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Ultralow dose naloxone

Hou-Chuan Lai, Chung-Bao Hsieh, Chih-Shung Wong, Chun-Chang Yeh, Zhi-Fu Wu
OBJECTIVE(S): Previous studies have shown that preincisional epidural morphine, bupivacaine, and ketamine combined with epidural anesthesia (EA) and general anesthesia (GA) provided pre-emptive analgesia for upper abdominal surgery. Recent studies reported that ultralow-dose naloxone enhanced the antinociceptive effect of morphine in rats. This study investigated the benefits of preincisional and postoperative epidural morphine + ropivacaine + ketamine + naloxone (M + R + K + N) treatment for achieving postoperative pain relief in upper abdominal surgery...
September 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica: Official Journal of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists
Daniel Ruiz-Pérez, Javier Benito, Gonzalo Polo, Carlota Largo, Delia Aguado, Luis Sanz, Ignacio A Gómez de Segura
BACKGROUND: Ultralow doses of naloxone, an opioid and toll-like receptor 4 antagonist, blocked remifentanil-induced hyperalgesia and the associated increase in the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), but not tolerance. The aim was to determine the effects of the toll-like receptor 4 antagonist, ibudilast, on the MAC in the rat and how it might prevent the effects of remifentanil. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups (n = 7 per group): 10 mg/kg ibudilast intraperitoneally, 240 µg/kg/h remifentanil IV, ibudilast plus remifentanil, remifentanil plus naloxone IV, or saline...
May 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Linda Block, Christopher Lundborg, Jan Bjersing, Peter Dahm, Elisabeth Hansson, Björn Biber
INTRODUCTION: This randomized, cross-over, double-blind, controlled study of continuous intrathecal morphine administration in patients with severe, long-term pain addresses whether the supplementation of low doses of naloxone in this setting is associated with beneficial clinical effects. METHODS: All of the study subjects (n=11) provided informed consent and were recruited from a subset of patients who were already undergoing long-term treatment with continuous intrathecal morphine because of difficult-to-treat pain...
November 2015: Clinical Journal of Pain
Johan Forshammar, Linda Block, Christopher Lundborg, Björn Biber, Elisabeth Hansson
Astrocytes respond to inflammatory stimuli and may be important modulators of the inflammatory response in the nervous system. This study aimed first to assess how astrocytes in primary culture behave in response to inflammatory stimuli concerning intracellular Ca(2+) responses, expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, actin filament organization, and expression of cytokines. In a cell culture model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), astrocyte response was assessed first in the acute phase and then after incubation with LPS for 1-48 h...
September 9, 2011: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yu-Chang Yeh, Tzu-Fu Lin, Chen-Hua Wang, Yong-Ping Wang, Chen-Jung Lin, Wei-Zen Sun
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Admixing an ultralow dose of naloxone with intravenous morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) has been shown to decrease postoperative nausea. However, the cut-off ratio of the naloxone-morphine admixture for antiemetic effects has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cut-off ratio of naloxone-morphine admixture in PCA for antiemesis after gynecologic surgery. METHODS: This double-blind study enrolled 120 female patients who were scheduled for gynecologic surgery under general anesthesia...
June 2008: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
M Soledad Cepeda, Hernando Alvarez, Olga Morales, Daniel B Carr
Ultralow doses of naloxone (0.001-0.1 microg/kg) produce analgesia in animal models. However, no clinical study has evaluated the combination of ultralow dose naloxone and morphine using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). This randomized, double blind controlled study sought to determine if the combination of ultralow dose naloxone and morphine in PCA solutions affects opioid requirements, analgesia, and side effects. Two-hundred and sixty-five patients (18-65 years old) undergoing operations were randomized to receive PCA morphine 1 mg/ml (n=129) or PCA morphine 1 mg/ml plus naloxone 0...
January 2004: Pain
K P Das, J S Hong, V M Sanders
Resting mouse splenic B cells were activated with lipopolysaccharide/dextran sulfate (LPS/DxS) to measure both B cell proliferation and IgM/IgG isotype production when increasing concentrations of [Met5]-enkephalin (MENK) and proenkephalin (PENK) (10-16 to 10(-8) M) were added at increasing times after B cell activation (0, 3, 6, or 24 h). Results show that proliferation was not affected by either peptide, but that IgM, IgG3 and IgG2a production were inhibited in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by MENK...
March 1997: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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