Sarah Gourmaud, Carlos A Coto, Hongyu Sun, Kuei-Cheng Lim, Timothy H Lucas, Kathryn A Davis, Maria Martinez-Lage, Frances E Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic epilepsy syndrome defined by seizures and progressive neurological disabilities, including cognitive impairments, anxiety and depression. Here, human TLE specimens were investigated focusing on the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) Complex 1 (mTORC1) and Complex 2 (mTORC2) activities in the brain, as both pathways may represent unique targets for treatment. METHODS: Surgically resected hippocampal and temporal lobe samples from therapy-resistant TLE patients were analyzed by Western blotting to quantify the expression of established mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity markers and upstream or downstream signaling pathways involving the two complexes...
January 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319376/the-effect-of-physical-activity-on-ptsd
#2
Lauren M Oppizzi, Reba Umberger
Although physical activity (PA) is known to reduce anxiety and depression, less is known about the effects of PA on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The author examined the state of the science regarding the effect of PA on PTSD. Three themes emerged: PA characteristics, added benefits of PA as a PTSD intervention, and theories on the method of action. Physical activity seems to be an effective adjunct therapy to reduce PTSD symptom severity. Findings are inconsistent between observational and controlled studies...
January 10, 2018: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306223/do-preoperative-oral-carbohydrates-improve-postoperative-outcomesin-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafts
#3
Ömer Faruk Şavluk, Mehmet Ali Kuşçu, Füsun Güzelmeriç, Mustafa Emre Gürcü, Atakan Erkılınç, Deniz Çevirme, Halide Oğuş, Tuncer Koçak
Background/aim: The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether the preoperative oral intake of carbohydrate-rich drinks by patients undergoing a coronary artery bypass graft attenuates postoperative insulin requirements, improves postoperative patient discomfort, provides inotropic support, shortens the length of the ICU stay, and shortens the duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation. Materials and methods: This randomized prospective clinical study included 152 patients with coronary artery disease who were divided into 4 groups...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274445/acute-effects-of-electrical-stimulation-of-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-internal-capsule-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#4
Lotta Winter, Ivo Heitland, Assel Saryyeva, Götz Lütjens, Kerstin Schwabe, Hans E Heissler, Mesbah Alam, Kai G Kahl, Joachim K Krauss
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been introduced as a treatment option for treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the optimal stimulation target and the corresponding simulation settings remain unclear. Furthermore, there is limited knowledge about the acute effects of DBS. METHODS: In three patients with treatment-resistant OCD, DBS electrodes were implanted in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis/internal capsule (BNST/IC)...
December 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273311/investigating-barriers-to-genetic-counseling-and-germline-mutation-testing-in-women-with-suspected-hereditary-breast-and-ovarian-cancer-syndrome-and-lynch-syndrome
#5
Josephine Shaw, Caroline Bulsara, Paul A Cohen, Madeleine Gryta, Cassandra B Nichols, Lyn Schofield, Sarah O'Sullivan, Nicholas Pachter, Sarah J Hardcastle
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to explore barriers to genetic counseling and testing in women with gynecological cancers deemed at significant risk of carrying a germline mutation. METHODS: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and inductively analysed thematically. Eight patients with ovarian or endometrial cancer participated in individual semi-structured telephone interviews that assessed motivation for genetic counseling and testing, perceived benefits and barriers, timing of the approach, perceptions of the referral process to genetic services and locus of control in relation to cancer and health...
December 12, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245092/predictors-of-hospitalization-length-of-stay-among-re-admitted-treatment-resistant-bipolar-disorder-inpatients
#6
M Fornaro, F Iasevoli, S Novello, A Fusco, A Anastasia, D De Berardis, A Valchera, A de Bartolomeis
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization accounts for significant health care resource utilization for treatment-resistant Bipolar Disorder (BD), especially among frequent users of acute inpatient psychiatric units. Appraisal of the clinical features and predictive role of selected variables is therefore crucial in such population, representing the aim of the present research. METHODS: A hundred and nineteen BD inpatients with an established history of pharmacological treatment resistance for either mania or bipolar depression were classified as long hospitalization cases (LOS+) and their controls and compared against each other for a number of demographic, clinical, and psychopathological features...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239239/depressive-disorders-in-patients-with-pharmaco-resistant-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Eleonora Borges Gonçalves, Tania Aparecida Marchiori de Oliveira Cardoso, Clarissa Lin Yasuda, Fernando Cendes
Objectives To assess depressive disorders in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) refractory to medical treatment. Methods Adult patients with refractory MTLE completed two questionnaires (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) had a semi-structured psychiatric interview and a high resolution MRI scan. For complete neuropsychiatric diagnosis, as per International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10), the results were combined with clinical history and additional information from the patients' family...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238216/improved-health-related-quality-of-life-participation-and-autonomy-in-patients-with-treatment-resistant-chronic-pain-after-an-intensive-social-cognitive-intervention-with-the-participation-of-support-partners
#8
Peter Joseph Jongen, Rob P Ruimschotel, Y M Museler-Kreijns, Tmc Dragstra, L Duyverman, J Valkenburg-Vissers, J Cornelissen, R Lagrand, Rogier Donders, A Hartog
Despite the availability of various specific treatments, most patients with chronic pain (CP) consider their pain problem as undertreated. Recently, multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who were given an intensive 3-day social cognitive treatment with the participation of support partners experienced lasting improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-efficacy. In this study, a similar intervention was given to treatment-resistant CP patients with stressors, relational problems with support partner, and distress, anxiety or depression...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203717/hsp90-and-fkbp51-complex-regulators-of-psychiatric-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Marangelie Criado-Marrero, Theo Rein, Elisabeth B Binder, James T Porter, John Koren, Laura J Blair
Mood disorders affect nearly a quarter of the world's population. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these conditions is of great importance. FK-506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) encodes the FKBP51 protein, a heat shock protein 90 kDa (Hsp90) co-chaperone, and is a risk factor for several affective disorders. FKBP51, in coordination with Hsp90, regulates glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity via a short negative feedback loop. This signalling pathway rapidly restores homeostasis in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis following stress...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198253/resolution-of-severe-psychogenic-dysphagia-with-ect-in-an-elderly-patient
#10
Tom S Y Kim, Tariq Munshi, Maria Hussain
In this report we describe an 82-year female with a longstanding anxiety disorder who developed severe psychogenic dysphagia, leading to hospitalization due to failure to thrive. We describe for the first time the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) to successfully manage a patient with pharmacological treatment resistant psychogenic dysphagia.
December 4, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179735/ficus-sycomorus-extract-reversed-behavioral-impairment-and-brain-oxidative-stress-induced-by-unpredictable-chronic-mild-stress-in-rats
#11
Harquin Simplice Harquin Foyet, Serge Tchinda Deffo, Pascaline Koagne Yewo, Iulia Antioch, Stéphane Zingue, Emmanuel Acha Asongalem, Pierre Kamtchouing, Alin Ciobica
BACKGROUND: Stress, regardless of its nature is nowadays recognized as one of the major risk factors for neuropsychiatric diseases, such as mood and anxiety disorders. The brain compared with other organs is more vulnerable to oxidative damage mainly due to its high rate of oxygen consumption, abundant lipid content, and relative insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes. Thus, the identification of neural mechanisms underlying resistance and vulnerability to stress is of crucial importance in understanding the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and in developing new treatments, since the existing ones are for several reasons subject to increasing limitations...
November 28, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145831/copd-online-rehabilitation-versus-conventional-copd-rehabilitation-rationale-and-design-for-a-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trial-study-protocol-core-trial
#12
Henrik Hansen, Theresa Bieler, Nina Beyer, Nina Godtfredsen, Thomas Kallemose, Anne Frølich
BACKGROUND: Rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a key treatment in COPD. However, despite the existing evidence and a strong recommendation from lung associations worldwide, 50% of patients with COPD decline to participate in COPD rehabilitation program and 30-50% drop-out before completion. The main reasons are severe symptoms, inflexible accessibility and necessity for transportation. Currently there are no well-established and evident rehabilitation alternatives...
November 16, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105627/macrophage-related-cytokine-expressions-in-depression-mouse-model-induced-by-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress
#13
Shoulian Zhu, Lejing Li, Ying Li, Wenyuan Cao
Depression is characterized by mental retardation, interest blank, hypoactivity, anxiety, appetite loss, sexual dysfunction, sleep disorders and other symptoms. The incidence of depressed patients has demonstrated an upward trend in recent years. Antidepressant drugs are commonly used in modern medicine, but they have the side effect of drug resistance. This study aims to explore the effect of acupuncture stimulation on expressions of macrophage-related cytokines in mice with depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and to explore the underlying immunological mechanism...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101244/abrogated-freud-1-cc2d1a-repression-of-5-ht1a-autoreceptors-induces-fluoxetine-resistant-anxiety-depression-like-behavior
#14
Faranak Vahid-Ansari, Mireille Daigle, M Chiara Manzini, Kenji F Tanaka, René Hen, Sean D Geddes, Jean-Claude Béïque, Jonathan James, Zul Merali, Paul R Albert
Freud-1/CC2D1A represses the gene transcription of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) autoreceptors, which negatively regulate 5-HT tone. To test the role of Freud-1 in vivo, we generated mice with adulthood conditional knockout of Freud-1 in 5-HT neurons (cF1ko). In cF1ko mice, 5-HT1A autoreceptor protein, binding and hypothermia response were increased, with reduced 5-HT content and neuronal activity in the dorsal raphe. The cF1ko mice displayed increased anxiety- and depression-like behavior that was resistant to chronic antidepressant (fluoxetine) treatment...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090684/neuroactive-steroids-and-affective-symptoms-in-women-across-the-weight-spectrum
#15
Laura E Dichtel, Elizabeth A Lawson, Melanie Schorr, Erinne Meenaghan, Margaret Lederfine Paskal, Kamryn T Eddy, Graziano Pinna, Marianela Nelson, Ann M Rasmusson, Anne Klibanski, Karen K Miller
3α-5α-Tetrahydroprogesterone, a progesterone metabolite also known as allopregnanolone, and 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol, a testosterone metabolite also known as 3α-androstanediol, are neuroactive steroids and positive GABAA receptor allosteric modulators. Both anorexia nervosa (AN) and obesity are complicated by affective co-morbidities and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal dysregulation. However, it is not known whether neuroactive steroid levels are abnormal at the extremes of the weight spectrum. We hypothesized that serum allopregnanolone and 3α-androstanediol levels would be decreased in AN compared to healthy controls (HC) and negatively associated with affective symptoms throughout the weight spectrum, independent of body mass index (BMI)...
November 1, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089909/effects-of-anterior-capsulotomy-on-decision-making-in-patients-with-refractory-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Chencheng Zhang, Yilin Chen, Shuaiwei Tian, Tao Wang, Yile Xie, Haiyan Jin, Guozhen Lin, Hengfen Gong, Kristina Zeljic, Bomin Sun, Tianming Yang, Shikun Zhan
Despite various lines of evidence implicating impaired decision-making ability in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), neuropsychological investigation has generated inconsistent findings. Although the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuitry has been suggested, the involvement of the cortex has not yet been fully demonstrated. Moreover, it is unknown whether surgical intervention on the CSTC circuitry results in a predicted improvement of decision-making ability of OCD. Here we present a study of decision making based on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to investigate decision making in a large sample of individuals with treatment-resistant OCD with and without anterior capsulotomy (AC)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069109/clinical-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-for-veterans-with-major-depressive-disorder
#17
F Andrew Kozel, Michael Hernandez, Kimberly Van Trees, Sean Phillips, Jaffrey Hashimie, Mark Weisman, Demian Obregon, Deborah L Sanchez, Glenn Catalano, Susan K Schultz
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a relatively new treatment modality for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of TMS for MDD in the general population. However, there is limited information regarding clinical outcomes among veterans receiving TMS for MDD. METHODS: The clinical outcome and characteristics of all veterans with MDD who were treated with TMS as outpatients at the James A...
November 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049935/intranasal-oxytocin-in-the-treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa-randomized-controlled-trial-during-re-feeding
#18
Janice Russell, Sarah Maguire, Glenn E Hunt, Alice Kesby, Anastasia Suraev, Jordyn Stuart, Jessica Booth, Iain S McGregor
BACKGROUND: Nutritional rehabilitation in anorexia nervosa (AN) is impeded by fear of food, eating and change leading to treatment resistance. Oxytocin (OT) exerts prosocial effects and modulates trust, fear, anxiety and neuroplasticity. The current placebo-controlled RCT examined the effects of intranasal oxytocin (IN-OT) in AN. The aim was to ascertain whether repeated doses of IN-OT enhance treatment outcomes in AN. METHODS: AN patients self-administered 36 IU IN-OT or placebo daily for 4-6 weeks during hospital treatment...
October 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046989/epilepsy-and-psychiatric-comorbidities-drug-selection
#19
REVIEW
Marco Mula
Purpose of review The pharmacological treatment of patients with epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities may sometimes represent a therapeutic challenge. This review is focused on the pharmacological management of patients with epilepsy and psychiatric problems in terms of rationalization of the antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment and the pharmacological management of the most clinically relevant psychiatric comorbidities, namely mood and anxiety disorders, psychoses, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
October 19, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045745/long-term-oral-appliance-therapy-improves-daytime-function-and-mood-in-upper-airway-resistance-syndrome-patients
#20
Luciana B M Godoy, Luciana Palombini, Dalva Poyares, Cibele Dal-Fabbro, Thaís Moura Guimarães, Priscila Calixto Klichouvicz, Sergio Tufik, Sonia Maria Togeiro
Objectives: To evaluate the long term effects of an oral appliance on clinical symptoms, respiratory sleep parameters, sleep quality and sustained attention in patients with Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS) compared with placebo. Methods: This study was a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Thirty UARS patients were randomized in two groups: placebo and mandibular advancement device (MAD) groups. UARS criteria were presence of sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale ≥ 10) and/or fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale ≥ 38) associated with an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≤ 5 and a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) > 5 events/hour of sleep, and/or flow limitation in more than 30% of total sleep time...
October 17, 2017: Sleep
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